Standard 4B. Ecology. Ecological Interactions

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1 Standard 4B Ecology Ecological Interactions

2 Learning Targets I can identify the different trophic levels in a food web and food chain: autotroph, heterotroph, carnivore, herbivore, omnivore, producer, primary consumer, secondary consumer, tertiary consumer, quaternary consumer, detrivore, decomposer. I can analyze how a food web will be disrupted by an ecological disturbance (natural or manmade. I can identify how energy flows through a food chain, web or ecological pyramid. I can identify how and why organisms are distributed throughout the ecosystem (uniform, random or clumped). I can identify and explain the abiotic and biotic factors that increase and decrease population growth within an ecosystem. (density-dependent, density-independent, births, deaths, immigration and emigration). I can analyze a graph or scenario to determine how different factors will affect the population growth of a species. (Exponential Growth (J-curve), Logistical Growth (S-Curve), PredatorPrey Graphs, Population Growth)

3 Food Webs Identify the trophic level in food web to the left: Phytoplankton: Zooplankton: Algae: Crab: Fish: Seagull: Leopard Seal: Krill Blue Whale: Killer Whale: Penguin: Squid: Elephant Seal: What to Do Study the diagram of feeding relationships. Then answer the questions that follow. bass wolf List all of following organisms that can be found in the: trout snake Producer Trophic Level: crayfish water spider weasel Primary Consumer Trophic Level: minnow paramecium rabbit field mouse algae wheat grass Secondary Consumer Trophic Level: 1. What does the diagram show? 2. Which organisms are the producers? 3. Give an example of an aquatic herbivore. 4. Give an example of a terrestrial herbivore. 5. Which organism is the top carnivore in the terrestrial ecosystem? Terteriary Consumer Trophic Level: 6. Give an example of an organism in the second trophic level. 7. What is another term for vegetarian organisms? 8. In which trophic level is the snake? Top Level Consumer Trophic Level: 2

4 Ecological Pyramids Ecological pyramids are somes times refered to as pyramids of energy. They show a linear trophic relationship from the producer level to a top-level consumer level. You can determine the amount of energy that is transferred and retained by each trophic level based on the rule that out of the 100% of the calories available at each trophic level--90% of the calories are immediately used by the organism or are lost as heat and 10% is incorporated (becomes a part of) of the next trophic level. Amazon Rain Forest Draw a food web with all of the following species: Strangler Fig (Photosynthesis) Leaf Cutter Ant (Palm and Banana Leaves) Banana Tree (Photosynthesis) Rodent (Insects, Bananas, Seeds from Stranger Fig) Palm Tree (Photosynthesis) Insects (Palm and Banana Trees) Lemur (Insects, Bananas) Howler Monkey (Bananas, Fig Leaves, Palm Leaves) Anaconda (Rodents, Lemur, Howler Monkey) Anteater (ants, insects) Ocelet (Rodent, Anteater) Jaguar (Sloth, Lemur, Howler Monkey) Sloth (Leaves from Strangler Fig, Banana Tree, Palm Tree) Food Web:

5 Food Web Analysis: Determine the trophic level and amount of energy for each organism in the Amazon Rain Forest Food Web. Trophic Level Amount of Energy Strangler Fig Leaf Cutter Ant Banana Tree Rodent Palm Tree 750,000 units of energy Insects Lemur Howler Monkey Anaconda Anteater Ocelet Jaguar Sloth Disruption Analysis: Stranger Figs can attach themselves to the banana and palm tree and strangle them to death, assume there is an increase in Strangler Figs in the Amazon: a. Which organism(s) will benefit the most from the increase in Strangler Figs in the food web you built? b. Which organism(s) will be most harmed from the increase in Strangler Figs in the food web you built? If there Jaguars were hunted to almost extinction in the Amazon rain forest: c. What organism or group of organisms would be most harmed by their declining population? d. What organism or group of organisms would benefit the most from their declining population?

6 Population Density and Distribution Population Density Is the total number of individuals that live in a defined area; it can be calculate by using the equation below. Calculate the population density of the following populations: Population Density in Population A: Population B: Population C: Population A: Population B: Population C 5

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