ES 106 Laboratory # 6 MOISTURE IN THE ATMOSPHERE

Size: px
Start display at page:

Download "ES 106 Laboratory # 6 MOISTURE IN THE ATMOSPHERE"

Transcription

1 ES 106 Laboratory # 6 MOISTURE IN THE ATMOSPHERE 6-1 Introduction By observing, recording, and analyzing weather conditions, meteorologists attempt to define the principles that control the complex interactions that occur in the atmosphere. No analysis of the atmosphere is complete without an investigation of water vapor in atmosphere, which strongly influences humidity and precipitation. Water vapor, which is an odorless, colorless gas produced by the evaporation of water, comprises only a small percentage of the lower atmosphere (generally less than 4% by volume). However, it is an important atmospheric gas because it is the source of all precipitation, aids in the heating of the atmosphere by absorbing radiation, and is the source of latent heat (hidden or stored heat). The first part of this laboratory examines the changes of state of water, how the water vapor content of the air is measured, and the sequence of events necessary to cause cloud formation. Weather plays an important role in our daily lives. We want to know what the weather is going to be like so that we can plan to bring umbrellas, put on sunscreen, drive cautiously, dress a certain way, or know when it will be nice for outdoor activities. People talk about weather. The weather is newsworthy. It can become headlines in local, regional, national, and international news reports. Weather forecasts are found in newspapers, on TV, on the radio, and a growing variety of websites on the internet. Weather forecasts provide short-term (hours, days or weeks) predictions of the state of our atmosphere. The second part of this laboratory focuses on making weather observations. Objectives Explain the adiabatic process and its role in cooling and warming the air. Calculate the temperature and relative humidity changes that take place in air as the result of adiabatic cooling. Make measurements of relative humidity and dewpoint temperature. Appreciate the role technology plays in helping make weather observations.

2 6-2 Name KEY Lab Day/Time Pre-lab Questions Complete these questions before coming to lab. 1. Define the following terms: A. Relative Humidity AMOUNT OF WATER CONTAINED IN AIR COMPARED TO HOW MUCH WATER THE AIR COULD HOLD. B. Dew-point temperature THE TEMPERATURE AT WHICH CONDENSATION BEGINS, WHEN THE AIR IS AT 100% RELATIVE HUMIDITY. C. Adiabatic temperature change THE CHANGE IN TEMPERATURE DUE TO THE EXPANSION (LOWERING THE TEMPERATURE) OR COMPRESSION (RAISING THE TEMPERATURE) OF AIR. D. Condensation THE PROCESS OF CHANGING WATER VAPOR INTO LIQUID WATER. CONDENSATION OF WATER RELEASES HEAT TO THE ENVIRONMENT. 2. Explain why the dry adiabatic lapse rate is greater than the wet adiabatic lapse rate. THE COOLING OF AIR AT THE DRY RATE IS GREATER THAN WHEN THE AIR HAS REACHED 100% RELATIVE HUMIDITY, AND COOLS AT THE WET RATE, BECAUSE THE CONDENSATION OF WATER RELEASES HEAT TO THE ENVIRONMENT. 3. If a beaker has the capacity to hold 600 ml of liquid and the beaker is 40% full, calculate the volume of liquid in the beaker. (Show formula for calculation, with units.) 600 ml x 0.4 = 240 ml 4. If a beaker has the capacity to hold 800 ml of liquid and it is currently holding 150 ml, calculate the percentage of the beaker that is filled. (Show formula for calculation, with units.) (150 ml / 800 ml) x 100 = 18.75%

3 Part A Water Vapor Capacity of Air, Relative Humidity, and Dew-Point Temperature Activity 1: Water Vapor Capacity of Air The water vapor capacity of air is limited by, and directly related to, its temperature. The table below presents the water vapor capacity of a kilogram of air at various temperatures. Use the table to answer the following questions. 6-3 Table 1: Water vapor capacity of a kilogram of air at average sea level pressure. Temperature (ºF) Temperature (ºC) Grams of water vapor per kg of air (g/kg) To demonstrate the relation between water vapor capacity and air temperature, prepare a graph by plotting the data from Table 1 in Figure What is the water vapor capacity of a kilogram of air at each of the following temperatures? 40º C: 47 grams/kilogram 68º F: 14 grams/kilogram 0º C: 3.5 grams/kilogram -20º C: 0.75 grams/kilogram

4 Raising the air temperature of a kilogram of air 5 degrees C, from 10 to 15 degrees C, (INCREASES / DECREASES) its water vapor capacity by (3 / 6) grams. However, raising the temperature from 35 to 40 degrees C (INCREASES / DECREASES) the capacity by (8 / 12) grams. (CIRCLE YOUR ANSWERS) 4. Using your graph and the table, write a brief statement that relates the water vapor capacity of air to the temperature of air. THE GREATER THE TEMPERATURE, THE MORE WATER THE AIR CAN HOLD. Figure 1: Graph of water vapor capacity of a kilogram of air versus temperature. Refer to Table 1 for values.

5 6-5 Activity 2: Relative Humidity and Dew Point Temperature Relative humidity is the most common measurement used to describe water vapor in the air. In general, it expresses how close the air is to reaching its water vapor capacity. Relative humidity is the ratio of the air s water vapor content (amount actually in the air) to its water vapor capacity at a given temperature, expressed as a percent. The general formula is: Relative humidity (%) = (water vapor content / water vapor capacity) x 100% For example, the water vapor capacity of a kilogram of air at 25ºC would be 20 grams per kilogram. If the actual amount of water vapor in the air was 5 grams per kilogram (the water vapor content), the relative humidity would be calculated as follows: 5g / kg Relative humidity (%) = 100 = 25% 20 / g kg 5. Use the Table 1 and the formula above for relative humidity to determine the relative humidity for each of the following situations of identical temperature. Air Temp (in ºC) Water Vapor Content Water Vapor Capacity Relative Humidity 15ºC 2 g/kg 10 g/kg 20 % 15ºC 5 g/kg 10 g/kg 50 % 15ºC 7 g/kg 10 g/kg 70 % 6. From the previous question, if the temperature of air remains constant, adding water vapor will (RAISE / LOWER) the relative humidity, while removing water vapor will (RAISE / LOWER) the relative humidity. (CIRCLE YOUR ANSWERS) 7. Use the Table 1 and the formula above for relative humidity to determine the relative humidity for each of the following situations of identical water vapor content. Air Temp (in ºC) Water Vapor Content Water Vapor Capacity Relative Humidity 25ºC 5 g/kg 20 g/kg 25% 15ºC 5 g/kg 10 g/kg 50 % 5ºC 5 g/kg 5 g/kg 100 %

