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1 Name Weather Unit Test Page 1 1 The diagram below shows the flow of air over a mountain from point A to point C. Which graph best shows the approximate temperature change of the rising and descending air due to the adiabatic process? 2 The cartoon below shows a strong wind blowing from right to left. 1) 2) 3) 4) The wind is blowing from right to left because the region to the right has a higher 1) air temperature 2) air pressure 3) relative humidity 4) elevation Base your answer to the following question on the graph below which shows the air temperature and dewpoint temperature over a 24-hour period for a location in New York State. 3 The air's capacity to hold water vapor was greatest at 1) 6 p.m. Monday 2) 6 a.m. Tuesday 3) 3 p.m. Tuesday 4) 12 noon Tuesday

2 Page 2 4 As altitude within the troposphere increases, the amount of water vapor generally 1) decreases, only 2) increases, only 3) remains the same 4) decreases, then increases 9 Which diagram below best represents the air circulation around a Northern Hemisphere low-pressure center? 1) 2) 5 On sunny summer days, a breeze often develops that blows from large bodies of water toward nearby land masses because the 3) 4) 1) temperature of the air above the land masses is greater 2) specific heat of the land masses is greater 3) temperatures of the bodies of water are greater 4) air over the bodies of water becomes heavier with additional water vapor 10 The map below shows a low-pressure system located over an area in the south-central United States. 6 Which gas in Earth's upper atmosphere is beneficial to humans because it absorbs large amounts of ultraviolet radiation? 1) water vapor 2) methane 3) nitrogen 4) ozone 7 A sling psychrometer shows a dry-bulb reading of 14 C and a wet-bulb reading of 9 C. What are the dewpoint and the relative humidity? 1) -10 C and 16% 2) -10 C and 50% 3) 4 C and 16% 4) 4 C and 50% In the next few days, because of the prevailing winds, the air mass will probably move toward the 1) southeast 2) northeast 3) southwest 4) northwest 8 What is the dewpoint temperature when the relative humidity is 30% and the air temperature is 20 C? 1) 28 C 2) 2 C 3) 6 C 4) 9 C

3 Page 3 11 The map below shows high-pressure and low-pressure weather systems in the United States. Which two lettered positions on the map are most likely receiving precipitation? 1) A and B 2) B and D 3) C and E 4) A and D Base your answer to question 12 on the weather map below, which shows a high-pressure center (H ) and a low-pressure center (L), with two fronts extending from the low-pressure center. Points X and Y are locations on the map connected by a reference line.

4 Page 4 12 Which map best shows the most probable areas of precipitation associated with these weather systems? 1) Base your answer to question 13 on the diagram below which represents a surface weather map of a portion of the United States. The map shows a low-pressure system with frontal lines and five weather stations A through E. Note that part of the weather data is missing from each station. [All temperatures are in ºF.] 2) 3) 4) 13 The atmospheric pressure at the center of the low would most likely be 1) 988 millibars 2) 990 millibars 3) 994 millibars 4) 997 millibars 14 An air pressure of inches of mercury is equal to approximately 1) 1,015 mb 2) 1,017 mb 3) 1,020 mb 4) 1,023 mb

5 Page 5 Base your answer to question 15 on the weather map of North America below. A grid system of letters and numbers is provided along the edges of the map to assist in finding locations. Letters W, X, and Y represent locations on the map. Isobars are labeled in millibars. The map shows weather conditions on May 15 when it is 9 a.m. in New York State. 15 Which type of front is located between X and Y? 1) occluded 2) stationary 3) warm 4) cold

6

7 Page 6 16 On which map do the arrows correctly show the surface wind pattern for the high- and low-pressure centers shown on the northern part of the weather map of North America? 18 A weather instrument is shown below. 1) 2) 3) Which weather variable is measured by this instrument? 1) wind speed 2) precipitation 3) cloud cover 4) air pressure 4) 17 Which weather instrument is used to measure wind speed? 1) anemometer 2) wind vane 3) psychrometer 4) thermometer

8 Page 7 Base your answers to questions 19 and 20 on the cross section and bar graph below. The cross section shows a portion of Earth s ernst along the western coast of the United States. The points show different locations on Earth s surface. The arrows show the prevailing wind direction. The bar below each point shows the yearly precipitation at that location. 19 Explain why the valleys in the path of the descending air tend to have drier air 20 On the diagram above, draw a cloud in a location where its formation is most likely to occur.

