1 Lecture 1: A Brief Survey of the Atmosphere Origins of the atmosphere Vertical structures of the atmosphere Weather maps
2 Thickness of the Atmosphere (from Meteorology Today) 70% The thickness of the atmosphere is only about 2% of Earth s thickness (Earth s radius = ~6400km). 90% Most of the atmospheric mass is confined in the lowest 100 km above the sea level. Because of the shallowness of the atmosphere, its motions over large areas are primarily horizontal. Typically, horizontal wind speeds are a thousands time greater than vertical wind speeds. (But the small vertical displacements of air have an important impact on the state of the atmosphere.)
3 Composition of the Atmosphere (inside the DRY homosphere) Water vapor (0-0.25%) (from The Blue Planet)
4 Origins of the Atmosphere When the Earth was formed 4.6 billion years ago, Earth s atmosphere was probably mostly hydrogen (H) and helium (He) plus hydrogen compounds, such as methane (CH 4 ) and ammonia (NH 3 ). Those gases eventually escaped to the space. The release of gases from rock through volcanic eruption (so-called outgassing) was the principal source of atmospheric gases. The primeval atmosphere produced by the outgassing was mostly water vapor (H 2 O), with some Nitrogen (N 2 ) and Carbon dioxide (CO 2 ), and trace amounts of other gases.
5 What Happened to H 2 O? The atmosphere can only hold small fraction of the mass of water vapor that has been injected into it during volcanic eruption, most of the water vapor was condensed into clouds and rains and gave rise to rivers, lakes, and oceans. (from Atmospheric Sciences: An Introductory Survey) The concentration of water vapor in the atmosphere was substantially reduced.
6 Saturation Vapor Pressure Saturation vapor pressure describes how much water vapor is needed to make the air saturated at any given temperature. Saturation vapor pressure depends primarily on the air temperature in the following way: The Clausius-Clapeyron Equation Saturation pressure increases exponentially with air temperature. L: latent heat of evaporation; : specific volume of vapor and liquid
7 What happened to CO 2? Chemical weathering is the primary process to remove CO2 from the atmosphere. In this process, CO2 dissolves in rainwater producing weak carbonic acid that reacts chemically with bedrock and produces carbonate compounds. (from Earth s Climate: Past and Future) This biogeochemical process reduced CO2 in the atmosphere and locked carbon in rocks and mineral.
8 Carbon Inventory (from Atmospheric Sciences: An Introductory Survey)
9 What Happened to N 2? Nitrogen (N2): (1) is inert chemically, (2) has molecular speeds too slow to escape to space, (3) is not very soluble in water. The amount of nitrogen being cycled out of the atmosphere was limited. Nitrogen became the most abundant gas in the atmosphere.
10 Where Did O 2 Come from? Photosynthesis was the primary process to increase the amount of oxygen in the atmosphere. Primitive forms of life in oceans began to produce oxygen through photosynthesis probably 2.5 billion years ago. With the concurrent decline of CO2, oxygen became the second most abundant atmospheric as after nitrogen. (from Earth s Climate: Past and Future)
11 Where Did Argon Come from? Radioactive decay in the planet s bedrock added argon (Ar) to the evolving atmosphere. Argon became the third abundant gas in the atmosphere.
12 Permanent and Variable Gases Those gases that form a constant portion of the atmospheric mass. Those gases whose concentrations changes from time to time and from place to place, and are important to weather and climate.
13 Water Vapor (H2O) Water vapor is supplied to the atmosphere by evaporation from the surface and is removed from the atmosphere by condensation (clouds and rains). The concentration of water vapor is maximum near the surface and the tropics (~ 0.25% of the atmosphere) and decreases rapidly toward higher altitudes and latitudes (~ 0% of the atmosphere). Water vapor is important to climate because it is a greenhouse gas that can absorb thermal energy emitted by Earth, and can release latent heat to fuel weather phenomena.
