(3) Bipolar Transistor Current Sources


 Tyler McGee
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1 B73 lectonics Analysis & Design (3) Bipola Tansisto Cuent Souces Leaning utcome Able to descibe and: Analyze and design a simple twotansisto BJT cuentsouce cicuit to poduce a given bias cuent. Analyze and design moe sophisticated BJT cuentsouce cicuits, such as the theetansisto cicuit, cascode cicuit, Wilson cicuit, and Widla cicuit. Analyze the output esistance of the vaious BJT cuentsouce cicuits. efeence: Neamen, Chapte 5 and Chapte 0 3.0) Biasing BJT Cicuits to Achieve Fowadactive Mode 3.0.) Single Base esisto Biasing 3.0) Biasing BJT Cicuits to Achieve Fowadactive Mode (Cont) 3.0.) oltage Divide Biasing Fig 5.5: Commonemitte cicuit with a single bias esisto in the base. Advantages: Simple. Disadvantages: No bias stabilization, i.e. Qpoint vaies with. equies lage esistos (M s), i.e. uses lage aea, which is an impotant issue in C design. Advantages: Smalle esistos equied (in k ange). has povided bias stabilization and negative feedback. Disadvantages: esisto size is still undesiable fo C design. Fig 5.54: Commonemitte cicuit with an emitte esisto and voltage divide bias cicuit in the base. 3.0) Biasing BJT Cicuits to Achieve Fowadactive Mode (Cont) 3.0.3) Positive and Negative oltage Biasing Figue 5.57: Simple tansisto cicuit biased with both positive and negative dc voltages. Advantages: Used fo diffeential amplifie biasing. Allows, in cetain apps, fo elimination of C C and allows use of dc input voltages as input signals. Disadvantages: esisto size is still undesiable fo C design. 3.0) Biasing BJT Cicuits to Achieve Fowadactive Mode (Cont) 3.0.4) The main issues equied fo biasing in C design Bias stabilization: biasing uses constant cuent souces. Avoid devices consuming lage aea, i.e. avoiding the use of modeate and lage esistos (which consume lage aea on C). Lectue: D Jamaludin Bin ma 3
2 B73 lectonics Analysis & Design 3.) ntegated Cicuit Biasing Can be a cuent souce that establishes the quiescent collecto cuent CQ as shown in Figue 0. 3.) ntegated Cicuit Biasing (Cont) Figue 0.: Bipola cicuit with cuentsouce biasing. Advantages: mitte cuent becomes independent of and B. Collecto cuent and C voltage ae independent of tansisto gain, fo easonable values. alue of B (hence in ) can be inceased without affecting bias stability. Biased using voltage. Figue 0.: Bipola cicuit with cuentsouce biasing. 3.) Bipola Tansisto Cuent Souces 3..) PoblemSolving Technique Sum cuents at the vaious nodes in the cicuit to find the elation between the efeence cuent and the bias cuent. To find the output esistance, place a test voltage at the output node and analyze the smallsignal equivalent cicuit. 3.) Bipola Tansisto Cuent Souces 3..) BJT Cuent Souces Will be studied: TwoTansisto Cuent Souce (T) Basic TheeTansisto Cuent Souce (3T) Cascode Cuent Souce (T on T) Wilson Cuent Souce (Modified 3T) Widla Cuent Souce (T with ) Multitansisto Cuent Mios (T) Keep in mind that the efeence cuent is constant, which may make some of the base voltage constant o at signal gound. 3.3) Twotansisto Cuent Souce Figue 0.: (a) Basic twotansisto cuent souce. (b) Twotansisto cuent souce with efeence esisto. Basic twotansisto cuent souces: (a) Using npn tansistos. (b) Using pnp tansistos. Lectue: D Jamaludin Bin ma 3
3 B73 lectonics Analysis & Design Analogy continues The wheel is now used to build a machine with wheels ( ) B B B B B B B B 3.3) Twotansisto Cuent Souce (Cont) C B B C B B B C B B B B Also called as a Cuent Mio, with two matched tansistos Q & Q B B B B B C C Q is diodeconnected. B B B efeence cuent established by Lectue: D Jamaludin Bin ma B (0.) 33
