Texas Revolution. Tension between Mexico and Texas

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1 Texas Revolution Tension between Mexico and Texas 1. Mexican Constitution of Federalists (who support a national government who share power with the states) defeated the Centralists (who supported a strong national government with little state power) to create a new Constitution. This allowed Texas to have power to govern its own affairs and the Anglo Texans had a lot of freedom to think and act differently than the Mexican Government wanted. 2. Fredonian Rebellion - Two Anglo brothers (Haden and Benjamin Edwards) got into a dispute over land with the Mexican government near Nacogdoches. The Mexican Government decided to take the land from the Edwards brother, which resulted in the Edwards brothers declaring themselves independent from Mexico in They soon fled however. This caused Mexico to become worried about the fact that the majority of people living in Texas were Anglos and worried about a possible rebellion. 3. Mier y Teran s Report - Fearing a possible rebellion by Texans and worried the US might try to take Texas, Mexico sent Mier y Teran to report on Texas. Teran reported that the Texans only spoke English and had no intention of becoming like Mexico. The further North he went in Texas, the less and less Mexican the state was. He recommended much stricter laws on Texas. 4. Law of April 6, The Centralists regained control of the Mexican Government and passed the Law of April 6, This law outlawed immigration from the US and banned the use of slaves in Texas. It also placed taxes on goods shipped from the US. Texans were very angry about this law and felt it violated the Constitution of 1824 which allowed the states more freedom to govern themselves. Law of April 6, Mexican officials were worried about the majority Anglo population in Texas and that they would lose Texas. - This law was intended to help Mexico keep control over Texas - Mexico was worried about the large population of Anglos in Texas o This ended immigration from the US and wanted more immigration from Europe and Mexico, hoping to build a population loyal to Mexico - To stop immigration, Mexico ended all deals with empresarios - Mexico also banned slavery in Texas, to try and weaken the economy of Texas and making them more dependent on Mexico - Mexico also sent soldiers to patrol key parts of Texas because they did not trust the settlers - Mexico also placed taxes on goods shipped from the US - Mexico passed this law to better control Texas, but ended up setting up a Texas rebellion

2 Mexico and Texas Clash - In the 1830s, Mexico s Centralist government was fearful that Texans were becoming to independent. They enacted new laws and regulations to better control the state. - January 1831 o When a Mexican official comes to give settlers titles to their land, Colonel Bradburn (a Centralist) sees this as a challenge to government control. He remains in charge and angry - November 1831 o Colonel Bradburn arrests William Travis and Patrick Jack at Anahuac. A force of Texans captures Bradburn s troops and tries for a prisoner exchange, but Bradburn refuses. o The Texans fall back to Turtle Bayou while waiting for a cannon, and write the Turtle Bayou Resolutions. This expresses their support for Santa Anna (who is mounting a rebellion against the Centralist government) and their dislike for Bradburn. o At this time, Bradburn s superior officer arrives and ends the conflict peacefully. Trade between the two continues until 1835 without tariffs. - October 1832 o Texans hold the Convention of 1832 which tries to outlaw the Law of April 6, 1830 and to ask Mexico to make Texas its own state. This never reaches the government and Texans begin to wait for Santa Anna to become President. - April 1, 1833 o Santa Anna becomes president of Mexico, and Texans hold another convention. They ask for the same things as in 1832, and also write a state constitution - April 1833 o Stephen F Austin leaves for Mexico City to talk with Santa Anna about the Texans proposals. He agrees to some, but rejects Texas statehood. One his way back, Austin is arrested after officials find a letter supporting Texas statehood. He will not be released until Battles of the Texas Revolution Timeline June 10, 1832 June Disturbances at Anahuac - Texans are arrested by Colonel Bradburn, sparking the Texas Revolution - Battle of Velasco - Texans attempt to move a cannon to Anahuac but are stopped by Mexican forces