14 Carbon Dioxide (CO2) current level (from Understanding Weather & Climate) Early spring maximum: takes less CO2 due to slow plant growth in winter plus CO2 produced from tree leave decomposing. (Mauna Loa, Hawaii) Late summer minimum: summer growth removes CO2 from the atmosphere. Carbon dioxide is supplied into the atmosphere by plant and animal respiration, the decay of organic material, volcanic eruptions, and natural and anthropogenic combustion. Carbon dioxide is removed from the atmosphere by photosynthesis. CO2 is an important greenhouse gas.
15 Level of Carbon Dioxide Now On March 12, 2014, NOAA MLO recorded the first daily average above 400 ppm since Spring 2013.
16 Formation of Ozone (O 3 ) With oxygen emerging as a major component of the atmosphere, the concentration of ozone increased in the atmosphere through a photodissociation process. (from WMO Report 2003)
17 Ozone (O 3 ) good ozone ~ 15ppm bad ozone ~ 0.15ppm (from WMO Report 2003)
18 Other Atmospheric Constituents Aerosols: small solid particles and liquid droplets in the air. They serve as condensation nuclei for cloud formation. Air Pollutant: a gas or aerosol produce by human activity whose concentration threatens living organisms or the environment.
19 Air Pressure Can Be Explained As: weight of the air motion of air molecules The weight of air above a surface (due to Earth s gravity) The bombardment of air molecules on a surface (due to motion)
20 Air Pressure and Air Density Weight = mass x gravity Density = mass / volume Pressure = force / area = weight / area (from Meteorology Today)
21 How Soon Pressure Drops With Height? Ocean Atmosphere (from Is The Temperature Rising?) In the ocean, which has an essentially constant density, pressure increases linearly with depth. In the atmosphere, both pressure and density decrease exponentially with elevation.
22 (from The Atmosphere)
23 One Atmospheric Pressure The average air pressure at sea level is equivalent to the pressure produced by a column of water about 10 meters (or about 76 cm of mercury column). (from The Blue Planet) This standard atmosphere pressure is often expressed as 1013 mb (millibars), which means a pressure of about 1 kilogram per square centimeter.
24 Units of Atmospheric Pressure Pascal (Pa): a SI (Systeme Internationale) unit for air pressure. 1 Pa = a force of 1 newton acting on a surface of one square meter 1 hectopascal (hpa) = 1 millibar (mb) [hecto = one hundred =100] Bar: a more popular unit for air pressure. 1 bar = a force of 100,000 newtons acting on a surface of one square meter = 100,000 Pa = 1000 hpa = 1000 mb One atmospheric pressure = standard value of atmospheric pressure at lea level = mb = hpa.
25 Air Mass and Pressure Atmospheric pressure tells you how much atmospheric mass is above a particular altitude. Atmospheric pressure decreases by about 100 mb for every 1 km increase in elevation. (from Meteorology Today)
26 Vertical Structure of the Atmosphere composition temperature electricity 80km (from Meteorology Today)
27 Vertical Structure of Composition ~80km up to ~500km Heterosphere Homosphere Dominated by lighter gases with increasing altitude, such as hydrogen and helium. This part of the atmosphere continually circulates, so that the principal atmospheric gases are well mixed. For most purpose, we consider the homosphere virtually the entire atmosphere.
28 Vertical Structure of the Atmosphere composition temperature electricity 80km (from Meteorology Today)
29 Units of Air Temperature Fahrenheit (ºF) Celsius (ºC) ºC = (ºF-32)/1.8 Kelvin (K): a SI unit K= ºC K = 1 ºC > 1 ºF
30 Absolute Zero Temperature The absolute zero temperature is the temperature that the molecules do not move at all. This temperature occurs at 273 C. The Kelvin Scale (K) is a new temperature scale that has its zero temperature at this absolute temperature: K = C (from Is The Temperature Rising?)