9 Base your answers to questions 21 through 24 on the weather map below, which shows a weather system over the northeastern United States and weather data for several locations. Isobars show a low-pressure (L) center. Point X is a location in Canada. 21 Describe how clouds form when warm, humid air rises along the cold front. Include the terms dewpoint, adiabatic, and condensation in your answer. 22 Describe the five specific weather conditions for Charleston indicated by the station model on the weather map. Complete the chart provided above and include appropriate units where necessary. Page 8

10 Page 9 23 State the relationship between isobar spacing on the map and wind velocity. 24 On the weather map on page 8, draw a curved arrow through point X to show the general direction of surface winds on that side of the low-pressure center. Base your answer to question 25 on the diagram below which shows warm, moist air moving off the ocean and over a mountain, causing precipitation between points 1 and Describe two changes that occur to the warm, moist air between points 1 and 2 that would cause cloud formation.

11 Page 10 Base your answer to question 26 on the diagram below, which represents water molecules attached to salt and dust particles within a cloud in the atmosphere. 26 Explain why salt and dust particles are important in cloud formation. Base your answers to questions 27 and 28 on the cross section below, which shows a typical cold front moving over Florida in early summer. 27 Explain why the warm, moist air is rising at the frontal boundary.

12 Page Central Canada was the geographic source region for the cp air mass shown in the cross section. Identify the most likely geographic source region for the mt air mass shown in the cross section. Base your answer to question on the atmospheric cross section below, which represents a winter storm system. Zones A, B, C, and D are located on a west to east line at approximately 43 N latitude across New York State. This cross section shows how solid and liquid forms of precipitation depend on the air temperature above Earth s surface. The storm is moving from west to east. 29 At the time of the events represented by the cross section, Syracuse, New York, is experiencing the weather conditions shown above. The temperature, dewpoint, and wind direction are shown on the weather station model above. Using proper format, add the information shown in the table to the model provided above.

13 Page 13

14 Page The diagram below shows conditions that commonly cause fog to form over land in coastal areas. A weather station at the lighthouse records a temperature of 36 F and an air pressure of mb. Using the proper weather map symbols, place the following information in the correct positions on the weather station model below. Present weather Dewpoint Air pressure Wind direction Wind speed

15 Responses include, but are not limited to: The air on the western slopes of the mountains is rising; The valleys are located on the eastern side of the mountain ranges where air is sinking; Air is warmed by compression as it descends the mountain slopes, so relative humidity decreases. 20 Responses include, but are not limited to: The air on the western slopes of the mountains is rising; The valleys are located on the eastern side of the mountain ranges where air is sinking; Air is warmed by compression as it descends the mountain slopes, so relative humidity decreases. 21 a: Clouds form when rising air expands and cools to the dewpoint. 22 b: from gas to liquid Water vapo condenses. deposition gas to solid 23 Closely spaced isobars represent a region of high wind velocity. As isobars becom closer, wind speed increases Examples: Air rises; Air expands; Air cools; The temperature reaches the dewpoint; Water vapor condenses Page Responses include, but are not limited to: Water droplets form on the surfaces provided by the salt and dust particles; Salt and dust particles are condensation nuclei, allowing the water vapor to change into liquid drops, forming clouds. 27 Responses include but are not limited to: Warm, moist air is less dense than cold, Dry air; Cold air is moving under the warm air and forcing the warm air upward. 28 Responses include, but are not limited to: Gulf of Mexico; A warm ocean surface 29 30

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