4 B73 lectonics Analysis & Design 3.3.) Cuent elationship Design ample 0. Sum cuents at collecto of Q C B C C and B C / utput cuent: C (0.) (0.4) bjective: Design a twotansisto cuent souce to meet a set of specifications. Specifications: The cicuit to be designed has the configuation shown in Figue 0.(b). Assume that matched tansistos ae available with paametes B (on) 0.6, 00, and A. The designed output is to be 00 µa. The bias voltages ae to be 5 and Design ample 0. (Cont) Design ample 0. (Cont) Solution: The efeence cuent can be witten as (00)( ) 04A 00 iginal Figue 0.(b) With specifications Fom quation (0.), the esisto is found to be B (on) kΩ 04 Net 3.3.) utput esistance, o (Cont) 3.3.) utput esistance, o n actual tansistos, the aly voltage ( A ) is finite. So, o is also finite. Then the collecto cuent is a function of the collectoemitte voltage. Thus, the stability of is affected by the bias conditions in the load cicuit. Figue 0. Figue 0.(b) Figue 0.3: The dc equivalent of simple amplifie biased with twotansisto cuent souce. Lectue: D Jamaludin Bin ma 34
5 B73 lectonics Analysis & Design 3.3.) utput esistance, o (Cont) efe to Figue 0.3. The voltage applied to base of Q 0 is a dc voltage. When is changed, C changes since B voltage of Q 0 is essentially a constant. A vaiation in C in tun changes the output cuent, because of the aly effect. 3.3.) utput esistance, o (Cont) Figue 0.4 shows vesus C chaacteistics at a constant B voltage. Figue 0.4: utput cuent vs collectoemitte voltage, showing the aly voltage. 3.3.) utput esistance, o (Cont) 3.3.) utput esistance, o (Cont) The atio of load cuent to efeence cuent, taking the aly effect* into account, is C C (0.5) *efe to quation 5.6 in Neaman whee A is the ealy voltage and facto ( /) accounts fo the finite gain. A A C B C B0 (0.6) The diffeential change in with espect to a change in C is d d C A B A (0.7) 3.3.) utput esistance, o (Cont) Assuming B << A, then 3.3.) utput esistance, o (Cont) ample 0. d d C A (0.8) bjective: Detemine the change in load cuent poduced by a change in collectoemitte voltage in a twotansisto cuent souce. whee o is the smallsignal output esistance looking into the collecto of Q Conside the cicuit shown in Figue 0.3. The cicuit paametes ae: 5,  5, and 9.3 k. Assume the tansisto paametes ae: 50, B (on) 0.7, and A 80. Detemine the change in as C changes fom 0.7 to 5. Lectue: D Jamaludin Bin ma 35
6 B73 lectonics Analysis & Design 3.3.) utput esistance, o (Cont) 3.3.) utput esistance, o (Cont) ample 0. (Cont) ample 0. (Cont) Solution: The efeence cuent is B (on) ( 5).0mA 9.3k Fo C 0.7, tansistos Q to Q ae identically biased. Fom quation (0.5),.0m 0.96mA / / 50 Fom quation (0.8), the small signal output esistance is A kΩ 0.96m 3.3.) utput esistance, o (Cont) 3.3.) utput esistance, o (Cont) ample 0. (Cont) ample 0. (Cont) The change in load cuent is detemined fom d d d C d d C 0.05mA (5 0.7) 83.k The pecent change in output cuent is theefoe d 0.05m % 0.96m 3.3) Twotansisto Cuent Souces (Cont) 3.3.3) Mismatched Tansistos 3.3.3) Mismatched Tansistos (Cont) n pactice, Q and Q may not be eactly identical. f >>, base cuents can be neglected. The cuentvoltage elationship, neglecting aly effect, is then Thus, any deviation in the bias cuent fom the ideal, as a function of mismatch between Q and Q, is diectly elated to the atio of the evesesatuation cuents S and S. and C C Theefoe, S (0.0) S B / T S e e B / T S S is a stong function of tempeatue. Theefoe, in most C fabication of cuent souces, Q and Q must be close to one anothe so that thei tempeatues will be the same in ode fo the cicuit to opeate popely. Also, paametes S and S ae functions of cosssectional aea of B junctions. Hence, quation (0.0) allows scaling of with espect to by having tansistos of diffeent sizes. Lectue: D Jamaludin Bin ma 36