31 Vertical Thermal Structure Standard Atmosphere Troposphere ( overturning sphere) contains 80% of the mass surface heated by solar radiation strong vertical motion where most weather events occur Stratosphere ( layer sphere) middle weak vertical motions atmosphere dominated by radiative processes heated by ozone absorption of solar ultraviolet (UV) radiation warmest (coldest) temperatures at summer (winter) pole Mesosphere heated by solar radiation at the base heat dispersed upward by vertical motion lapse rate = 6.5 C/km (from Understanding Weather & Climate) Thermosphere very little mass
32 Variations in Tropopause Height (from The Atmosphere)
33 Dry Adiabatic Lapse Rate (from Meteorology: Understanding the Atmosphere)
34 Moist Adiabatic Lapse Rate (from Meteorology: Understanding the Atmosphere)
35 Stratosphere Standard Atmosphere lapse rate = 6.5 C/km (from Understanding Weather & Climate) The reasons for the inversion in the stratosphere is due to the ozone absorption of ultraviolet solar energy. Although maximum ozone concentration occurs at 25km, much solar energy is absorbed in the upper stratosphere and can not reach the level of ozone maximum. Also, the lower air density at 50km allows solar energy to heat up temperature there at a much greater degree.
36 Ozone Distribution Antarctic Ozone Hole The greatest production of ozone occurs in the tropics, where the solar UV flux is the highest. However, the general circulation in the stratosphere transport ozone-rich air from the tropical upper stratosphere to mid-to-high latitudes. Ozone column depths are highest during springtime at mid-to-high latitudes. Ozone column depths are the lowest over the equator. (from The Earth System)
38 Mesosphere Standard Atmosphere There is little ozone to absorb solar energy in the mesosphere, and therefore, the air temperature in the mesosphere decreases with height. Also, air molecules are able to lose more energy than they absorb. This cooling effect is particularly large near the top of the mesosphere. (from Understanding Weather & Climate) lapse rate = 6.5 C/km
39 Thermosphere Standard Atmosphere lapse rate = 6.5 C/km (from Understanding Weather & Climate) In thermosphere, oxygen molecules absorb solar rays and warms the air. Because this layer has a low air density, the absorption of small amount of solar energy can cause large temperature increase. The air temperature in the thermosphere is affected greatly by solar activity.
40 Ionosphere The ionosphere is an electrified region within the upper atmosphere where large concentration of ions and free electrons exist. The ionosphere starts from about 60km above Earth s surface and extends upward to the top of the atmosphere. Most of the ionosphere is in the thermosphere. (from Meteorology Today) The ionosphere plays an important role in radio communication.
41 Ionosphere and AM Radio (from Understanding Weather & Climate) The D- and E-layers absorb AM radio, while the F-layer reflect radio waves. When night comes, the D-layer disappears and the E-layer weakens. Radio waves are able to reach the F-layer and get reflected further. The repeated refection of radio waves between Earth surface and the F-layer allows them to overcome the effect of Earth s curvature.
42 Weather Maps Many variables are needed to described weather conditions. Local weathers are affected by weather pattern. We need to see all the numbers describing weathers at many locations. We need weather maps. (from Understanding Weather & Climate) A picture is worth a thousand words.
43 The Station Model Meteorologists need a way to condense all the numbers describing the current weather at a location into a compact diagram that takes up as little space as possible on a weather map. (from Meteorology: Understanding the Atmosphere) This compressed geographical weather report is called a station model.
44 Weather Map on 7/7/2005 (from Meteorology: Understanding the Atmosphere)
45 Isobar It is useful to examine horizontal pressure differences across space. Pressure maps depict isobars, lines of equal pressure. Through analysis of isobaric charts, pressure gradients are apparent. Steep (weak) pressure gradients are indicated by closely (widely) spaced isobars.
