# Topological Entropy of Golden Mean Lookalike Shift Spaces

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1 International Journal of Mathematics and Statistics Invention (IJMSI) E-ISSN: P-ISSN: Volume 2 Issue 7 July 2014 PP Topological Entropy of Golden Mean Lookalike Shift Spaces Khundrakpam Binod Mangang Department of Mathematics & Computer Science, Mizoram University, Tanhril, Aizawl,Mizoram,India ABSTRACT: The aim of this paper is to calculate entropy of shift spaces which are lookalike to golden mean shift space The golden mean shift space has alphabet of two members We consider golden mean lookalike shifts by taking the alphabets having more than two members We have found some interesting result that shift space having even number of alphabets have same entropy Whereas shift space having odd numbers of alphabets are divided into two groups and each group has distinct entropy KEYWORDS: topological entropy, symbolic dynamics, irreducible matrix, golden mean shift, graph AMS subject classifications 37B10, 37B40, 37B30, 37C25, 37M99 I INTRODUCTION We calculate the entropies of the shift space which lookalike the golden mean shift space Before defining what a golden mean lookalike shift space is, we define briefly the terminology of symbolic dynamical systems Alphabet is a finite set A of symbols Elements of A are called letters and they will be typically denoted by a,b,c,, or sometimes by digits like 0,1,2,3, Although in real life sequences of symbols are finite, it is often extremely useful to treat long sequences as infinite in both directions (or bi-infinite) ie, where or The collection of all such sequence is denoted by A Z, where denotes the set of integersa block ( or word ) over A is a finite sequence of symbols from A We will write blocks without separating their symbols by commas or other punctuation, so that a typical block over A = {a,b} looks like aababbabbb It is convenient to include the sequence of non-symbols, called the empty block (or empty word) and denoted by Ɛ The central block of length is denoted by, which is defined by A collection of blocks over A, which are not allowed to occur in a subset of A Z are called Forbidden block of the subset A Shift map on full shift A Z maps a point x to a point y = (x) whose co-ordinate is AShift space is a subset X of a full shift A Z such that, where F is a collection of forbidden blocks over A Z These forbidden blocks may be finite or infinite, but atmost countable Full shift X is A Z, where we can take F =, which means there are no constraints Let A = { e, f, g} and let X be the set of point in the full A- shift for which e can be followed only by e or f, f can be followed only by g and g can be followed only by e Therefore the forbidden block is If X is the set of all binary sequences, ie, the alphabet is A = { 0,1}, so that between any two 1 s there are an even number of 0 s Here F = This shift is called even shift Let X be a set of all binary sequences with no two 1 s next to each other This shift is called Golden mean shift Thus Golden mean shift has forbidden block A shift of finite type is a shift space that can be described by a finite set of forbidden blocks, ie, a shift space X having the form for some finite set F of blocks Golden mean shift is shift of finite typelet X be a shift space over the alphabet A, and be the collection of all allowed N-blocks in X Form the full shift Define the N-th higher block code by Then the Nth higher block shift denoted by is the image in the full shift over Let be a subset of a full shift, and let denote the set of all words that occur in points in The of is the collection The full 2-shift has language Let X be the full shift A metric is defined on by Then it is well known that is a compact metric space The shift function on with respect to the above metric is a continuous function Therefore is a dynamical system [4] In this context, there is an equivalent definition of shift space, ie, a shift space is a pair in which is a closed invariant subset of Thus the name shift space comes from the shift function A consists of a finite set of 5 P a g e

2 vertices (or states) together with a finite set of edges Each edge starts at a vertex denoted by and terminates at a vertex (which can be the same as and in this case the edge is called a loop or self loop) We can always represent a shift of finite type by a directed graph This representation can be done either with edges denoted as (G) or vertex (G) of a graph G It is well known that every shift of finite type can be represented by a graph and vice versa [2] The edge shiftx G or X A of a graph is the shift space over the alphabet specified by { = Z : t( ) = i( ) for all i Z, i(e) is the initial state of edge e and t(e) is the terminal state of edge e } Fig 1Graph for full r-shift A graph G is irreducibleif for every ordered pair of vertices I and J there is a path in G starting at I and terminating at JIf G is a graph with vertex set For every I,J, let denote the number of edges in G with the initial state I and terminal state J Then the adjacency matrixof G is An equivalent definition of irreducible graph is that its adjacency matrix is irreducible, ie, for each pair of vertices, there exists a non-negative integer such that A shift of finite type is M-step if it can be described by a collection of forbidden blocks all of which have length M+1 If is a graph with adjacency matrix A, then the associated edge shift = is a 1-step shift of finite type [2]This can be proved as follows Let be the alphabet of Consider the finite collection of 2-blocks over According to the definition, a point lies in exactly when no block of occurs in This means that =,so that X G has finite type Since all blocks in F have length 2, is 1-step Theorem11[2]: If X is a M-step shift of finite type then there is a graph G such that = A path π=e 1 e 2 e m on a graph is a finite sequence of edges e i from such that for The path starts at vertex and terminates at vertex and is a path from to The length of is, the number of edges it traversesa cycle is a path that starts and terminates at the same vertex Proposition 12[2]: Let G be a graph with adjacency matrix A, and let m 0( i ) The number of paths of length m from I to J is, the I,J th entry of A m ( ii ) the number of cycles of length m in G is the trace of A m, tr(a m ), and this equals the number of points in with period m Let B be an r x r matrix of 0 s and 1 s, or equivalently the adjacency matrix of a graph G such that between any two vertices there is atmost one edge The vertex shift is the shift space with alphabet A = { 1,2,3,, r } defined by for all i Z} Example13: The vertex shift is the golden mean shift Proposition 14[2]:( i ) Up to renaming of symbols, the 1-step shifts of finite type are the same as the vertex shifts(ii)up to renaming of symbols, every edge shift is a vertex shift (on a different graph) (iii ) If X is a M- step shift of finite type, there is a graph G such that and Let X be a shift space Entropy measures the complexity of X denotes the number of -blocks appearing in points of X It gives us the idea of complexity of X The topological entropy of a shift space X is defined as [2] One can see the definition of topological entropy of a continuous map in [6] Baldwin and Slaminka [1], estimated topological entropy as the logarithmic growth rate of the one dimensional variation of -composition map of with Their method was generalized by Nwehouse and Pignataro [5] 6 P a g e

