The MAINE Causes of World War One M A I N E. ilitarism lliances mperialism ationalism mpires

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1 The MAINE Causes of World War One M A I N E ilitarism lliances mperialism ationalism mpires

2 Nationalism Development of a Collective State based on shared ethnic, cultural, and historical identity Second French Republic ( ) Unification of Italy ( ) Unification of Germany ( ) Pan-Slavism versus Pan-Germanism ( ) Balkan Crisis ( )

3 Nationalism & Empires Franco-Austrian War (1859) France & Italy versus Austria-Hungary French efforts to prove it is still a European Military Power Conflict helped to Unify the Italian States against Austria The Crimean War ( ) Russia versus Ottomans, British, French, and Italy Increased European Influences on declining Ottoman Empire First Modern War due to tactical use of Railways, Telegraph, and establishment of the Nursing Corps

4 Nationalism & Empires Austro-Prussian War (1866) Prussia versus Austria-Hungary Orchestrated by Otto Von Bismark to help unite German States Increased German Nationalism in the region Franco-Prussian War ( ) France versus Prussia & Austria-Hungary Orchestrated by Otto Von Bismark I knew that a Franco-Prussian War must take place to Unify Germany Final Unification of Germany (1871)

5 Nationalism & Empires Russo-Turkish War ( ) Russia & the Balkan States versus Ottoman Empire Russian desires to recover lost territories from the Crimean War Increased Balkan Nationalism in Bosnia, Serbia, Romania, Bulgaria, and Montenegro due to decline of the Ottoman Empire Pan-Slavic ties were increased between Russia and the newly Independent Balkan States Tension increased between Russia and Austria-Hungary over control of the Balkan Region

6 Nationalism & Empires Russo-Japanese War ( ) Russia had ambitions for expansion into East Asia Japan desired to be recognized as an imperial global power Russia s Trans-Siberian railway brought them closer to needed resources in China Japanese interests in Korea and Manchuria caused the First Sino-Japanese War ( ) Russian treaty with China and involvement in the Triple Intervention in 1902 caused conflict with Japan Russian defeat lost them international esteem and gained Japan recognition

7 Empires & Imperialism The Political and Economic control of another state s territories by Military or Political means Russian Empire ( ) Russo-Polish War ( ) Crimean War ( ) Russo-Turkish War ( ) Russo-Japanese War ( ) French Empire ( ) Invasion of Algeria in 1830 Intervention in Mexico ( ) Protectorate of Tunisia (1881) Establishment of French Indo- China ( )

8 Empires & Imperialism The Political and Economic control of another state s territories by Military or Political means Berlin Conference ( ) Influenced by Social Darwinism and ideas of European Superiority New Resources needed for Industry France and Great Britain biggest winners; Germany & Italy dissatisfied with results British Empire ( ) British Raj (Imperial control of India, Burma and Singapore) Zulu and Boer Wars gain control of South Africa The sun never sets on the British Empire

9 Alliances Agreements between two or more countries to advance common goals and to secure common interests League of Three Emperors (22 Oct 1873) Dual Alliance (7 Oct 1879) Triple Alliance (20 May 1882) Franco-Russian Alliance (4 Jan 1894) Triple Intervention (23 Apr 1895) Anglo-Japanese Alliance (30 Jan 1902) Entente Cordiale (8 Apr 1904) Anglo-Russian Entente (31 Aug 1907) Triple Entente (1907)

10 Alliances Agreements between two or more countries to advance common goals and to secure common interests DUAL ALLIANCE The Dual Alliance (7 Oct 1879) Designed by Otto Von Bismark Germany & Austria-Hungary joined forces to protect themselves from Russia Germany & Austria-Hungary pledge support to protect each other from possible Russian aggression over the Balkans The Triple Alliance (20 May 1882) Designed by Otto Von Bismark Due to increasing tension between France & Italy over territories in North Africa Due to concerns over aggressive foreign policies of Russia & Great Britain TRIPLE ALLIANCE Germany & Austria-Hungary made pact with Italy to prevent Russia alliance

11 Alliances Agreements between two or more countries to advance common goals and to secure common interests FRANCO-RUSSIAN ALLIANCE France and Russia joined forces to protect themselves from Germany Franco-Russian Alliance (4 Jan 1894) Directly designed to counter Triple Alliance Mutual protection against possible German aggression (East or West) Mutual military aid and joint training The Triple Intervention (23 Apr 1895) Protect Russian Interests in China German attempts to acquire Pacific territories Distract Russia from German efforts in Europe France obligated due to Russian alliance TRIPLE INTERVENTION French, British & Russian efforts to end problems of the Sino-Japanese War