7 B73 lectonics Analysis & Design 3.4) mpoved CuentSouce Cicuits Cuent souce cicuits that have impoved load cuent stability against changes in and changes in output tansisto collecto voltage ae: Basic TheeTansisto Cuent Souce: bette appoimation of Cascode Cuent Souce: highe output esistance by facto of Wilson Cuent Souce: highe output esistance by facto of / Widla Cuent Souce: highe output esistance by ( g m ) Net Analogy continues mpovements: ) Bette stability with 3 wheels ) Bette design with wheels 3.4.) Basic 3Tansisto Cuent Souce 3.4.) Basic 3Tansisto Cuent Souce (Cont) Twotansisto Theetansisto Figue 0.5: Basic theetansisto cuent souce. ( ) 3 B 3 B B 3 B B 3.4.) Basic 3Tansisto Cuent Souce (Cont) Shown in Figue 0.5 Assume that all tansistos ae identical. Theefoe: B B B B B C C B B Figue 0.5: Basic theetansisto cuent souce. Note: Cuent in Q 3 is substantially smalle than in eithe Q and Q, i.e. 3 < Lectue: D Jamaludin Bin ma 37
8 B73 lectonics Analysis & Design 3.4.) Basic 3Tansisto Cuent Souce (Cont) 3.4.) Basic 3Tansisto Cuent Souce (Cont) Sum cuents at collecto of Q C B3 C C and B C / B B, 3 B, 3 ( 3 ) B3 Theefoe, C C 3 C ( ) ( ) 3 C B C ( ) ( ) Then C ( ) (0.6) Advantages: Bette appoimation of to is less sensitive to vaiation in ) Basic 3Tansisto Cuent Souce (Cont) 3.4.) Basic 3Tansisto Cuent Souce (Cont) Assuming B3 B, then efeence Cuent is B3 B B (0.7) Figue 0.6: (a) Twotansisto cuent mio (b) Theetansisto cuent mio (c) aiation in bias cuents with a change in 3.4.) Basic 3Tansisto Cuent Souce (Cont) 3.4.) Basic 3Tansisto Cuent Souce (Cont) (Cont) The paametes fo the cicuit shown in Figue 0.5 ae: 3,  3, and 30 k. The tansisto paametes: Fo Q and Q ae B, (on) 0.7 and 0. Fo Q 3 ae B3 (on) 0.6 and 80. Assume A fo all tansistos. Detemine the value of each cuent shown in the figue. Lectue: D Jamaludin Bin ma 38
9 B73 lectonics Analysis & Design 3.4.) Basic 3Tansisto Cuent Souce (Cont) 3.4.) Cascode Cuent Souce utput esistance, The output esistance looking into the collecto of output tansisto Q of the basic 3 tansisto shown in Figue 0.5 is the same as that of the tansisto cuent souce, that is 4 d d C ; A (0.8) This means any mismatch between Q and Q poduces a deviation in the bias cuent fom the ideal, as given by quation (0.0). Figue 0.7: (a) Bipola cascode cuent mio (b) Smallsignal equivalent cicuit. 3.4.) Cascode Cuent Souce (Cont) 3.4.) Cascode Cuent Souce (Cont) Twotansisto Cascode Cascode CS is a cuentsouce cicuit with o much geate than that of the twotansisto cicuit. 4 Fo a constant, base voltages of Q and Q 4 ae constant, which implies these teminals ae at signal gound. 3.4.) Cascode Cuent Souce (Cont) 3.4.) Cascode Cuent Souce (Cont) Figue 0.7(b) can be eaanged as follows. Since g m be 0, then be4  ( o 4 ) Summing cuents at output node yields g g m4 be4 m4 ( ( ) o π 4 o4 be4 ) o ( ) o 4 π 4 Lectue: D Jamaludin Bin ma 39
10 B73 lectonics Analysis & Design 3.4.) Cascode Cuent Souce (Cont) 3.4.3) Wilson Cuent Souce Combining tems and assuming 4 << o : ( ) 4 o 4 π o4 (0.0) The output esistance has inceased by a facto of compaed to tansisto cuent souce, which inceases the stability of the cuent souce with changes in output voltage. Net Figue 0.8: Wilson cuent souce ) Wilson Cuent Souce (Cont) Theetansisto Wilson C3 ( ) B ( ) ( )( ) B ( )( ) B ( ) B B B B C ( 3) C3 ( ) B 3.4.3) Wilson Cuent Souce (Cont) 3.4.3) Wilson Cuent Souce (Cont) Anothe configuation of a 3tansisto cuent souce. Figue 0.8: Wilson cuent souce. Assume that all tansistos ae identical. Theefoe: B B B B B C C Cuent levels in all thee tansistos ae nealy the same, theefoe 3 Sum cuents at the collecto of Q C B3 (0.) At the emitte of Q 3 C B 3 C At the collecto of Q 3 C C3 (0.) (0.3) C3 Lectue: D Jamaludin Bin ma 30