46 The Station Model: Cloudiness (from Meteorology: Understanding the Atmosphere)
47 The Station Model: Wind (Northeasterly wind) Wind speed is indicated to the right (left) side of the coming wind vector in the Northern (Southern) Hemisphere Wind speeds are indicated in units of knot. 1 international knot = 1 nautical mile per hour (exactly), = kilometres per hour (exactly), = meters per second, = miles per hour (approximately)
48 The Station Model: Pressure The pressure value shown is the measured atmospheric pressure adjusted to sea level. The units used are mb. To save space, the thousand and the hundred values, and the decimal point are dropped. So 138 means mb To decode the value of pressure on the station model, add a 9 if the first number is 7, 8, or 9; otherwise add a 10.
49 Pressure Correction for Elevation Pressure decreases with height. Recording actual pressures may be misleading as a result. All recording stations are reduced to sea level pressure equivalents to facilitate horizontal comparisons. Near the surface, the pressure decreases about 100mb by moving 1km higher in elevation.
50 The Station Model: Pressure Tendency The change in surface pressure in the past three hours is plotted numerically and graphically on the lower right of the station model. The pressure rose and then fell over the past three hours, a total change of 0.3 mb.
51 The Station Model: Dew Point Temperature Dew point temperature (in united of ºF) indicates the moisture content. A higher value indicates a larger amount of moisture.
52 Saturation Vapor Pressure Saturation vapor pressure describes how much water vapor is needed to make the air saturated at any given temperature. Saturation vapor pressure depends primarily on the air temperature in the following way: The Clausius-Clapeyron Equation Saturation pressure increases exponentially with air temperature. L: latent heat of evaporation; : specific volume of vapor and liquid
53 The Station Model: Current Weather (from Meteorology: Understanding the Atmosphere)
54 Satellite Picture on 7/7/2005 (from Meteorology: Understanding the Atmosphere)
55 Weather Map on 7/7/2005 (from Meteorology: Understanding the Atmosphere)
56 Observation Time for Weather Map Weather organizations throughout the world use the UTC (Coordinated Universal Time) as the reference clock for weather observations. UTC is also denoted by the abbreviation GMT (Greenwich Meridian Time) or, often as the last two zeroes omitted, Z (Zulu). Observations of the upper atmosphere are coordinately internationally to be made at 0000 UTC (midnight at Greenwich; 0Z; 0GMT) and 1200 UTC (noon at Greenwich; 12Z; 12GMT). Synoptic observations have traditionally been done every 6 hours or every 3 hours, depending on the station. Local time should be 1 hour earlier for every (360/24)=15 of longitude west of Greenwich. Local time in Los Angeles (118 W) and the rest of the Pacific Standard Time is 8 (= 118 /15 ) hours earlier than Greenwich.
57 Rawinsondes To understand weather systems, measurements are required through the depth of the troposphere and well into the stratosphere. Raiwinsondes are designed for this purpose. A rawinsonde is a balloon-borne instruments system that measure pressure, temperature, dewpoint temperature, wind direction, and speed.
58 Surface Measurements: ASOS/AWOS Automated Surface (Weather) Observing Systems (ASOS or AWOS) are now used to make standard measurements of atmospheric properties at most location in North America. The measurements are reported hourly in North America and every three hours worldwide, at 0000, 0300, 0600, 0900, 1200, 1500, 1800, and 2100 UTC.