3 Gary, F, et al, give a rigorous upper bound for the entropy of a multidimensional system with respect to a fixed partition [3] If has alphabet A, then Hence for all n So, It is well known that Let be a full r-shift, then Then Therefore we have If G has k vertices and there are exactly r-edges starting at each vertices, then,so that Hence, we see that here also (Full r-shift is the case where k = 1) In the calculation of entropy for shift space, we shall be using the theorem 15 & theorem 16 A precise proof is available in [2] Theorem 15(Perron Frobenius theorem)let the matrix A 0 be an irreducible matrix Then A has a positive eigenvector with corresponding eigenvalue A > 0 that is both geometrically and algebraically simple If is another eigenvalue of A, then Any positive eigenvector for A is a positive multiple of The greatest positive real eigen value is called Perron eigen value If is an irreducible graph, then by we denote the corresponding Perron eigen value of the adjacency matrix Theorem 16 (i) If is irreducible graph, then (ii) If is irreducible M- step shift of finite type and G is the essential graph for which, then Now we define the golden mean lookalike shifts Let the alphabet be and the corresponding forbidden block be then the corresponding shift space is called golden mean lookalike shift (GMLS3) with alphabet Similarly we define GMLS for higher alphabet and so onthe aim of this paper is to calculate entropy for various GMLS We have found some interesting result that shift space having even number of alphabets have same entropy Whereas shift space having odd numbers of alphabets are divided in to two groups and each group has distinct entropy II ENTROPY OF GMLS 21 GMLS3 with alphabet Let be an alphabet and the corresponding forbidden block be Then the resulting shift is a golden mean lookalike shift (GMLS3)with alphabet The corresponding graph is shown in Fig31 The Adjacency Matrix is given by Fig 2 Graph of GMLS3 with alphabet and therefore is irreducible The characteristic equation, is given by and the Eigen values are The PerronEigen value is 2, therefore the required entropy is = 22 GMLS4 with alphabet 7 P a g e

4 Let be an alphabet and the corresponding forbidden block be Then the resulting shift is a golden mean lookalike shift (GMLS4)with alphabet Adjacency matrix is given by and, therefore is irreducible The characteristic equation is given by The eigen values are and the Perron Eigen value is therefore the entropy is = 23GMLS5 with alphabet We take the alphabet as and the corresponding forbidden block be taken as Then the resulting shift is a golden mean lookalike shift (GMLS5) with alphabet The adjacency Matrix is given by and therefore is irreducible The characteristic equation, becomes The roots are The entropy is = 24GMLS6 with alphabet In this case the forbidden block is taken as is a golden mean lookalike shift (GMLS5) with alphabet Then the resulting shift The adjacency Matrix is It can be shown as above that it is also irreducible matrix The characteristic equation is 25 GMLS7 with alphabet In this case the forbidden block is taken as and roots are Therefore the entropy is = Then the resulting shift is a golden mean lookalike shift (GMLS6) with alphabet The adjacency Matrix is It is also irreducible matrix The characteristic equation is and the roots are Therefore entropy is = 26 GMLS8 with alphabet 8 P a g e

5 The forbidden block is The adjacency matrix is, which is an irreducible matrix The characteristic equation is and the Eigen values are given by Therefore the entropy is = 27 GMLS9 with alphabet The forbidden block is In this case also, the adjacency matrix is irreducible and the characteristic equation is The roots are Therefore the entropy is Table Alphabet Characteristic Equation Greatest Entropy Remarks positive Eigen value 2 No of alphabet 3, odd No of alphabet 4, even No of alphabet 5, odd No of alphabet 6, even 2 No of alphabet 7, odd No of alphabet 8, even No of alphabet 9, odd III CONCLUSIONS Baring the case of alphabet, the characteristic equation for GMLS is, for all, where denotes the right hand side expression of the characteristic equation of GMLS If is even then is the only non-trivial factor If is odd and it is of the form where is a non-negative integer, then the only non-trivial factor is whereas if is of the form, then is the only non-trivial factor We can conclude that GMLS with alphabet having even number of symbols have entropy There are two 9 P a g e

6 groups for alphabets having odd number of symbols The first group has alphabets having numbers of symbols, where is a non-negative integer Each member of this group has entropy The second odd group has alphabet in which there are numbers of symbols, where is a non-negative integer, and each member of this group has entropy REFERENCES [1] Baldwin, SL, Slaminka, EE, Calculating topological entropy, JStatist Phys 89(5/6) (1997) [2] Douglas Lind, Brian Marcus, An Introduction to Symbolic Dynamics and Coding, Cambridge University Press, 1995 [3] Froyland, G, Junge, O, Ochas, G, Rigorous computation of topological entropy with respect to a finite partition, Physica D 154(2001) [4] Kurka,Petr, "Topological and symbolic Dynamics "Societe mathematique de France, 2003 [5] Newhouse, S, Pignataro, T, On the estimation of topological entropy, JStatist Phys 72(1993) [6] Walter, Peter, An Introduction to Ergodic Theory Springer, New York, P a g e

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