11 B73 lectonics Analysis & Design 3.4.3) Wilson Cuent Souce (Cont) 3.4.3) Wilson Cuent Souce (Cont) eplacing C with C C B3 C3 C3 Solve fo the output cuent: C3 ( ) (0.4) (0.5) quation (0.5) is essentially the same as that of pevious 3tansisto cuent souce. The diffeence between the two 3 tansisto cuentsouce cicuits is the output esistance ) Wilson Cuent Souce (Cont) n Wilson cuent souce: the output esistance looking into the collecto of Q 3 is o3 / (/) o3 which is appoimately a facto / lage than that of eithe the tansisto souce o the basic 3tansisto souce. This means that, in the Wilson cuent souce, the change in bias cuent with a change in output collecto voltage is much smalle ) Widla Cuent Souce n all the pevious cuent souce cicuits, the load cuent and efeence cuents have been nealy equal. Fo the twotansisto cuent souce in Fig 0.(a): f a load cuent of 0 A is equied, fo 5 and  5, the esistance value needed is ( 5) 930kΩ B n Cs, esistos on the ode of M equie lage aeas and ae difficult to fabicate accuately. Theefoe, need to limit C esisto values to the low k ange. A Widla cuent souce, Figue 0.9, meets the objective of limiting C esisto values to the low k ange. Twotansisto Widla A voltage diffeence is poduced acoss esisto, so that the B voltage of Q is less than the B voltage of Q. Figue 0.9: Widla cuent souce. A smalle B voltage poduces a smalle collecto cuent, which in tun means that the load cuent is less than the efeence cuent. Lectue: D Jamaludin Bin ma 3
12 B73 lectonics Analysis & Design Cuent elationship f Q and Q ae identical and if >> fo both tansistos, then B C T B e ln B / T S S B C e T B / T S ln S B B B B T ln T ln and Thus, and B B C T C e T e B S ln ln B S S S / T / T Combining: Fom cicuit: Finally: B B B B T T ln ln (0.8) (0.9) (0.30) quation (0.30) gives the elationship between efeence and bias cuents. Design ample 0.4 bjective: Design a Widla cuent souce to achieve specified efeence and load cuents. Specifications: The cicuit to be designed has the configuation shown in Figue 0.9. Assume bias voltages of 5 and Assume B 0.7. Design the Widla cuent souce cicuit such that ma and µa. Design ample 0.4 (Cont) Solution: esistance is B ( 5) 9.3kΩ m esistance is, fom quation (0.30), T 0.06 m ln ln 9.58kΩ Design ample 0.4 (Cont) Fom quation (0.9) can detemine the diffeence between the two B voltages, as follows: B B ()(9.58k) 0.5 Lectue: D Jamaludin Bin ma 3
13 B73 lectonics Analysis & Design ample 0.5 ample 0.5 (Cont) bjective: To detemine the cuent in Widla cuent souce cicuit. Assume the Widla souce is biased at 5 and  5, and assume esisto values 7 k and 4 k. Also assume B 0.7. Solution: The efeence cuent is found to be B ( 5).33mA 7k The load cuent is found fom the elation T ln o 5.7 A Solving the tanscendental equation using gaph. ( 4k ) (0.06) ln(.33m/ ) A tanscendental equation cannot be solved diectly. A compute solution o a tial and eo solution yields Pevious Question utput esistance The output esistance looking into the collecto of Q in Figue 0.9 can be epessed as d dc (0.3) This output esistance can be detemined by using the smallsignal equivalent cicuit in the following figue. o Then, detemine output esistance at collecto of Q using simplified equivalent cicuits as follows. Fig 0.0(b): Simplified Noton equivalent cicuit fo detemining output esistance. Lectue: D Jamaludin Bin ma 33
