Where were the first Spanish missions built? (near El Paso and in the eastern portion of Texas, near Louisiana)

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1 Lesson 5-1 I. Spain Looks to Texas (pages ) A. In 1682 Spanish friars founded the mission of Corpus Christi de la Ysleta near present-day El Paso. B. During the 1690s Spain concentrated on building missions, presidios, and towns in eastern Texas, near Louisiana. Where were the first Spanish missions built? (near El Paso and in the eastern portion of Texas, near Louisiana) II. A Tejas Mission (page 121) A. De León led his troops northeast and met a large group of Hasinai people. They called them the Tejas, a word meaning friend. B. In 1690 Father Damian Massanet established the mission San Francisco de las Tejas near the present-day town of Weches. Why did Father Massanet name his mission after the Tejas people? (probably because it was meant to serve the Tejas and because the name meant friend ; it would help to make the idea of a mission more inviting to the natives it would serve) III. A Mission Abandoned (page 122) A. The mission failed because crops failed, disease killed many Native Americans, and the Tejas rejected the Catholic religion. B. The experiment strengthened Spain s claim to Texas. C. From 1693 to 1714, Spanish settlements along the Rio Grande flourished. D. Mission San Juan Bautista was located five miles from the Rio Grande. It eventually grew into a complex of three missions, a presidio, and a town and was called Mother of Texas Missions. In what way did the mission succeed? (It helped strengthen Spain s claim to Texas because Spain could claim that it had established ties in Texas before other countries did.) IV. France Threatens Again (pages ) A. The French established colonies throughout the Mississippi Valley several years after La Salle s venture in the 1680s. B. French traders won Native Americans friendship and made large profits trading. C. The French governor appointed Louis de St. Denis, who had traded successfully with Native Americans in Louisiana, to negotiate with the Spanish officials on the Rio Grande. D. The Spanish became alarmed, thinking that the French were trying to occupy East Texas.

2 E. Although St. Denis insisted that France had no plans to occupy East Texas, the Spanish viceroy ordered new missions to be built in East Texas, and trade between the Spanish and French was stopped. How did the French encourage the Spanish colonization of Texas? (By establishing colonies, winning Native Americans friendship, and profiting from trade, the Spanish became alarmed, giving them an excuse for increasing their presence in the region.) Lesson 5-2 I. Missions Are Established in East Texas (pages ) A. In 1716 a large Spanish force led Spanish families to the site of San Francisco de los Tejas. B. It was the first time the Spanish came to settle in East Texas. Why did the Spanish send a force with settlers? (to assert their right to settle the area) II. San Antonio Is Founded (pages ) A. In 1718 the Spanish built a fort-town, Presidio San Antonio de Béxar, on one side of the San Antonio River. B. Many soldiers brought families to settle permanently. C. Across the river, Father Antonio de San Buenaventura Olivares founded Mission San Antonio de Valero. Who were many of the first settlers of San Antonio? (soldiers assigned to the presidio and their families) III. Aguayo Defends the Missions (page 126) A. In 1719 war broke out between Spain and France. B. French soldiers seized the Spanish mission near Nacogdoches. C. In the spring of 1721, Aguayo led a large group of soldiers and settlers into East Texas and reestablished the abandoned missions. Why did French soldiers seize the Spanish mission near Nacogdoches? (Spain and France were at war.) IV. Aguayo Founds Two Cities (page 126) A. Aguayo built a large presidio named Nuestra Señora del Pilar de los Adaes. B. One hundred soldiers and their families started a village nearby. C. Spanish authorities made Los Adaes the capital of Texas in 1722, and it remained the capital for 50 years. D. Aguayo established a mission and presidio near the ruins of La Salle s fort. E. The mission and presidio later were moved to the San Antonio River, near present-day Goliad.