6 From the previous question, if the amount of water vapor in the air remains constant, cooling the air will (RAISE / LOWER) the relative humidity, while warming the air will (RAISE / LOWER) the relative humidity. (CIRCLE YOUR ANSWERS) 9. In the winter, air from outside is heated as it is brought into our homes. What effect does heating the air have on the relative humidity inside the home? What can be done to lessen this effect? THE AIR BROUGHT IN FROM OUTSIDE HAS A LOW WATER CONTENT. AS IT IS HEATED, THE RELATIVE HUMIDITY IS REDUCED. IF YOU DO NOT LIKE LOW-HUMIDITY AIR, MOVE INTO A GREENHOUSE WITH LOTS OF TRANSPIRING PLANTS, OR GO TO BI-MART AND GET A HUMIDIFIER. 10. Explain why a cool basement is humid (damp) in the summer. THE WARM AIR FROM OUTSIDE HAS A CERTAIN WATER CONTENT. WHEN IT IS COOLED IN THE BASEMENT, THE RELATIVE HUMIDITY INCREASES, SOMETIMES TO 100% RELATIVE HUMIDITY, CAUSING THE BASEMENT AIR TO BE DAMP 11. Write brief statements describing each of the two ways that the relative humidity of air can be changed. CHANGE THE MOISTURE CONTENT OF THE AIR. CHANGE THE TEMPERATURE OF THE AIR. One of the misconceptions concerning relative humidity is that it alone gives an accurate indication of the amount of water vapor in the air. For example, on a winter day if you hear on the car radio that the relative humidity is 90 %, can you conclude that the air contains more moisture than a summer day that records a 40 % relative humidity? The next several questions will address this question.

7 Use Table 1 to determine the water vapor content for each of the following situations. As you do the calculations, keep in mind the definition of relative humidity. SUMMER WINTER Air temperature = 86ºF Air temperature = 50ºF Capacity = 26.5 g/kg Capacity = 7 g/kg Relative humidity = 20% Relative humidity = 76% Content = 5.3 g/kg Content = 5.32 g/kg 13. Explain why relative humidity does not give an accurate indication of the amount of water vapor in the air. BECAUSE IT RELATED TO HOW MUCH WATER THE AIR CAN CONTAIN. Air is saturated when it has reached its water vapor capacity and contains all the water vapor that it can hold at a particular temperature. In saturated air, the water vapor content equals its capacity. The temperature at which air is saturated is called the dew-point temperature. Put another way, the dew point is the temperature at which the relative humidity of the air is 100%. Previously, you determined that a kilogram of air at 25 C, containing 5 grams of water vapor, had a relative humidity of 25% and was not saturated. However, when the temperature was lowered to 5 C, the air had a relative humidity of 100% and was saturated. Therefore, 5 C is the dew-point temperature of the air in that example. 14. By referring to Table 1, what is the dew-point temperature of a kilogram of air that contains 7 grams of water vapor? Dew-point temperature = 10 ºC 15. What is the relative humidity and dew-point temperature of a kilogram of 25ºC air that contains 10 grams of water vapor? Relative humidity = 50 % Dew-point temperature = 15 ºC

8 6-8 Activity 3 Measuring humidity using a psychrometer A psychrometer measures humidity by measuring the difference in temperature between a thermometer with a dry bulb and a thermometer with its bulb inside a wet cloth. As the two thermometers are slung through the air, air rushing over the wet cloth cools the wet-bulb thermometer more than the dry-bulb thermometer. A table can be used to convert the temperature difference into a relative humidity measurement. Table 2: Relative Humidity determined by Wet Bulb Temperature Depression

9 6-9 Following the instructions given by your lab instructor, record the temperatures of the wet- and dry-bulb thermometers on the psychrometer in the table below. Calculate the relative humidity and the dewpoint temperature. Dry-bulb temperature ( C) 26 O C Wet-bulb temperature ( C) 21 O C Difference between dry- and wet-bulb temperatures ( C) 5 O C Relative humidity 64% Dew-point temperature 18 O C Activity 4 Measuring dew-point temperature Add ice gradually to a container of water while gently stirring the ice water with a thermometer. Note the temperature at which condensation first appears on the outside of the container. This is the dew-point temperature. Record your value for the dew-point temperature in the space below. Dew-point temperature ( C) _18 O C Questions 1. How does your measured dew-point temperature compare with the value you determined in Activity 3 using the psychrometer? If the values are different, what factors might explain those differences? DIFFERENCES MAY EXIST DUE TO NOT ALLOWING THE SLING PSYCHRMETER WET BULB TO GAIN COMPLETE DEPRESSION OF TEMPERATURES (NOT SLUNG FOR LONG ENOUGH), OR PERHAPS THE CONDENSATION ON THE BEAKER WAS NOT NOTED AS SOON AS IT APPEARED, OR THE ICE WAS NOT ALLOWED TO COMPLETELY MELT BEFORE ADDING MORE, OR TOO MUCH WAS ADDED AT ONE TIME, RESULTING IN A LOWER TEMPERATURE BEING INDICATED THAN THAT WHERE CONDENSATION BEGAN. 2. How many grams of water vapor will condense out of the air if a kilogram of 50 F air with a relative humidity of 100% is cooled to 41 F? 50 O F = 7 g 41 O F = 5 g 2 g WOULD CONDENSE OUT OF AIR THAT IS COOLED FROM 50 O F TO 41 O F

10 Part B Adiabatic Processes 6-10 As you have seen, the key to causing water vapor to condense, which is necessary before precipitation can occur, is to cool the air to its dew-point temperature. In nature, when air rises, it encounters less pressure, expands, and cools. The reverse is also true. Air that descends encounters higher pressures, is compressed, and will warm. Temperature changes brought about solely by expansion or compression are called adiabatic temperature changes. Air with a temperature above its dew point (unsaturated air) cools by expansion or warms by compression at a rate of 1 C per 100 meters of changing altitude the dry adiabatic lapse rate. After the dew point temperature is reached, and as condensation occurs, latent heat that has been stored in the water vapor will be released. The heat being released by the condensing water slows down the rate of cooling of the air. Rising saturated air will continue to cool by expansion, but at a lesser rate of about 0.5 C per 100 meters of changing altitude the wet adiabatic lapse rate. Figure 2: Adiabatic processes result in condensation associated with a mountain barrier. Figure 2 shows a kilogram of air at sea level with a temperature of 25ºC and a relative humidity of 50%. The air is forces to rise over a 5,000 meter mountain and descend to a plateau 2,000 meters above sea level on the opposite (leeward) side. Answer the questions on the following page. While doing so, think about the parallels between this problem and the orographic effect in western Oregon. In questions where you have to choose between more than response, CIRCLE YOU ANSWER.

