1 Sports Medicine 15 Unit I: Anatomy Part 1 Anatomical Overview Bones, Joints, Anatomical positions By Andrew Morgan BPE/Bed, c.2003
2 Anatomy deals with the structure of the human body, and includes a precise language on body positions and relationships between body parts. Proper instruction on safe and efficient exercise technique requires a comprehensive understanding of movement within the human body. The proper analysis and treatment of athletic injuries requires an extensive background in Anatomy, Physiology, and often in the sporting field, Biomechanics.
3 The body is made up of FOUR different types of tissues: 1. Connective tissue - (bone, cartilage, tendons, ligaments, and fascia).
4 2. Muscle Tissue which is divided into three types: skeletal which moves parts of the skeleton, cardiac which causes the pumping action of the heart, smooth- which lines arterial walls and other organs of the body
5 3. Nervous Tissue divided into neurons, which conduct impulses involving the brain, the spinal cord, spinal nerves and cranial nerves; and neuroglia involved in the cellular processes that support the neurons.
6 4. Epithelial tissue involved in various bodily systems
7 Proper vocabulary is extremely important when discussing anatomy. Common terms make communication with others (physicians, coaches, therapists, athletic therapists) much easier. Knowledge of these structures and common terms used to describe movement also allows us to deliver proper explanation of therapeutic techniques in treatment and rehab of injuries.
8 SUPERIOR: a structure that is higher than another. The knee joint is superior to the ankle joint.
9 INFERIOR: a structure that lies below another. The ankle joint is inferior to the knee joint
10 Anterior: The front of the body or structure. The abdominals are anterior to the muscles in the back. Posterior: The back of the body or structure. The muscles of the back are posterior to the muscles in the stomach.
11 MEDIAL: A structure closer to the midline of the body or movement towards the midline. The chest is medial to the shoulders. Lateral: a structure further away from the midline of the body or movement away from the midline. The shoulders are lateral to the chest.
12 PROXIMAL: The end of a structure of the extremities located closest to the trunk. The elbow is proximal to the hand. DISTAL: The end of a structure of the extremities located farthest away from the trunk. The hand is distal to the elbow
13 DORSAL: top of the foot PLANTAR: The bottom of the foot
14 The Skeletal System The skeletal system, or skeleton is a framework of bones designed for Five important functions: Protect organs and soft tissues To give support to soft tissues To facilitate the production of red blood cells To act as a reservoir for minerals including phosphorus and calcium To provide attachments for skeletal muscle, producing a lever system for body movement.
15 The Skeletal System
16 The Skeletal System The human skeleton can be divided into two areas: The Axial Skeleton which includes the head, neck, thorax and vertebral column
17 The skeletal System The second part of the Skeletal System is the Appendicular skeleton, which includes the pelvis and bones of the upper and lower extremities.
18 - Bones The body contains 206 bones, which are all classified by their shape. Long bones, short bones, flat bones and irregular bones
19 - Bones Time now to look at the major bones of the skeletal system, as we will be using the appropriate terminology throughout the remainder of the unit. Starting with bones in the lower limbs.