14 B73 lectonics Analysis & Design o esistances and ae in paallel. Define ' Then π g g m π m π ' ( ( ' o ) o π ) ' o Collecting tems, poducing o o o o ' ( g ' ) m g m o Nomally, (/ o ) << g m ; theefoe (0.37) Hence, the output esistance ( o ) of the Widla cuent souce is a facto ( g m ) lage than that of the simple twotansisto cuent souce. ample 0.6 bjective: Detemine the change in load cuent with a change in collecto voltage in a Widla cuent souce. The stability of the load cuent, as a function of a change in output voltage, is impoved in the Widla cuent souce, compaed to the simple twotansisto cuent souce. Conside the cicuit in Figue 0.9. The paametes ae: 5,  5, 9.3 k, and 9.58 k. Let A 80 and 00. Detemine the change in as C changes by 4. ample 0.6 (Cont) ample 0.6 (Cont) Solution: Fom ample 0.4, µa. The smallsignal collecto esistance is A 80 A 6.67MΩ o o µ CQ We can detemine that gm µ gm 0.46mA/ gm 0.06 T and π T T (00)(0.06) 7kΩ µ π CQ T π CQ The output esistance of the cicuit is o [ gm( π )] [ (0.46m)( 9.58k 7k) ] 34.9MΩ (6.67M) Fom quation (0.3), the change in load cuent is d d d C (4) (34.9M) 0.5A % Net Lectue: D Jamaludin Bin ma 34
15 B73 lectonics Analysis & Design 3.5) Multitansisto Cuent Mios 3.5) Multitansisto Cuent Mios (Cont) Fig 0.: Multitansisto cuent mio. The B voltage of efeence tansisto Q can also be applied to multiple output tansistos to geneate multiple load cuents, as shown in Figue 0. The elationship between each load cuent and, assuming all tansistos ae matched and A, is... ( ) N N 3.5) Multitansisto Cuent Mios (Cont) 3.5) Multitansisto Cuent Mios (Cont) The collecto of multiple output tansistos can be connected togethe, changing the load cuent vesus cuent elationship. An eample of such a cicuit is shown in Figue 0.3 Fig 0.3: Multioutput tansisto cuent souce. Assume all tansistos ae matched. f is vey lage the base cuents can be neglected. Then, 3 3 Tansistos ae connected in paallel to incease the effective B aea of the device, hence inceasing the load cuent. Cicuit symbols as shown in Figue 0.4 can be used to indicate paallel output tansistos. Figue 0.4: quivalent cicuit symbols (a) two tansistos in paallel, (b) thee tansistos in paallel, and (c) N tansistos in paallel 3.5) Multitansisto Cuent Mios (Cont) Fig 0.5: Genealised cuent mio Genealized Cuent Mio As shown in Figue 0.5 btain seveal s as multiples of a single pnp to souce cuent npn to sink cuent f is vey lage, base cuent effects can be neglected. So:, 3, ) Multitansisto Cuent Mios (Cont) Genealized Cuent Mio (Cont) Tansistos Q and Q (connected as diodes) with established the efeence cuent which is given by B ( Q ) B ( Q) (0.39) ffect of finite : to be less than since supplies all base cuents. t becomes moe sevee as moe tansistos ae added. Lectue: D Jamaludin Bin ma 35
16 B73 lectonics Analysis & Design 3.5) Multitansisto Cuent Mios (Cont) Design ample 0.7 bjective: Design a genealized cuent mio to meet a set of specifications. Specifications: The cicuit to be designed has the configuation shown in Figue 0.5. The bias voltages ae 5, Neglect base cuents and assume B B 0.6. Design the cicuit such that 400 µa. Detemine the othe cuents and find the value fo. 3.5) Multitansisto Cuent Mios (Cont) Design ample 0.7 (Cont) Solution: Fo 400 µa, 3 00 µa and µa esisto is B ( Q ) B ( Q ) ( 5) 44kΩ ) Multitansisto Cuent Mios (Cont) 3.5) Multitansisto Cuent Mios (Cont) Pevious Question Pevious Question Answes: (i) 4mA ma B3 B kω ma A 00 (ii) 5k 4mA Ω C C (iii) C3 α 3 3 ( B B) 00 ma ma C3 9.85µ A ma ( ) B 0.0mA 00 (iv) The advantage :. Bette appoimation of to. less sensitive to vaiation in 3.6) utput oltage Swing The minimum output voltage, (min), of the cuent mio influences the maimum symmetical output voltage, UT, swing of the load cicuit being biased. 3.6) utput oltage Swing (Cont) Fo the cascode and Wilson cuent souces: (min) C _ B C (sat) The minimum output voltage fo the twotansisto cuent souce is: (min) C _ C (sat) whee C (sat) may be in the ode of 0. to 0.3. The value may be in the ode of 0.7 to 0.9. Note: ncease in (min) means educed maimum output voltage swing of the load cicuit, which is citical in the lowpowe applications. Lectue: D Jamaludin Bin ma 36