3 October 2, Battle of Gonzales - Mexican forces attempt to take a cannon from the people of Gonzales. Come and Take It February 27 March 3, Battle of the Alamo - After a 13 day siege, Mexican forces attack the Alamo and kill all soldiers. Survivors flee to Gonzales March 20, Battle of Coleto Creek - Fannin s men are surrounded when the rest in an open prairie, and marched back to Goliad March 27, 1836 April 21, 1836 May 14, Goliad Massacre - On orders from Santa Anna, Fannin s men are executed outside of Goliad - Battle of San Jacinto - Texans are able to surprise the Mexican forces and capture Santa Anna, ending the Revolution - Treaties of Velasco - Two treaties, one public and one private, are signed but never recognized by Mexico. Battle of Gonzales - Although Texans originally supported Santa Anna as president, he has now become a dictator - General Cos is sent to San Antonio to arrest anyone who opposes Santa Anna - Colonel Ugartechea demands that the people of Gonzales hand over their cannon o Originally given to them for protection from Indians - Francisco Castaneda is sent to retrieve the cannon and avoid conflict with the Texans. When shots are fired by the Texans, Castaneda and his men withdraw to San Antonio - The Gonzales militia becomes known as the Army of the People and Stephen Austin takes command of it - The 400 man army marches to San Antonio to confront General Cos - This showed Texans that they could stand up against a more powerful army and win their independence.

4 The Consultation - Held in November of 1835 in San Felipe de Austin - Settlers draft a Declaration of the People which expresses their support of the Mexican Constitution of 1824 and creates a temporary Texas Government - Sam Houston is also named commander of the new Texas Army First Siege of the Alamo - The Army of the People create a blockade around San Antonio - The Grass Fight o Erasmus Deaf Smith sees soldiers with wagons traveling to General Cos. Thinking they are bringing supplies, the Texans attack. The mules are only carrying hay for the animals and this becomes known as the Grass Fight - General Cos and his men will retreat to the Alamo for safety before surrendering and retreating to Mexico The Battle of the Alamo - Santa Anna was furious when General Cos surrendered the Alamo in December of Texans expected him to attack in the Spring, but he surprised them in February - The Alamo was located on Old San Antonio Road and was the last fort protecting Anglo settlements in East Texas - Texans decided to defend the Alamo to try and stop him from conquering the rest of Texas - Mexican troops surrounded the Alamo and fired it with cannons for 13 days, not allowing any supplies to get in or out - During this time, William Travis wrote his famous letter asking for reinforcements that never came. Juan Seguin was able to sneak out and deliver this letter to Sam Houston - The Mexicans attacked and defeated the 189 soldiers their on March 6, Even though the Texans were defeated, they showed they were willing to die for their independence - Williams Travis Commander at the Alamo

5 - James Bowie - Davey Crockett The War Rages On - February 27, 1836 General Urrea defeats Colonel Frank Johnson at San Patricio - March 11 Sam Houston, the new commander-in-chief, arrives at Gonzales with less than 400 men. After hearing of the fall of the Alamo, Houston retreats. The Runaway Scrape also begins, with settlers fleeing East to escape the Mexican army - March 13 General Urrea enters the town of Goliad, and James Fannin sends some men from Goliad to defend Refugio. Most are captured or killed by the Mexican army - March 13 Hoping to unite troops and create a bigger army, Houston retreats to the Colorado River and sends orders for Fannin to leave Goliad and meet him - March 14 Fannin is at Goliad waiting to hear news on the men he sent to Refugio. Not wanting to leave Goliad until he hears of their fate, Fannin disobeys Houston s orders and stays at Goliad. General Urrea and his men head to Goliad - March 19 Fannin finally begins his retreat from Goliad, but heavy equipment and tired animals make his evacuation slow. Fannin and his men stop to rest in a prairie at Coleto Creek; they are surrounded by Mexican troops but are able to reach a forest for safety. General Urrea attacks - March 20 Fannin senses the imminent defeat and surrenders - March 25 After learning of Fannin s capture, Houston moves his troops west to the Brazos River. Settlers are left unprotected and continue the Runaway Scrape as well - March 27 Fannin and the captured Texans are executed on orders from Santa Anna, known as the decree of December 30, This law, passed by Santa Anna, treats all traitors to Mexico as pirates, and orders them to be shot. The Runaway Scrape - Knowing he did not have enough men or proper training to fight the Mexican army, Sam Houston decides to retreat east to buy himself some more time. - Settlers who were left unprotected take anything that they can carry and retreat also - After hearing of the defeat at the Alamo, Houston and his men head east to the Colorado River. Here they stop to train for 9 days - Texas settlers were angry and scared about this decision, but they to head east to Nacogdoches, Galveston and Louisiana - When Fannin s men are captured and Santa Anna s army close, Sam Houston retreats again to the Brazos River - The Mexican army, raids by Native Americans, disease, cold, and lack of food made this journey for settlers very difficult. Many died as a result Events leading to San Jacinto