59 Time Zone (from Meteorology: Understanding the Atmosphere) 7/7/2005 7/8/2005 7/7/2005
Chapter 3: Weather Map Weather Maps Many variables are needed to described weather conditions. Local weathers are affected by weather pattern. We need to see all the numbers describing weathers at many
ATMOSPHERIC STRUCTURE. The vertical distribution of temperature, pressure, density, and composition of the atmosphere constitutes atmospheric structure. These quantities also vary with season and location
Chapter 3: Weather Map Station Model and Weather Maps Pressure as a Vertical Coordinate Constant Pressure Maps Cross Sections Weather Maps Many variables are needed to described dweather conditions. Local
Atmosphere SECTION 11.1 Atmospheric Basics In your textbook, read about the composition of the atmosphere. Circle the letter of the choice that best completes the statement. 1. Most of Earth s atmosphere
Atmospheric Composition he Earth-Atmosphere System able 1. Composition of the Atmosphere (Clean dry air near sea level) Gas Constituent Chemical Formula Volume Mixing Ratio Sources Nitrogen N 2 0.78083
Chapter 4: Pressure and Wind Pressure, Measurement, Distribution Hydrostatic Balance Pressure Gradient and Coriolis Force Geostrophic Balance Upper and Near-Surface Winds One Atmospheric Pressure (from
MODULE - 4 Atmosphere Composition and Structure 9 ATMOSPHERE COMPOSITION AND STRUCTURE Earth is a unique planet because the life is found only on this planet. The air has a special place among the conditions
Molecules of the Atmosphere The present atmosphere consists mainly of molecular nitrogen (N2) and molecular oxygen (O2) but it has dramatically changed in composition from the beginning of the solar system.
Lecture 2: Atmospheric Thermodynamics Ideal Gas Law (Equation of State) Hydrostatic Balance Heat and Temperature Conduction, Convection, Radiation Latent Heating Adiabatic Process Lapse Rate and Stability
Review 1 Multiple Choice Identify the choice that best completes the statement or answers the question. 1. When hydrogen nuclei fuse into helium nuclei a. the nuclei die. c. particles collide. b. energy
1a. Mole fraction How many moles of X per mole of air? 1b. Volume mixing ratio how many liters of X per liter of air? 2. Partial pressure what is the pressure exerted by X in the air? Remember that for
1. The chart shows the relationship between altitude and air pressure. What is the approximate air pressure at an altitude of 22 kilometers? A. 40 millibars B. 120 millibars C. 200 millibars D. 400 millibars
Chapter 6: Cloud Development and Forms (from The Blue Planet ) Why Clouds Form Static Stability Cloud Types Why Clouds Form? Clouds form when air rises and becomes saturated in response to adiabatic cooling.
CHAPTER 5 Lectures 10 & 11 Air Temperature and Air Temperature Cycles I. Air Temperature: Five important factors influence air temperature: A. Insolation B. Latitude C. Surface types D. Coastal vs. interior
Atmosphere Overview of Earth s Atmosphere The atmosphere is comprised of of gases, consisting mostly of nitrogen and oxygen. It also contains lesser amounts of argon, carbon dioxide, and many other trace
California Standards Grades 912 Boardworks 2009 Science Contents Standards Mapping Earth Sciences Earth s Place in the Universe 1. Astronomy and planetary exploration reveal the solar system s structure,
Name Weather Unit Test Page 1 1 The diagram below shows the flow of air over a mountain from point A to point C. Which graph best shows the approximate temperature change of the rising and descending air
EARTH S ATMOSPHERE AND ITS SEASONS Provided by Tasa Graphic Arts, Inc. for Earthʼs Atmosphere and Its Seasons CD-ROM http://www.tasagraphicarts.com/progeas.html 1.The Importance of Weather (wx) The U.S.