11 6-11 Questions: 1. What is the water vapor capacity, content, and dew point temperature of the air at sea level? Capacity = 20 g/kg of air Content = 10 g/kg of air Dew-point temperature = 15 ºC 2. The air at sea level is (SATURATED / UNSATURATED). 3. The air will initially (WARM / COOL) as it rises over the windward side of the mountain at the (WET / DRY) adiabatic lapse rate, which is 1 ºC per 100 meters. # m x 1 O C/100 m = 5 O C 25 O C 5 O C = 4. What will be the air s temperature at 500 meters? 20 O C 5. Condensations (WILL / WILL NOT) take place at 500 meters. #6 25 O C 15 O C = 10 O C 10 O C / (1 O C/100 m) = 6. The rising air will reach its dew point temperature at 1000 meters and water vapor will begin to (CONDENSE / EVAPORATE). 7. From the altitude where condensation begins to occur, to the summit of the mountain, the rising air will continue to expand and will (WARM / COOL) at the (WET / DRY) adiabatic lapse rate of about 0.5 ºC per 100 meters. #8: 5000 m 1000 m = 4000 m 4000 m x 0.5 O C/100 m = 20 O C 15 O C 20 O C = 8. The temperature of the rising air at the summit of the mountain will be 5 ºC. 9. Assuming that the air begins to descend on the leeward side of the mountain, it will be compressed and its temperature will (INCREASE / DECREASE). 10. Assume that the relative humidity of the air is below 100% during its entire descent to the plateau. The air will be (SATURATED / UNSATURATED) and will warm at the (WET / DRY) adiabatic lapse rate of about 1 ºC per 100 meters. 11. As the air descends and warms on the leeward side of the mountain, its relative humidity will (INCREASE / DECREASE). 12. The air s temperature when it reaches the plateau at 2,000 meters will be 25 ºC. 13. Explain why mountains might cause dry conditions on their leeward sides. AIR LOSES MOISTURE AS IT COOLS. THE TEMPERATURE INCREASES AS IT DESCENDS THE LEE SIDE AT THE DRY RATE, AND THE MOISTURE CONTENT AND RELATIVE HUMIDITY IS LESS THAN THE ORIGINAL COASTAL AIR.

12 6-12 Name KEY Lab Day/Time POST-LAB ASSESSMENT 1. Answer the following by circling the correct response. A. Liquid water changes to water vapor by the process called (condensation, evaporation, deposition). B. (Warm, Cold) air has the greatest water vapor capacity. C. Lowering the air temperature will (increase, decrease) the relative humidity. D. At the dew-point temperature, the relative humidity is (25%, 50%, 75%, 100%). E. When condensation occurs, heat is (absorbed, released) by water vapor. F. Rising air (warms, cools) by (expansion, compression). G. In the early morning hours when the daily air temperature is often coolest, relative humidity is generally at its (lowest, highest). 2. Explain the principle that governs the operation of a psychrometer for determining relative humidity. THE WETTED SOCK COOLS THE TEMPERATURE BY EVAPORATION REMOVING THE HEAT, REDUCING THE TEMPERATURE. THE EVAPORATION CONTINUES UNTIL NO MORE WATER CAN EVAPORATE DUE THE HUMIDITY OF THE AIR. THE TEMPERATURE STOPS DROPPING AT THAT POINT, AND THE DEPRESSION OF TEMPERATURE CAN BE COMPARED TO TABLES TO FIND THE RELATIVE HUMIDITY OF THE AIR. 3. Using the concepts that you have learned in today s lab, explain why when it is raining in the Willamette Valley, the weather is often sunny in Bend THE AIR RAINS BECAUSE IT IS LIFTED BY RUNNING INTO THE CASCADE RANGE AND COOLED. AS IT COOLS, ITS MOISTURE CONTENT IS REDUCED, AND IT RAINS. AS IT DESCENDS THE CASCADE RANGE ON THE BEND SIDE, IT IS LESS THAN 100% RELATIVE HUMIDITY, DRY AND CLEAR. 4. What is the dew-point temperature of a kilogram of air when a psychrometer measures an 8 C dry-bulb temperature and a 6 C wet-bulb reading. 2 O C DEPRESSION, READ OFF CHART ON PAGE 687 IN EARTH SCIENCE TEXTBOOK: DEW POINT TEMPERATURE IS 3 O C

Name Lab Partner Section

Name Lab Partner Section HUMIDITY Name Lab Partner Section Introduction Humidity refers to the amount of moisture or water vapor in the air. The air in our environment is rarely ever dry. The amount of moisture present varies

More information

UNIT 6a TEST REVIEW. 1. A weather instrument is shown below.

UNIT 6a TEST REVIEW. 1. A weather instrument is shown below. UNIT 6a TEST REVIEW 1. A weather instrument is shown below. Which weather variable is measured by this instrument? 1) wind speed 3) cloud cover 2) precipitation 4) air pressure 2. Which weather station

More information

Name: Date: LAB: Dew Point and Cloud Formation Adapted from Exploration in Earth Science, The Physical Setting, United Publishing Company, Inc.

Name: Date: LAB: Dew Point and Cloud Formation Adapted from Exploration in Earth Science, The Physical Setting, United Publishing Company, Inc. Name: _ Date: LAB: Dew Point and Cloud Formation Adapted from Exploration in Earth Science, The Physical Setting, United Publishing Company, Inc. Introduction: Cumulus clouds are our puffy fair weather

More information

Study Guide: Water Cycle & Humidity

Study Guide: Water Cycle & Humidity Earth Science Name Date Per. Study Guide: Water Cycle & Humidity 1. Explain the difference between Specific Humidity and Relative Humidity. Specific humidity refers to the actual amount of water vapor

More information

2. The map below shows high-pressure and low-pressure weather systems in the United States.

2. The map below shows high-pressure and low-pressure weather systems in the United States. 1. Which weather instrument has most improved the accuracy of weather forecasts over the past 40 years? 1) thermometer 3) weather satellite 2) sling psychrometer 4) weather balloon 6. Wind velocity is

More information

7613-1 - Page 1. Weather Unit Exam Pre-Test Questions

7613-1 - Page 1. Weather Unit Exam Pre-Test Questions Weather Unit Exam Pre-Test Questions 7613-1 - Page 1 Name: 1) Equal quantities of water are placed in four uncovered containers with different shapes and left on a table at room temperature. From which

More information

How do I measure the amount of water vapor in the air?