6 - After the defeat at the Alamo, Houston heads east because his inexperienced army cannot fight the Mexicans. - He stops at Grace s landing on the Brazos River to train his troops and hope Santa Anna makes a mistake - As Santa Anna is pursuing Houston s troops, he marches to Harrisburg to try and capture President David Burnet. Burnet is able to escape, but Santa Anna burns the city - Houston learns of Santa Anna s location and moves his men to Buffalo Bayou to fight. o After a small skirmish, Deaf Smith burns Vince s bridge, preventing either side from escaping o On April 21, 1836, the Texas army surprises the Mexican troops at San Jacinto and defeats them in 18 minutes. o Disguised as a regular soldier, Texas troops capture Santa Anna. Texans do not realize who he really is until his men call him El Presidente. Texas Declaration of Independence Politics in Texas leading to Independence: - Mexican Constitution of 1824 o Santa Anna eventually overthrew this constitution when he became a dictator - Consultation of 1835 o Held in San Felipe in response to Santa Anna s way of governing Texas War Party wanted a Declaration of Independence Peace Party believed Texans had to right to a Declaration, but did not want to create on The Peace Party won the vote, but this left Texans with no clear direction as to what to do about the Mexican government - Convention of 1836 o Met to take a more significant action against the Mexican government

7 o Had to work quickly because of the fast approaching Mexican Army George Childress wrote the Declaration of Impendence Delegates wrote a new constitution for the Republic of Texas They also formed a temporary government David Burnet named President Lorenzo de Zavala named Vice President Texas and United States - Declarations of Independence o US written by Thomas Jefferson in 1776 o TX written by George Childress in 1836 o Both have a philosophical beginning, then lists grievances and declares independence o Both target who their grievances are against US towards King George III TX towards Santa Anna - Constitution and Bill of Rights o US original version did not contain a Bill of Rights, but those were added as Amendments to the main body (Speech, Press, Religion, etc.) o TX had Bill of Rights in the main document and listed rights very similar to the US - Government Structure o US government is split into 3 branches (executive, legislative, and judicial). Checks and Balances make sure that one branch does not become too powerful o TX has the same three branches as well as a similar checks and balances - Texans realized that the US documents were very effective and used most of the same things. However, the Texans did keep some customs from Mexico, such as community property, protection from creditors and allowed slavery (the US avoided this issue) Treaties of Velasco - With Santa Anna captured at San Jacinto, most people want him executed. Houston and Burnet keep him alive to negotiate peace treaties with him - Article 1 o Permanent peace between the two nations - Article 3 o Removes Mexican troops across the Rio Grande border. This establishes what Texans believe should be the border - Article 9 o Frees all prisoners on both sides - Article 10 o Santa Anna will be allowed to return to Mexico

8 - They also agreed to a private treaty that would take effect once all of the public treaty was finished o In order to gain immediate freedom, Santa Anna promises to recognize Texas as a free and independent nation. Neither happen and the treaties fail Behind the Scenes at Velasco - Santa Anna agreed to this treaty because it would save his life - Because Sam Houston was injured, Burnet would negotiate the treaty - Texans wanted Santa Anna killed, but Burnet knew that if they wanted to be respected as a nation, they would have to keep him alive - Signed two treaties, a public one, and a private one to take effect after the public treaty - Public o Free all prisoners, peace between the nations, troops would leave to the Rio Grande and Santa Anna would go back to Mexico - Private o Rio Grande was agreed to as the border and Santa Anna would recognize Texas - The treaties fell apart because both sides did not keep their end of the deal - With no peace treaty in place, Mexico refused to recognize Texas

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