12 Alliances Agreements between two or more countries to advance common goals and to secure common interests ANGLO-JAPANESE ALLIANCE British and Japanese efforts to protect colonial claims in the Pacific Anglo-Japanese Alliance (30 Jan 1902) British opposition to Russian expansion in Asia and the Triple Intervention British support of Japanese Modernization Ease U.S. concerns over Japanese expansion The Entente Cordiale (8 Apr 1904) Great Britain and France ENTENTE CORDIALE Concerns of German Military Expansion Great Britain still trying to maintain their Splendid Isolation, while maintaining a Balance of Power in Europe An agreement between France & Britain to try and maintain balance of power

13 Alliances Agreements between two or more countries to advance common goals and to secure common interests ANGLO-RUSSIAN ENTENTE Attempts to reduce rivalry between Britain & Russia in Central Asian territories Anglo-Russian Entente (31 Aug 1907) Concerns over Germany & Triple Alliance Division of Persia between Russia (North) and Britain (South West) British to retain protectorate status over Afghanistan The Triple Entente (By 1908) Response to growing German Naval threat to British Naval Supremacy Ended British Splendid Isolation policy of neutrality in European affairs Closed the gap between the Franco- Russian & Anglo-Russian Alliances TRIPLE ENTENTE Britain, France and Russia create an alliance to oppose Germany s Triple Alliance

14 FRANCO-RUSSIAN ALLIANCE TRIPLE INTERVENTION ANGLO-JAPANESE ALLIANCE France and Russia joined forces to protect themselves from Germany TRIPLE ALLIANCE French, British & Russian efforts to end problems of the Sino-Japanese War British and Japanese efforts to protect colonial claims in the Pacific ENTENTE CORDIALE Germany & Austria-Hungary made pact with Italy to prevent Russia alliance DUAL ALLIANCE TRIPLE ENTENTE An agreement between France & Britain to try and maintain balance of power ANGLO-RUSSIAN ENTENTE Germany & Austria-Hungary joined forces to protect themselves from Russia Britain, France and Russia create alliance to oppose Germany s Triple Alliance Attempts to reduce rivalry between Britain & Russia in Central Asian territories

15 Alliances Agreements between two or more countries to advance common goals and to secure common interests

16 Militarism Military Forces became independent entities within each government that had little to no civilian control Military Expenditures Increased Rapidly Use of Military Conscriptions France since 1790 s Austria-Hungary 1868 Prussia-Germany 1870 Italy 1873 Russia 1874 Combined Cost Increases for Germany, Italy, UK, France, Russia, and Austria-Hungary (Million s of $$$) France = 10% Increase Britain = 13% Increase Russia = 39% Increase Germany = 73% Increase

17 Militarism The Military Arms Race Machine Guns (1884) U-Boats (1886) Dreadnoughts (1905) Zeppelin (1908) Airplanes (1911) Armored Tank (1911) Poison Gas (1914) Railway Guns (1916)

18 Militarism Development of the Machine Gun Maxim Machine Gun (1884) Chauchat Light MG (1908) Hotchkiss Light MG (1909) Vickers Machine Gun (1912)

19 Militarism Development of the Submarine Nordenfelt Submarine (1886) German U-Boat (1905) British R-Class (1917) German Submarine Forces in WWI 1914 = = = = = 142 Total Built = 351

20 Militarism Development of the Dreadnought Big-Gun Heavy-Armament Battleships Satsuma (Imperial Japan) HMS Dreadnought (Royal Navy) USS Michigan (US Navy) All developed in 1905

21 Militarism Development of Aerial Combat Zeppelin (Developed in 1908) Fokker Airplane (1912) Sopwith Pup (1915) Sopwith Camel (1917)

22 Militarism Development of the Tank British Mark I (Royal Army) German A7V (Daimler-Benz) French FT17 (Renault) All Developed by 1916

23 Militarism Development of Poison Gas Bromide Gas by France (1914) Chlorine Gas by Germany (1915) Phosgene Gas by France (1916) Mustard Gas by Germany (1917) Gas Mask was invented by an African-American Inventor named Garrett A. Morgan in 1912, but was not developed for the war until 1916 in UK

24 Militarism Development of the Railway Gun Early uses of Railway Artillery American Civil War (1862) Franco-Prussian War (1870) Second Boer War (1900) Lack of large numbers of Heavy Artillery Caused countries to re-develop idea in WWI

25 The MAINE Causes of World War One

26 The Immediate Causes of WWI Due to Alliance France pledges Support to Russia FRANCE Great Britain declared War on Germany GREAT BRITAIN Joined the Allied Side in 1917 UNITED STATES 2 Aug Aug Aug Aug 1914 JAPAN 1916 CHINA 1917 Germany declares War on France and Initiates Schlieffin Plan GERMANY Due to Triple Alliance Germany declared War on Russia AUSTRIA- HUNGARY Austrian Arch-Duke Killed By Serb War is Declared By Austria BOSNIA-SERBIA 1 Aug Aug 1914 Entered War in 1916 as Central Power 29 Jul 1914 ITALY Switched Sides in 1916 O E T M T P O I M R A E N Russian Troops Struggle to Defend along Eastern Front RUSSIA Russian Army Mobilizes to Support Serbia

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