How do I measure the amount of water vapor in the air? How do I measure the amount of water vapor in the air? Materials 2 Centigrade Thermometers Gauze Fan Rubber Band Tape Overview Water vapor is a very important gas in the atmosphere and can influence many

More information

1. The map below shows high-pressure and low-pressure weather systems in the United States.

1. The map below shows high-pressure and low-pressure weather systems in the United States. 1. The map below shows high-pressure and low-pressure weather systems in the United States. 6. Which map correctly shows the wind directions of the highpressure and low-pressure systems? 1) 2) Which two

More information

Greenhouse Cooling. Why is Cooling Needed?

Greenhouse Cooling. Why is Cooling Needed? Greenhouse Cooling Why is Cooling Needed? Solar radiation is the heat input for the earth can radiate as much as 277 Btu/ft 2 /hr onto the surface of the earth on summer s day in coastal and industrial

More information

Purpose: To determine the dew and point and relative humidity in the classroom, and find the current relative humidity outside.

Purpose: To determine the dew and point and relative humidity in the classroom, and find the current relative humidity outside. Lab Exercise: Dew Point and Relative Humidity Purpose: To determine the dew and point and relative humidity in the classroom, and find the current relative humidity outside. Relative humidity is a measure

More information

Chapter 5. Measures of Humidity. Phases of Water. Atmospheric Moisture

Chapter 5. Measures of Humidity. Phases of Water. Atmospheric Moisture Chapter 5 Atmospheric Moisture Measures of Humidity 1. Absolute humidity 2. Specific humidity 3. Actual vapor pressure 4. Saturation vapor pressure 5. Relative humidity 6. Dew point Phases of Water evaporation

More information

Purpose: The purpose of this exercise is to help the student become familiar with various ways of measuring atmospheric moisture, with the ways of

Purpose: The purpose of this exercise is to help the student become familiar with various ways of measuring atmospheric moisture, with the ways of Purpose: The purpose of this exercise is to help the student become familiar with various ways of measuring atmospheric moisture, with the ways of expressing atmospheric moisture content, and with the

More information

Name Class Date STUDY GUIDE FOR CONTENT MASTERY

Name Class Date STUDY GUIDE FOR CONTENT MASTERY Atmosphere SECTION 11.1 Atmospheric Basics In your textbook, read about the composition of the atmosphere. Circle the letter of the choice that best completes the statement. 1. Most of Earth s atmosphere

More information

Temperature and Humidity

Temperature and Humidity Temperature and Humidity Overview Water vapor is a very important gas in the atmosphere and can influence many things like condensation and the formation of clouds and rain, as well as how hot or cold

More information

Figure 2.1: Warm air rising from SAPREF stacks, October 2002 Source: GroundWork

Figure 2.1: Warm air rising from SAPREF stacks, October 2002 Source: GroundWork 13 CHAPTER TWO SOME CONCEPTS IN CLIMATOLOGY 2.1 The Adiabatic Process An important principle to remember is that, in the troposphere, the first layer of the atmosphere, temperature decreases with altitude.

More information

Stability and Cloud Development. Stability in the atmosphere AT350. Why did this cloud form, whereas the sky was clear 4 hours ago?

Stability and Cloud Development. Stability in the atmosphere AT350. Why did this cloud form, whereas the sky was clear 4 hours ago? Stability and Cloud Development AT350 Why did this cloud form, whereas the sky was clear 4 hours ago? Stability in the atmosphere An Initial Perturbation Stable Unstable Neutral If an air parcel is displaced

More information

Weather Journals: a. copying forecast text b. figure captions. d. citing source material e. units

Weather Journals: a. copying forecast text b. figure captions. d. citing source material e. units Weather Journals: a. copying forecast text b. figure captions c. linking figures with text d. citing source material e. units In the News: http://www.reuters.com In the News: warmer waters in the Pacific

More information

Earth Science Lecture Summary Notes Chapter 7 - Water and Atmospheric Moisture

Earth Science Lecture Summary Notes Chapter 7 - Water and Atmospheric Moisture Earth Science Lecture Summary Notes Chapter 7 - Water and Atmospheric Moisture (based on Christopherson, Geosystems, 6th Ed., 2006) Prof. V.J. DiVenere - Dept. Earth & Environmental Science - LIU Post

More information

This chapter discusses: 1. Definitions and causes of stable and unstable atmospheric air. 2. Processes that cause instability and cloud development

This chapter discusses: 1. Definitions and causes of stable and unstable atmospheric air. 2. Processes that cause instability and cloud development Stability & Cloud Development This chapter discusses: 1. Definitions and causes of stable and unstable atmospheric air 2. Processes that cause instability and cloud development Stability & Movement A rock,

More information

Chapter 6. Atmospheric Moisture and Precipitation

Chapter 6. Atmospheric Moisture and Precipitation Chapter 6 Atmospheric Moisture and Precipitation The Hydrosphere Hydrosphere water in the earth-atmosphere atmosphere system Oceans and Salt Lakes 97.6% Ice Caps and Glaciers 1.9% (Not available for humans)

More information

3.3 Phase Changes Charactaristics of Phase Changes phase change

3.3 Phase Changes Charactaristics of Phase Changes phase change When at least two states of the same substance are present, scientists describe each different state as a phase. A phase change is the reversible physical change that occurs when a substance changes from

More information

Fog and Cloud Development. Bows and Flows of Angel Hair

Fog and Cloud Development. Bows and Flows of Angel Hair Fog and Cloud Development Bows and Flows of Angel Hair 1 Ch. 5: Condensation Achieving Saturation Evaporation Cooling of Air Adiabatic and Diabatic Processes Lapse Rates Condensation Condensation Nuclei

More information

Troubleshooting an Air Conditioning system. R D Holder Eng. Roger D Holder MSME

Troubleshooting an Air Conditioning system. R D Holder Eng. Roger D Holder MSME Troubleshooting an Air Conditioning system R D Holder Eng. Roger D Holder MSME Troubleshooting of an air conditioning system is a step by step procedure. I have found that a 4 step procedure is the best

More information

Atmospheric Humidity. Chapter 4

Atmospheric Humidity. Chapter 4 Atmospheric Humidity Chapter 4 Circulation of Water in the Atmosphere A general definition of humidity is the amount of water vapor in the air. Remember, humidity is not constant through time or space,

More information

Chapter 7 Stability and Cloud Development. Atmospheric Stability

Chapter 7 Stability and Cloud Development. Atmospheric Stability Chapter 7 Stability and Cloud Development Atmospheric Stability 1 Cloud Development - stable environment Stable air (parcel) - vertical motion is inhibited if clouds form, they will be shallow, layered

More information

THE PSYCHROMETRIC CHART: Theory and Application. Perry Peralta NC State University