20 Pelvis: Male less circular Narrower Female less depth Wider and shallower Larger opening Why?
21 LEG: Femur largest bone in the body Strongest bone of the lower limbs Posterior view (right) Anterior view (left)
22 PATELLA: knee cap Helps make up the knee joint Round bone
23 Tibia and Fibula: Tibia shin bone, on the right Third bone to make up the knee joint Fibula lateral to the tibia Along with tibia they help make up the ankle joint
24 TARSALS: Small bones in the foot, Also help make up the ankle joint
25 Metatarsals and Phalanges: Metatarsals are the bones between the tarsals and the phalanges (5 in total) Phalanges toes Two phalanges on the big toe, and three phalanges on bones two through five. (14 in total)
26 VERTEBRAL COLUMN: The vertebral column id divided into five areas: The cervical spine or neck (7 vertebrae) Thoracic spine (12 vertebrae) Lumbar, or lower back (5 vertebrae) The sacrum has 5 bones that are fused into a single unit Coccyx, or tailbone has 4 bones In total there are 33 segments to the spine in 5 sections
27 The major bones of the upper extremities: SCAPULA shoulder blade wing like bone in the back of the shoulder Helps make up the shoulder joint
28 CLAVICLE: This is your collarbone This is in constant movement (with your breathing rate) Second bone that helps make the shoulder joint
29 : HUMERUS: Long, upper arm bone Helps make shoulder and elbow joint Anterior view on left Posterior view on right
30 RADIUS-ULNA: These are your forearm bones. Radius is lateral to the ulna in the body s anatomical position These bones make up elbow joint proximally and wrist joint distally
31 Carpals and Metacarpals: Carpals make up wrist joint with the radius and the ulna There 8 carpal bones There are five metacarpal bones
34 Terms of movement When describing human movement there is an anatomical starting point the anatomical position. In this position all joints are considered to be in a neutral position, or 0 degrees, with no movement having occurred
35 Abduction: think! To abduct means to take away. Anatomy Terms of movement Abduction: Movement away from the midline of the body Adduction: Movement towards the midline of the body
36 Terms of movement Flexion: Decrease the angle formed by bones of the joint Extension: Increasing of the joint angle. Returning a joint in flexion to the anatomical positions is considered extension
37 Terms of movement Dorsiflexion: Raising the toe to the shin Plantarflexion: Pointing the toe downward.
38 Terms of movement Rotation: Medial towards the midline (internal) Lateral away from the midline (external)
39 Terms of movement Supination: Rotation of the palm so it faces upward Pronation: Rotation of the palm so it faces downward
40 Terms of movement Inversion: sole of the foot turns inwards Eversion: sole of the foot turns outwards
42 Group project In groups of four, write down what movements occur with each of the following actions: Start with anatomical position Specify each joint 1. Walking 2. Kicking a soccer ball 3. Crossover skating 4. Setting a volleyball
43 Group project
44 Joints (Articulations) As mentioned before there are 206 bones in the human body (80 in the Axial Skeleton, and 126 in the Appendicular Skeleton). These bones are joined together by ligaments. The number and strength of these ligaments around the body joints vary. Ankle and hip strong Knee and shoulder fewer and smaller ligaments: must rely on strength of surrounding muscles to stabilize joint.
45 Three types of joints are present in the human body: 1. Fibrous Joints: Very stable joint, with no observable movement Bones are fused (I.e cranium sutures of the skull
46 2. Cartilaginous Joints: Example: Intervertebral discs Slight movement occurs, absorbs shock Fibro-cartilage, or dense connective tissue, occupies the space between the bones, and provides for wear and tear, shock absorption. With age, fibro-cartilage loses its resilience, causing the joint to be more susceptible to movement and injury
47 3. Synovial Joints: Allows considerable movement elbow and knee.. Movement occurs as a result of muscular contraction Hyaline cartilage smooth, elastic substance covering the ends of the bones, decrease friction and absorbs shock A joint cavity provides space for movement of the bones and contains synovial fluid to lubricate cartilage. Synovial membrane surrounds the joint capsule
48 The SIX most common and important types of SYNOVIAL Joints are: a. Hinge Joint Movement in one plane of motion. Knee and elbow joints
49 b. Ellipsoid Joint: Movement in two planes of motion, or about two axes. Wrist Joint
50 c. Ball and Socket Joint Movement in three planes of motion or about three axes. One bone has a concave surface that accommodates the spherical aspect of the other bone. Hip and shoulder joints
51 d. Gliding joints Motion is sliding rather than rotation about an axis. Sliding movement is not extensive Bones of the foot.
52 e. Saddle joint: Movement in two planes of motion. One bone is positioned in an articular surface of the other bone. Thumb joint
53 f. Pivot Joint: Allows rotation in one plane (uniaxial). A rounded point of one bone fits onto a groove of another. Atlantoaxial Articular Joint
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