17 B73 lectonics Analysis & Design 3.7) BJT Active Load Cicuit Fig 0.8: Bipola commonemitte cicuit (with esistive load). n bipola amplifie, such as shown in Fig 0.8, the smallsignal voltage gain is diectly popotional to collecto esisto C. To incease the gain, need to incease the value of C, but thee is a pactical limitation. Assuming C C acts as a shot cicuit to the signal fequency, can be shown that the voltage gain of this cicuit is given by: A v  g m C whee g m CQ / T 3.7) BJT Active Load Cicuit (Cont) Assuming the Qpoint is in the cente of the load line, then CQ CC / C o C CC / CQ Theefoe A v CC / T Fo a easonable values of bias voltage, the maimum value of smallsignal voltage gain is essentially fied. 3.7) BJT Active Load Cicuit (Cont) To get aound this limitation need a load that will pass a given cuent at a given bias voltage, but which will incementally esist a change in cuent bette than fied C. This load device can be a tansisto, which will also occupy less aea in an C, anothe advantage of using tansistos in place of esistos. n addition, active loads poduce a much lage smallsignal voltage gain than discete esistos. 3.7.) DC Analysis: BJT Active Load Cicuit Fig 0.9: Simple BJT amp with active load, showing cuents and voltages., Q, and Q fom the active load. Q is efeed to as the active load device fo dive tansisto Q 0. The combination of, Q, and Q foms the pnp vesion of the tansisto cuent souce. Q 0 and Q emain biased in the fowadactive egion, and the output voltage must emain in the ange C0 (sat) < <  C (sat) 3.7.) DC Analysis: BJT Active Load Cicuit (Cont) Fig 0.30: oltage tansfe chaacteistics of bipola cicuit with active load. stablish Qpoint in the egion whee Q 0 and Q in fowadactive mode. nly small ange of input voltage is available. 3.7.) DC Analysis: BJT Active Load Cicuit (Cont) Fig 0.3: Dive tansisto chaacteistics and load cuve fo BJT cicuit with active load. Qpoint coesponds to Q As input changes between H and L the Qpoint moves up and down load cuve poducing a change in output voltage. When Q 0 is diven into satuation. When Q is diven into satuation. Lectue: D Jamaludin Bin ma 37
18 B73 lectonics Analysis & Design 3.8) Summay of BJT Cuent Souce Cicuits Simplest: Twotansisto cuent souce Need to impove appoimation of Need to impove stability of by having highe output esistance ( ) 3.8) Summay of BJT Cuent Souce Cicuits (Cont) 3.8.) Load Cuent and utput esistance mpoved cuent souce topologies Basic 3tansisto: bette appo of Cascode: highe by facto of Wilson: highe by facto of / Widla: highe by ( g m ) 3.8) Summay of BJT Cuent Souce Cicuits (Cont) 3.8.) Load Cuent and utput esistance (Cont) 3.8) Summay of BJT Cuent Souce Cicuits (Cont) 3.8.) Compaison of Cuent Souce Cicuits Twotansisto Widla 3.8) Summay of BJT Cuent Souce Cicuits (Cont) 3.8.) Compaison of Cuent Souce Cicuits (Cont) 3.8) Summay of BJT Cuent Souce Cicuits (Cont) 3.8.) Compaison of Cuent Souce Cicuits (Cont) Twotansisto Cascode Twotansisto Theetansisto Lectue: D Jamaludin Bin ma 38
19 B73 lectonics Analysis & Design 3.8) Summay of BJT Cuent Souce Cicuits (Cont) 3.8.) Compaison of Cuent Souce Cicuits (Cont) Theetansisto Wilson Lectue: D Jamaludin Bin ma 39
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