THE PSYCHROMETRIC CHART: Theory and Application. Perry Peralta NC State University THE PSYCHROMETRIC CHART: Theory and Application Perry Peralta NC State University PSYCHROMETRIC CHART Identify parts of the chart Determine moist air properties Use chart to analyze processes involving

More information

WEATHER AND CLIMATE practice test

WEATHER AND CLIMATE practice test WEATHER AND CLIMATE practice test Multiple Choice Identify the choice that best completes the statement or answers the question. 1. What role does runoff play in the water cycle? a. It is the process in

More information

Cloud Development and Forms. LIFTING MECHANISMS 1. Orographic 2. Frontal 3. Convergence 4. Convection. Orographic Cloud. The Orographic Cloud

Cloud Development and Forms. LIFTING MECHANISMS 1. Orographic 2. Frontal 3. Convergence 4. Convection. Orographic Cloud. The Orographic Cloud Introduction to Climatology GEOGRAPHY 300 Cloud Development and Forms Tom Giambelluca University of Hawai i at Mānoa LIFTING MECHANISMS 1. Orographic 2. Frontal 3. Convergence 4. Convection Cloud Development

More information

Name: OBJECTIVES Correctly define: WEATHER BASICS: STATION MODELS: MOISTURE: PRESSURE AND WIND: Weather

Name: OBJECTIVES Correctly define: WEATHER BASICS: STATION MODELS: MOISTURE: PRESSURE AND WIND: Weather Name: OBJECTIVES Correctly define: air mass, air pressure, anemometer, barometer, cyclone, dew point, front, isobar, isotherm, meteorology, precipitation, psychrometer, relative humidity, saturated, transpiration

More information

Clouds, Fog, & Precipitation

Clouds, Fog, & Precipitation firecatching.blogspot.com Kids.brittanica.com Clouds and fog are physically the same just location is different Fog is considered a stratus cloud at or near the surface What does one see when looking at

More information

How do Scientists Forecast Thunderstorms?

How do Scientists Forecast Thunderstorms? How do Scientists Forecast Thunderstorms? Objective In the summer, over the Great Plains, weather predictions often call for afternoon thunderstorms. While most of us use weather forecasts to help pick

More information

The Ideal Gas Law. Gas Constant. Applications of the Gas law. P = ρ R T. Lecture 2: Atmospheric Thermodynamics

The Ideal Gas Law. Gas Constant. Applications of the Gas law. P = ρ R T. Lecture 2: Atmospheric Thermodynamics Lecture 2: Atmospheric Thermodynamics Ideal Gas Law (Equation of State) Hydrostatic Balance Heat and Temperature Conduction, Convection, Radiation Latent Heating Adiabatic Process Lapse Rate and Stability

More information

Geography affects climate.

Geography affects climate. KEY CONCEPT Climate is a long-term weather pattern. BEFORE, you learned The Sun s energy heats Earth s surface unevenly The atmosphere s temperature changes with altitude Oceans affect wind flow NOW, you

More information

Reading Assignment: A&B: Ch. 5 (p. 123-134) CD: Tutorials 3 & 4 (Atm. Moisture; Adiab. Proc.) Interactive Ex.: Moisture LM: Lab# 7

Reading Assignment: A&B: Ch. 5 (p. 123-134) CD: Tutorials 3 & 4 (Atm. Moisture; Adiab. Proc.) Interactive Ex.: Moisture LM: Lab# 7 G109: 7. Moisture 1 7. MOISTURE Reading Assignment: A&B: Ch. 5 (p. 123-134) CD: Tutorials 3 & 4 (Atm. Moisture; Adiab. Proc.) Interactive Ex.: Moisture LM: Lab# 7 1. Introduction Moisture in the atmosphere:

More information

CGC1D1: Interactions in the Physical Environment Factors that Affect Climate

CGC1D1: Interactions in the Physical Environment Factors that Affect Climate Name: Date: Day/Period: CGC1D1: Interactions in the Physical Environment Factors that Affect Climate Chapter 12 in the Making Connections textbook deals with Climate Connections. Use pages 127-144 to fill

More information

Humidity Activity Background

Humidity Activity Background Humidity Activity Background Water is the common name for a chemical that has two atoms of hydrogen (H) for each atom of oxygen (O). The chemical formula for water, then, is H 2 O. Water has some special

More information

What Causes Climate? Use Target Reading Skills

What Causes Climate? Use Target Reading Skills Climate and Climate Change Name Date Class Climate and Climate Change Guided Reading and Study What Causes Climate? This section describes factors that determine climate, or the average weather conditions

More information

6. Base your answer to the following question on the graph below, which shows the average monthly temperature of two cities A and B.

6. Base your answer to the following question on the graph below, which shows the average monthly temperature of two cities A and B. 1. Which single factor generally has the greatest effect on the climate of an area on the Earth's surface? 1) the distance from the Equator 2) the extent of vegetative cover 3) the degrees of longitude

More information

Air Temperature With Flow Over a Mountain

Air Temperature With Flow Over a Mountain Air Temperature With Flow Over a Mountain WHAT YOU SHOULD LEARN IN THIS EXERCISE: Identify how air temperature changes when wind flow encounters topography. BACKGROUND INFORMATION Program In the program

More information

Water on Earth Unique Properties of Water Humidity Atmospheric Stability Clouds and Fog

Water on Earth Unique Properties of Water Humidity Atmospheric Stability Clouds and Fog GEO 101: PHYSICAL GEOGRAPHY Chapter 07: Water and Atmospheric Moisture Water on Earth Unique Properties of Water Humidity Atmospheric Stability Clouds and Fog Water on Earth The origin of water A scientific

More information

Total Heat Versus Sensible Heat Evaporator Selection Methods & Application

Total Heat Versus Sensible Heat Evaporator Selection Methods & Application Total Heat Versus Sensible Heat Evaporator Selection Methods & Application Scope The purpose of this paper is to provide specifying engineers, purchasers and users of evaporators in industrial refrigeration

More information

Temperature affects water in the air.