Atmosphere 1. Insulator maintains our T balance (500 degrees F, T changes without it) 2. Shield from meteors 3. Ocean of air dynamic, distributes heat Look at Mr. Moon: 1. Temps light side- 400 degrees
Characteristics of the Atmosphere. If you were lost in the desert, you could survive for a few days without food and water. But you wouldn't last more than five minutes without the ' Objectives Describe
Name: Answer Key Earth Science Date: Period: ANSWER KEY Page 1 Density Three different bars of soap are being investigated by a group of students. They measured the mass and volume of each bar and recorded
Name: Class: Date: Atmospheric Properties Short Study Guide Multiple Choice Identify the letter of the choice that best completes the statement or answers the question. 1. Earth s atmosphere contains more
UCCS PES 3670: Wind Energy Summer 2012 Test MC 2 name: Heating Earth's Surface and Atmosphere 1) Earth is closest to the Sun during: a. Northern hemisphere autumn. b. Southern hemisphere autumn. c. Southern
The Atmosphere Atmospheric structure Atmospheric layers defined by changes in temperature Troposphere contains 75% of atmospheric gases; temperature decreases with height Tropopause boundary between troposphere
UMEÅ UNIVERSITY October 12, 2010 Department of Physics Space Physics Project The Atmospheres of Different Planets Amir Asadpoordarvish firstname.lastname@example.org Contents Introduction... 2 1. Mercury... 2
CHAPTER 6: WEATHER FOR SOARING Weather patterns on Earth are complicated and chaotic. Weather is a result of the atmosphere s constant attempt to reach equilibrium. This equilibrium is continually upset
2 Atmospheric Pressure meteorology 2.1 Definition and Pressure Measurement 2.1.1 Definition Pressure acts in all directions, up and sideways as well as down, but it is convenient in meteorology to regard
PJ Brucat Temperature - the measure of average kinetic energy (KE) of a gas, liquid, or solid. KE is energy of motion. KE = ½ mv 2 where m=mass and v=velocity (speed) 1 All molecules have KE whether solid,
NCEA Level 3 Earth and Space Science (91414) 2014 page 1 of 7 Assessment Schedule 2014 Earth and Space Science: Demonstrate understanding of processes in the atmosphere system (91414) Evidence Statement
The Earth's Atmosphere The atmosphere surrounds Earth and protects us by blocking out dangerous rays from the sun. The atmosphere is a mixture of gases that becomes thinner until it gradually reaches space.
1) The most common gas in the atmosphere is: a) oxygen (O2) b) carbon dioxide (CO2) c) nitrogen (N2) d) methane (CH4) 2) What atmospheric layer is the home of weather, has the greatest density of gas molecules,
How We Know Global Warming is Real The science behind human-induced climate change Tapio Schneider Atmospheric carbon dioxide concentrations are higher today than at any time in at least the past 650,000
Explanation and follow on work Introduction and aim of the activity This activity involved experiencing two different but essential ways of observing the weather. Weather balloons (also known as radiosondes)
Lecture 3: Global Energy Cycle Solar Flux and Flux Density Planetary energy balance Greenhouse Effect Vertical energy balance Latitudinal energy balance Seasonal and diurnal cycles Solar Luminosity (L)
Weather Unit Exam Pre-Test Questions 7613-1 - Page 1 Name: 1) Equal quantities of water are placed in four uncovered containers with different shapes and left on a table at room temperature. From which
Global warming and its implications for conservation. 4. Greenhouse gasses and the lapse rate The layer model is a reasonable heuristic model, but it assumes that the atmosphere acts as a perfect blackbody
These 3 climate graphs and tables of data show average temperatures and precipitation for each month in Victoria, Winnipeg and Whitehorse: Figure 1.1 Month J F M A M J J A S O N D Year Precipitation 139
Atmospheric Humidity Chapter 4 Circulation of Water in the Atmosphere A general definition of humidity is the amount of water vapor in the air. Remember, humidity is not constant through time or space,
Inquiry project: Weather Forecast In this lesson students will build a simple barometer and use it to record data of air pressure over two weeks, in order to understand the ways in which air pressure is
Earth: The Early Years We discuss... What happened to the Earth during the first few billion years? How did the core and mantle form? What was is the origin of the atmosphere and ocean (water)? What is
Kingdom Schools Science Department Grade 5- Term 2 Name: Date: Section: Summary Booklet Topic 8 Weather Patterns Lesson 1 :How does Air move? Skill 8-1: Understand that air pressure is related to altitude,