3 F. The Spanish named the settlement La Bahía. Why did Aguayo establish a mission and presidio near Fort St. Louis? (He did not want to give the French an opportunity to claim the fort in the name of La Salle, the Frenchman who established it in the 1680s.) V. An Uneasy Peace (pages ) A. To reduce expenses, Spanish officials in 1727 abandoned the presidio on the Angelina River and reduced the number of soldiers at Los Adaes. B. The Spanish and French peacefully accepted a small stream between Los Adaes and Natchitoches as a boundary. Why did the Spanish reduce the number of missions in East Texas? (They were becoming too expensive to support, and a peace was reached with France, establishing a boundary.) VI. Plains People Resent Missions (pages ) A. Native American people of the Plains, however, resented missionaries who were seen as intruders on their hunting grounds. B. Apaches regularly raided San Antonio, and Comanches fought the invaders. C. Despite the danger, Catholic missionaries between 1748 and 1751 founded three missions along the San Gabriel River near present-day Rockdale. D. The missionaries suffered many misfortunes, and the Spanish friars abandoned one mission and moved the other two closer to San Antonio. Why did many Native Americans resent missionaries? (Missionaries were seen as intruders in Native American hunting grounds.) VII. San Sabá Mission Fails (page 128) A. In 1757 missionaries founded Mission San Sabá near Menard, and soldiers built a presidio a few miles away. B. The mission failed to Christianize the Plains people. Why did the San Sabá mission fail? (Plains people rejected Christianity.)

4 Lesson 5-3 I. Life in the Missions (pages ) A. Native American people lived close to the missions, and friars worked to teach them the Spanish way of life. B. Friars gave gifts to attract them, and sometimes the Spaniards used force to get Native Americans to settle nearby. C. After prayers and breakfast, Native American children at the missions attended school and received religious instruction. D. Women wove cloth, made pottery, or cooked, while the men worked in the fields or did carpentry or blacksmithing. E. In the evenings after supper, adults received instruction in religion and had prayers. F. Food was plentiful in most missions, which kept large herds of livestock; farms produced rich harvests, especially at San Antonio and Goliad. G. Native Americans learned trades and learned to speak Spanish. H. The missions provided good shelter for them and a kitchen for each family. I. Most Native Americans, however, refused to stay at the missions and to abandon their traditional way of life. What was life like at the missions? (Answers will vary but may include the following: Native Americans received food and shelter, education, and clothing in return for hard work and a willingness to become Christians. Women performed tasks such as weaving, pottery making, and cooking. Children attended school.) II. Soldiers Face Hardships (page 132) A. Spanish soldiers, who had the duty to protect the missions and settlements and control Native Americans, led a hard, dangerous life. B. Most of the soldiers brought their families and farmed for a living, too. C. Often poorly equipped, they lived under hard conditions. D. They traded with and took advantage of Native Americans at the missions. What was life like for soldiers at the missions? (Answers will vary but may include the following: Life was hard and sometimes dangerous because they had to protect the missions from attack and were poorly equipped for such conditions.) III. Important Settlements in Spanish Texas (page 132) A. San Antonio was the largest settlement, and by 1772 it was the capital. B. Other important civilian settlements were Goliad, Los Adaes, and Nacogdoches. C. San Antonio was the only settlement in Texas in which people had a voice in their government. D. To increase the population of San Antonio, Spanish authorities brought

5 families from the Canary Islands to settle. E. Some Canary Islanders became prosperous and prominent. In what important way did life at San Antonio differ from life in other settlements? (People had some say in how they were governed.) IV. Living in Spanish Texas (pages ) A. Some people in Texas made their living by farming, ranching, and shopkeeping; others worked as shoemakers, fishers, barbers, blacksmiths, and tailors. B. Spanish Texas consisted of mestizos and free African Americans who worked as farmers, ranchers, merchants, carpenters, domestics, or miners. C. Most men and women were married, but a high percentage of households were headed by widows. D. Women also were storekeepers, ranchers, and farm managers. E. Doña Rosa María Hinojosa de Ballí, an early rancher, owned about a third of the present-day lower Rio Grande Valley in How did people of Spanish Texas make their living? (They worked as shoemakers, blacksmiths, and tailors. Mestizos and free African Americans worked as farmers, ranchers, merchants, carpenters, domestics, and miners.) V. A Tejano Heritage Takes Shape (page 133) A. The term Tejano describes people of Mexican heritage who consider Texas their home. B. Tejano heritage is reflected in the religion, language, and customs of Texas today. C. Settlers tried to improve community life by hiring schoolteachers. D. Public officials tried to guard public health by forbidding the dumping of trash and the washing of clothes in the drinking water supply. E. Communities sponsored dances, horse races, and holiday fairs in the plazas. How did settlers try to improve life? (They hired schoolteachers and forbade the dumping of trash and the washing of clothes in drinking water.)

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