Temperature affects water in the air. KEY CONCEPT Most clouds form as air rises and cools. BEFORE, you learned Water vapor circulates from Earth to the atmosphere Warm air is less dense than cool air and tends to rise NOW, you will learn How

More information

Characteristics of Evaporators

Characteristics of Evaporators Characteristics of Evaporators Roger D. Holder, CM, MSME 10-28-2003 Heat or Energy In this paper, we will discuss the characteristics of an evaporator coil. The variance of the operational condenses of

More information

Humid Air. Water vapor in air. Trace Glasses 1% Argon (A) Water vapor (H 2

Humid Air. Water vapor in air. Trace Glasses 1% Argon (A) Water vapor (H 2 Humid Air Water vapor in air Oxygen 21% Trace Glasses 1% Argon (A) Water vapor (H 2 O) Carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) Neon (Ne) Helium (He) Krypton (Kr) Hydrogen (H) Ozone (O 3 ) Nitrogen 78% Humid Air Water vapor

More information

Chapter 14. At temperatures below the critical temperature, the gas GAS VAPOR MIXTURES AND AIR-CONDITIONING. Objectives

Chapter 14. At temperatures below the critical temperature, the gas GAS VAPOR MIXTURES AND AIR-CONDITIONING. Objectives Chapter 14 GAS VAPOR MIXTURES AND -CONDITIONING At temperatures below the critical temperature, the gas phase of a substance is frequently referred to as a vapor. The term vapor implies a gaseous state

More information

SKEW-T, LOG-P DIAGRAM ANALYSIS PROCEDURES

SKEW-T, LOG-P DIAGRAM ANALYSIS PROCEDURES SKEW-T, LOG-P DIAGRAM ANALYSIS PROCEDURES I. THE SKEW-T, LOG-P DIAGRAM The primary source for information contained in this appendix was taken from the Air Weather Service Technical Report TR-79/006. 1

More information

Activity 4 Clouds Over Your Head Level 1

Activity 4 Clouds Over Your Head Level 1 Activity 4 Clouds Over Your Head Level 1 1 Objectives: Students will become familiar with the four main types of clouds: stratus, cirrus, cumulus, and cumulonimbus and their characteristics. Students will

More information

The Sun and Water Cycle

The Sun and Water Cycle reflect Have you ever jumped in a puddle or played in the rain? If so, you know you can get very wet. What you may not know is that a dinosaur could have walked through that same water millions of years

More information

UNIT IV--TEMPERATURE-MOISTURE RELATIONSHIP

UNIT IV--TEMPERATURE-MOISTURE RELATIONSHIP UNIT IV--TEMPERATURE-MOISTURE RELATIONSHIP Weather is the most variable and often the most critical determinant of fire behavior. This is the first of several units that will deal with weather and its

More information

Scientist Guide. Let s Talk About the Weather. Introduction

Scientist Guide. Let s Talk About the Weather. Introduction Scientist Guide Let s Talk About the Weather Introduction Agriculture is highly dependent on the weather. Ever since the first seed was sown, farmers have been watching the sky and hoping for good weather.

More information

Analyze Weather in Cold Regions and Mountainous Terrain

Analyze Weather in Cold Regions and Mountainous Terrain Analyze Weather in Cold Regions and Mountainous Terrain Terminal Learning Objective Action: Analyze weather of cold regions and mountainous terrain Condition: Given a training mission that involves a specified

More information

Temperature Data. Daily Temperature. Daily Temperature Range? Daily Average Temperature? High 90 F Low 60 F. Difference between High & Low for Day

Temperature Data. Daily Temperature. Daily Temperature Range? Daily Average Temperature? High 90 F Low 60 F. Difference between High & Low for Day TEMPERATURE Temperature Data Daily Temperature High 90 F Low 60 F Daily Temperature Range? Difference between High & Low for Day Daily Average Temperature? Mid-point between High & Low for Day Temperature

More information

Atmospheric Stability & Cloud Development

Atmospheric Stability & Cloud Development Atmospheric Stability & Cloud Development Stable situations a small change is resisted and the system returns to its previous state Neutral situations a small change is neither resisted nor enlarged Unstable

More information

COURSE TITLE : REFRIGERATION AND AIR CONDITIONING COURSE CODE : 4029 COURSECATEGORY : A PERIODS/WEEK : 5 PERIODS/SEMESTER : 90 CREDITS : 4 OBJECTIVES

COURSE TITLE : REFRIGERATION AND AIR CONDITIONING COURSE CODE : 4029 COURSECATEGORY : A PERIODS/WEEK : 5 PERIODS/SEMESTER : 90 CREDITS : 4 OBJECTIVES COURSE TITLE : REFRIGERATION AND AIR CONDITIONING COURSE CODE : 4029 COURSECATEGORY : A PERIODS/WEEK : 5 PERIODS/SEMESTER : 90 CREDITS : 4 TIME SCHEDULE MODULE TOPICS PERIODS 1 Introduction 22 Principles

More information

8.5 Comparing Canadian Climates (Lab)

8.5 Comparing Canadian Climates (Lab) These 3 climate graphs and tables of data show average temperatures and precipitation for each month in Victoria, Winnipeg and Whitehorse: Figure 1.1 Month J F M A M J J A S O N D Year Precipitation 139

More information

MAST ACADEMY OUTREACH. WOW (Weather on Wheels)

MAST ACADEMY OUTREACH. WOW (Weather on Wheels) MAST ACADEMY OUTREACH MIDDLE SCHOOL PROGRAM Adventures Aboard WOW (Weather on Wheels) Highlights Teacher Instructions / Answer Keys MAST Academy Maritime and Science Technology High School Miami-Dade County

More information

An Online School for Weather. www.srh.noaa.gov/jetstream/atmos/ll_whatacycle_aquifers.pdf

An Online School for Weather. www.srh.noaa.gov/jetstream/atmos/ll_whatacycle_aquifers.pdf JetStream An Online School for Weather Aquifers Aquifers Aquifers 1 3 5 Aquifers Aquifers Aquifers 2 4 6 /atmos/ll_whatacycle_aquifers.pdf There are over 35 lesson plans in the National Weather Service

More information

Fundamentals of Climate Change (PCC 587): Water Vapor

Fundamentals of Climate Change (PCC 587): Water Vapor Fundamentals of Climate Change (PCC 587): Water Vapor DARGAN M. W. FRIERSON UNIVERSITY OF WASHINGTON, DEPARTMENT OF ATMOSPHERIC SCIENCES DAY 2: 9/30/13 Water Water is a remarkable molecule Water vapor

More information

Humidity, Condensation, Clouds, and Fog. Water in the Atmosphere

Humidity, Condensation, Clouds, and Fog. Water in the Atmosphere Humidity, Condensation, Clouds, and Fog or Water in the Atmosphere The Hydrologic Cycle Where the Water Exists on Earth Evaporation From the Oceans and Land The Source of Water Vapor for the Atmosphere

More information

Lesson 27 Psychrometry. Version 1 ME, IIT Kharagpur 1

Lesson 27 Psychrometry. Version 1 ME, IIT Kharagpur 1 1 Lesson 27 Psychrometry Version 1 ME, IIT Kharagpur 1 2 The specific objectives of this lecture are to: 1. Define psychrometry and the composition of moist air (Section 27.1) 2. Discuss the methods used