Period 14 Activity Solutions: Energy in Nature 14.1 The Earth-Sun System 1) Energy from the sun Observe the models of the Earth, Moon, and Sun in the room. a) Imagine that the distance between the Earth
Energy Transfer in the Atmosphere Essential Questions How does energy transfer from the sun to Earth and the atmosphere? How are air circulation patterns with the atmosphere created? Vocabulary Radiation:
Lecture 5 Ozone, Ozone Hole, and Climate Molecular Oxygen (O 2, O O) 2 BY (10 9 yrs): atmopheric O 2 reach 1% of present value 700 MY (10 6 yrs): atmospheric O 2 reach 10% of present value 350 MY (10 6
CHAPTER 12 LESSON 2 Earth s Atmosphere Energy Transfer in the Atmosphere Key Concepts How does energy transfer from the Sun to Earth and to the atmosphere? How are air circulation patterns within the atmosphere
Name Date Class d i a g n o s t i c t e s t 3 G g r a d e 6 Directions: Use the diagram below to answer question 1. 1. What might be the most serious effect of having a farm in the location shown in the
Regents Earth Science Unit 8 Climate Water Cycle Most of Earth s water was created by volcanic out-gassing when the Earth formed and by impacts by comets early in Earth s history this water has remained
Relative humidity Climent Ramis, Romualdo Romero and Sergio Alonso Meteorology Group. Department of Physics. University of the Balearic Islands. 07122 Palma de Mallorca. Spain. 1. Introduction If samples
FACTS ABOUT CLIMATE CHANGE 1. What is climate change? Climate change is a long-term shift in the climate of a specific location, region or planet. The shift is measured by changes in features associated
UNIT 6a TEST REVIEW 1. A weather instrument is shown below. Which weather variable is measured by this instrument? 1) wind speed 3) cloud cover 2) precipitation 4) air pressure 2. Which weather station
Ch. 7 - Geographical Ecology, Climate & Biomes Weather - the short term properties of the troposphere at a given place and time. Climate - the average long-term weather of an area. averaged over a long
General Overview of Climate Change Science Art DeGaetano Associate Professor Department of Earth and Atmospheric Science Cornell University, Ithaca, NY 14853 (email@example.com) Earth s climate system The
CHAPTER 2 Energy and Earth This chapter is concerned with the nature of energy and how it interacts with Earth. At this stage we are looking at energy in an abstract form though relate it to how it affect
CHAPTER 3 Heat and energy in the atmosphere In Chapter 2 we examined the nature of energy and its interactions with Earth. Here we concentrate initially on the way in which energy interacts with the atmosphere
Section 1 The Earth System Key Concept Earth is a complex system made up of many smaller systems through which matter and energy are continuously cycled. What You Will Learn Energy and matter flow through
V. Water Vapour in Air V. Water Vapour in Air So far we have indicated the presence of water vapour in the air through the vapour pressure e that it exerts. V. Water Vapour in Air So far we have indicated
Chapter 6 Water and Ocean Structure Some basic concepts: Compounds substances that contain two or more different elements in fixed proportions Element a substance composed of identical particles that cannot
Climate vs. Weather Atmosphere and Weather Weather The physical condition of the atmosphere (moisture, temperature, pressure, wind) Climate Long term pattern of the weather in a particular area Weather
ESCI 107/109 The Atmosphere Lesson 2 Solar and Terrestrial Radiation Reading: Meteorology Today, Chapters 2 and 3 EARTH-SUN GEOMETRY The Earth has an elliptical orbit around the sun The average Earth-Sun
Weather, Climate and Ecosystems Dennis Baldocchi University of California, Berkeley 2/1/2013 Weather, Climate and Ecosystems: Outline Concepts Atmospheric Meteors and Composition Greenhouse-Effect Principles
Effects of moisture on static stability & convection Dry vs. "moist" air parcel: Lifting of an air parcel leads to adiabatic cooling. If the temperature of the parcel falls below the critical temperature
Climatological Information Services > Climate Change > Green House Effect What is Greenhouse Effect? The Greenhouse Effect is a term that refers to a physical property of the Earth's atmosphere. If the
Species distributions and environment Terrestrial species Climate (temperature and precipitation) Soil type Aquatic species Water temperature Salinity Light Pressure Geographic Template Non-random patterns
Incoming solar energy is largely in the visible region of the spectrum. The shorter wavelength blue solar light is scattered relatively more strongly by molecules and particles in the upper atmosphere,
Chemistry, The Central Science, 11th edition Theodore L. Brown; H. Eugene LeMay, Jr.; and Bruce E. Bursten Chapter 10 Gases A Gas Has neither a definite volume nor shape. Uniformly fills any container.