More information

Chapter 6 - Cloud Development and Forms. Interesting Cloud

Chapter 6 - Cloud Development and Forms. Interesting Cloud Chapter 6 - Cloud Development and Forms Understanding Weather and Climate Aguado and Burt Interesting Cloud 1 Mechanisms that Lift Air Orographic lifting Frontal Lifting Convergence Localized convective

More information

THE HUMIDITY/MOISTURE HANDBOOK

THE HUMIDITY/MOISTURE HANDBOOK THE HUMIDITY/MOISTURE HANDBOOK Table of Contents Introduction... 3 Relative Humidity... 3 Partial Pressure... 4 Saturation Pressure (Ps)... 5 Other Absolute Moisture Scales... 8 % Moisture by Volume (%M

More information

Weather: is the short term, day-to-day condition of the atmosphere

Weather: is the short term, day-to-day condition of the atmosphere Weather Weather: is the short term, day-to-day condition of the atmosphere Meteorology the scientific study of the atmosphere They focus on physical characteristics and motion and how it relates to chemical,

More information

ES 106 Laboratory # 3 INTRODUCTION TO OCEANOGRAPHY. Introduction The global ocean covers nearly 75% of Earth s surface and plays a vital role in

ES 106 Laboratory # 3 INTRODUCTION TO OCEANOGRAPHY. Introduction The global ocean covers nearly 75% of Earth s surface and plays a vital role in ES 106 Laboratory # 3 INTRODUCTION TO OCEANOGRAPHY 3-1 Introduction The global ocean covers nearly 75% of Earth s surface and plays a vital role in the physical environment of Earth. For these reasons,

More information

THIRD GRADE WEATHER 1 WEEK LESSON PLANS AND ACTIVITIES

THIRD GRADE WEATHER 1 WEEK LESSON PLANS AND ACTIVITIES THIRD GRADE WEATHER 1 WEEK LESSON PLANS AND ACTIVITIES WATER CYCLE OVERVIEW OF THIRD GRADE WATER WEEK 1. PRE: Comparing the different components of the water cycle. LAB: Contrasting water with hydrogen

More information

ES 106 Laboratory # 5 EARTH-SUN RELATIONS AND ATMOSPHERIC HEATING

ES 106 Laboratory # 5 EARTH-SUN RELATIONS AND ATMOSPHERIC HEATING ES 106 Laboratory # 5 EARTH-SUN RELATIONS AND ATMOSPHERIC HEATING 5-1 Introduction Weather is the state of the atmosphere at a particular place for a short period of time. The condition of the atmosphere

More information

1. Which weather station model for a New York State location indicates that snow may be about to fall?

1. Which weather station model for a New York State location indicates that snow may be about to fall? 1. Which weather station model for a New York State location indicates that snow may be about to fall? 4. Weather-station measurements indicate that the dewpoint temperature and air temperature are getting

More information

Clouds and What They Mean

Clouds and What They Mean Vocabulary and Writing Worksheet 1. Choose the best vocabulary word for each sentence and write it in the blank. dew point evaporation fog gas precipitation relative humidity a. Relative humidity refers

More information

Effects of moisture on static stability & convection

Effects of moisture on static stability & convection Effects of moisture on static stability & convection Dry vs. "moist" air parcel: Lifting of an air parcel leads to adiabatic cooling. If the temperature of the parcel falls below the critical temperature

More information

Teaching Sciences by Ocean Inquiry SMS 491/ EDW 472 Spring 2008

Teaching Sciences by Ocean Inquiry SMS 491/ EDW 472 Spring 2008 Teaching Sciences by Ocean Inquiry SMS 491/ EDW 472 Spring 2008 HEAT AND TEMPERATURE LAB: Part II 1. Thermal expansion/water thermometer A flask One-hole stopper A long glass tube A container filled with

More information

College & University Technicians 46 th Annual PTG Convention & Technical Institute Humidity Control in the Institutional Environment

College & University Technicians 46 th Annual PTG Convention & Technical Institute Humidity Control in the Institutional Environment College & University Technicians 46 th Annual PTG Convention & Technical Institute Humidity Control in the Institutional Environment Period 1 Whole Building Humidity Control Systems By Claud Kissmann,

More information

Glaciogenic Cloud Seeding to Increase Orographic Precipitation Bruce A. Boe bboe@weathermod.com Director of Meteorology

Glaciogenic Cloud Seeding to Increase Orographic Precipitation Bruce A. Boe bboe@weathermod.com Director of Meteorology Glaciogenic Cloud Seeding to Increase Orographic Precipitation Bruce A. Boe bboe@weathermod.com Director of Meteorology Weather Modification, Inc. Fargo, North Dakota, USA www.weathermodification.com Content

More information

The Sun and Water Cycle

The Sun and Water Cycle reflect Think of the last time it rained in your city. When the rain stopped, you probably saw puddles on the ground. After a few hours, though, the ground was dry again. Where did all that rainwater go?

More information

4th Grade Weather. Read and answer each question carefully. 1) What instrument is used to measure air pressure?

4th Grade Weather. Read and answer each question carefully. 1) What instrument is used to measure air pressure? Read and answer each question carefully. 1) What instrument is used to measure air pressure? A) thermometer B) anemometer C) hygrometer D) barometer 2) What instrument is used to measure the wind speed?

More information

Temperature. PJ Brucat

Temperature. PJ Brucat PJ Brucat Temperature - the measure of average kinetic energy (KE) of a gas, liquid, or solid. KE is energy of motion. KE = ½ mv 2 where m=mass and v=velocity (speed) 1 All molecules have KE whether solid,

More information

q SAT = saturation specific humidity

q SAT = saturation specific humidity Temp q sat Temp q sat 5 C 5.6 g/kg 25 C 20 g/kg 10 C 7.7 g/kg 30 C 28 g/kg 15 C 11 g/kg 40 C 47 g/kg 20 C 15 g/kg 50 C 80 g/kg @ sea level pressure q SAT = saturation specific humidity SATURATION: Represents

More information

THE PSYCHROMETRIC CHART AND ITS USE

THE PSYCHROMETRIC CHART AND ITS USE Service Application Manual SAM Chapter 630-16 Section 3A THE PSYCHROMETRIC CHART AND ITS USE Psychrometry is an impressive word which is defined as the measurement of the moisture content of air. In broader

More information

1. At which temperature would a source radiate the least amount of electromagnetic energy? 1) 273 K 3) 32 K 2) 212 K 4) 5 K

1. At which temperature would a source radiate the least amount of electromagnetic energy? 1) 273 K 3) 32 K 2) 212 K 4) 5 K 1. At which temperature would a source radiate the least amount of electromagnetic energy? 1) 273 K 3) 32 K 2) 212 K 4) 5 K 2. How does the amount of heat energy reflected by a smooth, dark-colored concrete