The atmospheres of different planets Thomas Baron October 13, 2006 1 Contents 1 Introduction 3 2 The atmosphere of the Earth 3 2.1 Description and Composition.................... 3 2.2 Discussion...............................
13 CHAPTER TWO SOME CONCEPTS IN CLIMATOLOGY 2.1 The Adiabatic Process An important principle to remember is that, in the troposphere, the first layer of the atmosphere, temperature decreases with altitude.
Earth Systems Overview of Earth s Spheres The Earth consists of four 'spheres' which pertain to the Earth's major reservoirs of matter and energy. LITHOSPHERE: The solid, rocky shell of the Earth is the
Understanding weather and climate Weather can have a big impact on our day-to-day lives. On longer timescales, climate influences where and how people live and the lifecycles of plants and animals. Evidence
Q. In the carbon cycle the amounts of carbon dioxide and oxygen in the air are changed by several processes. (a) The names of some processes are given in the box below. combustion decomposition neutralisation
ENERGY BALANCE AND GREENHOUSE EFFECT D. Stahle, Global Change (ENDY/GEOG 5113) Gedzelman, S.D., 1980. The Science and Wonders of the Atmosphere. Wiley, NY. Huschke, R.E., 1989. Glossary of Meteorology.
Activity 8 Drawing Isobars Level 2 http://www.uni.edu/storm/activities/level2/index.shtml Objectives: 1. Students will be able to define and draw isobars to analyze air pressure variations. 2. Students
The Vertical Structure of the Atmosphere stratified by temperature (and density) Space Shuttle sunset Note: Scattering of visible light (density + wavelength) Troposphere = progressive cooling, 75% mass,
lecture 3: The greenhouse effect Concepts from Lecture 2 Temperature Scales Forms of Heat Transfer Electromagnetic Spectrum Planck Law Stefan-Boltzmann Law Inverse Square Law Reflectivity or Albedo Solar
Notes 1 Weather Maps The purpose of a weather map is to give a graphical or pictorial image of weather to a meteorologist. As a forecasting tool, weather maps allow a meteorologist to see what is happening
Solar Radiation Calculation Dr. Mohamad Kharseh E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org email@example.com 1 Solar Constant Solar Constant is the intensity of the solar radiation hitting one square meter of the Earth
Lecture 2: Radiation/Heat in the atmosphere TEMPERATURE is a measure of the internal heat energy of a substance. The molecules that make up all matter are in constant motion. By internal heat energy, we
Global Change Instruction Program Phosphorus and Sulfur The Important Nutrient Phosphorus Phosphorus is a key nutrient, fueling organic productivity on land and in water. A portion of its cycle is shown
Weather can have a big impact on our day-to-day lives. On longer timescales, climate influences where and how people live and the lifecycles of plants and animals. Evidence shows us that our climate is
Lecture 23: Terrestrial Worlds in Comparison Astronomy 141 Winter 2012 This lecture compares and contrasts the properties and evolution of the 5 main terrestrial bodies. The small terrestrial planets have
Greenhouse Gases Heat released from the Earth's surface can be absorbed by certain atmospheric molecules. These molecules later release the heat in all directions, effectively trapping some it. The concentration
Humidity, Condensation, and Clouds-I GEOL 1350: Introduction To Meteorology 1 Overview Water Circulation in the Atmosphere Properties of Water Measures of Water Vapor in the Atmosphere (Vapor Pressure,
Layers of the Atmosphere Packet Component 8.2.1 Guiding Questions (questions you should be able to answer by the end of this packet before taking the test!) 1. What are the atmosphere layers in order from