More information

Humidity, Evaporation, and

Humidity, Evaporation, and Humidity, Evaporation, and Boiling Bởi: OpenStaxCollege Dew drops like these, on a banana leaf photographed just after sunrise, form when the air temperature drops to or below the dew point. At the dew

More information

SECTION 5 COMMERCIAL REFRIGERATION UNIT 22 CONDENSERS

SECTION 5 COMMERCIAL REFRIGERATION UNIT 22 CONDENSERS SECTION 5 COMMERCIAL REFRIGERATION UNIT 22 CONDENSERS UNIT OBJECTIVES After studying this unit, the reader should be able to explain the purpose of the condenser in a refrigeration system. describe differences

More information

Water, Phase Changes, Clouds

Water, Phase Changes, Clouds TUESDAY: air & water & clouds Water, Phase Changes, Clouds How can freezing make something warmer? 'warm air can hold more water' why? How do clouds form? The (extraordinary) properties of Water Physical

More information

Recall that condensation occurs when water vapor changes to a

Recall that condensation occurs when water vapor changes to a Section 18.2 18.2 Cloud Formation 1 FOCUS Section Objectives 18.6 Describe what happens to air when it is compressed or allowed to expand. 18.7 List four mechanisms that cause air to rise. 18.8 Compare

More information

The Importance of Understanding Clouds

The Importance of Understanding Clouds NASA Facts National Aeronautics and Space Administration www.nasa.gov The Importance of Understanding Clouds One of the most interesting features of Earth, as seen from space, is the ever-changing distribution

More information

Water Cycle. DELTA SCIENCE READER Overview... 123 Before Reading... 124 Guide the Reading... 125 After Reading... 130

Water Cycle. DELTA SCIENCE READER Overview... 123 Before Reading... 124 Guide the Reading... 125 After Reading... 130 Water Cycle T ABLE OF CONTENTS ABOUT DELTA SCIENCE MODULES Program Introduction................... iii Teacher s Guide..................... iv Delta Science Readers............... vi Equipment and Materials

More information

Convective Clouds. Convective clouds 1

Convective Clouds. Convective clouds 1 Convective clouds 1 Convective Clouds Introduction Convective clouds are formed in vertical motions that result from the instability of the atmosphere. This instability can be caused by: a. heating at

More information

Chapter 6: Atmospheric Moisture

Chapter 6: Atmospheric Moisture Chapter 6: Atmospheric Moisture I. The Impact of Atmospheric Moisture on the Landscape A. Atmospheric moisture influences landscape both in short term and long term. 1. Short term, with puddles, flooding,

More information

UNIT VII--ATMOSPHERIC STABILITY AND INSTABILITY

UNIT VII--ATMOSPHERIC STABILITY AND INSTABILITY UNIT VII--ATMOSPHERIC STABILITY AND INSTABILITY The stability or instability of the atmosphere is a concern to firefighters. This unit discusses how changes in the atmosphere affect fire behavior, and

More information

CONDENSATION. Section Break (Next Page)

CONDENSATION. Section Break (Next Page) CONDENSATION Elimination of condensation on or within walls and floors is as important as reducing the heat loss through the wall or floor. In addition to the moisture damage caused to buildings by condensation,

More information

1. Why does temperature decrease when a sample is brought to the surface?

1. Why does temperature decrease when a sample is brought to the surface? Salinity and Density Lab Apparatus 12 100 ml volumetric flasks 6 10 ml volumetric flasks 1 Drying oven set at 70-80 12 Plastic beakers (20 ml) 5 Hydrometer and tables 1 Refractometer 1 Salinometer (20

More information

Section 3 What Is Climate?

Section 3 What Is Climate? Section 3 What Is Climate? Key Concept Earth s climate zones are caused by the distribution of heat around Earth s surface by wind and ocean currents. What You Will Learn Climate is the average weather

More information

Service & Maintenance:

Service & Maintenance: Service & Maintenance: Condensation About Condensation Tips for Controlling Humidity and Condensation Frequently Asked Questions Sources 1 condensation: What is it? Introduction Moisture on windows and

More information

Elements of the Weather

Elements of the Weather Elements of the Weather The weather is made up of different elements, which are measured either by special instruments or are observed by a meteorologist. These measurements are then recorded and used

More information

Wet Bulb Temperature and Its Impact on Building Performance

Wet Bulb Temperature and Its Impact on Building Performance Wet Bulb Temperature and Its Impact on Building Performance By: Kurmit Rockwell, PE, CEM, LEED AP and Justin Lee, PE, LEED, AP BD+C Energy Solution Services, AtSite, Inc. 1 What is Wet Bulb Temperature?

More information

Energy Matters Heat. Changes of State

Energy Matters Heat. Changes of State Energy Matters Heat Changes of State Fusion If we supply heat to a lid, such as a piece of copper, the energy supplied is given to the molecules. These start to vibrate more rapidly and with larger vibrations

More information

Chapter 6: Cloud Development and Forms

Chapter 6: Cloud Development and Forms Chapter 6: Cloud Development and Forms (from The Blue Planet ) Why Clouds Form Static Stability Cloud Types Why Clouds Form? Clouds form when air rises and becomes saturated in response to adiabatic cooling.

More information

Clouds for pilots. Ed Williams. http://williams.best.vwh.net/

Clouds for pilots. Ed Williams. http://williams.best.vwh.net/ Clouds for pilots Ed Williams http://williams.best.vwh.net/ Clouds are important to pilots! Many of our weather problems are associated with clouds: Fog Thunderstorms Cloud In flight icing Cloud physics

More information

Partnerships Implementing Engineering Education Worcester Polytechnic Institute Worcester Public Schools

Partnerships Implementing Engineering Education Worcester Polytechnic Institute Worcester Public Schools Partnerships Implementing Engineering Education Worcester Polytechnic Institute Worcester Public Schools Supported by: National Science Foundation Weather: 4.H.3 Weather and Classical Instruments Grade

More information

Humidity, Evaporation, and Boiling

Humidity, Evaporation, and Boiling Humidity, Evaporation, and Boiling By: OpenStax College Online: This module is copyrig hted by Rice University. It is licensed under the Creative Commons Attribution

More information

Activity 5 At a Glance

Activity 5 At a Glance At a Glance Testing Your Hypothesis by Boiling Water Below Its Boiling Temperature Purpose To have students boil water below its typical boiling temperature by reducing the pressure above the surface of

More information

Tephigrams: What you need to know

Tephigrams: What you need to know Tephigrams: What you need to know Contents An Introduction to Tephigrams...3 Can be as complicated as you like!...4 What pilots need to know...5 Some fundamentals...6 Air...6 Why does the air cool as it

More information