1 Sports Medicine 15 Unit I: Anatomy Part 1 Anatomical Overview Bones, Joints, Anatomical positions By Andrew Morgan BPE/Bed, c.2003
2 Anatomy deals with the structure of the human body, and includes a precise language on body positions and relationships between body parts. Proper instruction on safe and efficient exercise technique requires a comprehensive understanding of movement within the human body. The proper analysis and treatment of athletic injuries requires an extensive background in Anatomy, Physiology, and often in the sporting field, Biomechanics.
3 The body is made up of FOUR different types of tissues: 1. Connective tissue - (bone, cartilage, tendons, ligaments, and fascia).
4 2. Muscle Tissue which is divided into three types: skeletal which moves parts of the skeleton, cardiac which causes the pumping action of the heart, smooth- which lines arterial walls and other organs of the body
5 3. Nervous Tissue divided into neurons, which conduct impulses involving the brain, the spinal cord, spinal nerves and cranial nerves; and neuroglia involved in the cellular processes that support the neurons.
6 4. Epithelial tissue involved in various bodily systems
7 Proper vocabulary is extremely important when discussing anatomy. Common terms make communication with others (physicians, coaches, therapists, athletic therapists) much easier. Knowledge of these structures and common terms used to describe movement also allows us to deliver proper explanation of therapeutic techniques in treatment and rehab of injuries.
8 SUPERIOR: a structure that is higher than another. The knee joint is superior to the ankle joint.
9 INFERIOR: a structure that lies below another. The ankle joint is inferior to the knee joint
10 Anterior: The front of the body or structure. The abdominals are anterior to the muscles in the back. Posterior: The back of the body or structure. The muscles of the back are posterior to the muscles in the stomach.
11 MEDIAL: A structure closer to the midline of the body or movement towards the midline. The chest is medial to the shoulders. Lateral: a structure further away from the midline of the body or movement away from the midline. The shoulders are lateral to the chest.
12 PROXIMAL: The end of a structure of the extremities located closest to the trunk. The elbow is proximal to the hand. DISTAL: The end of a structure of the extremities located farthest away from the trunk. The hand is distal to the elbow
13 DORSAL: top of the foot PLANTAR: The bottom of the foot
14 The Skeletal System The skeletal system, or skeleton is a framework of bones designed for Five important functions: Protect organs and soft tissues To give support to soft tissues To facilitate the production of red blood cells To act as a reservoir for minerals including phosphorus and calcium To provide attachments for skeletal muscle, producing a lever system for body movement.
15 The Skeletal System
16 The Skeletal System The human skeleton can be divided into two areas: The Axial Skeleton which includes the head, neck, thorax and vertebral column
17 The skeletal System The second part of the Skeletal System is the Appendicular skeleton, which includes the pelvis and bones of the upper and lower extremities.
18 - Bones The body contains 206 bones, which are all classified by their shape. Long bones, short bones, flat bones and irregular bones
19 - Bones Time now to look at the major bones of the skeletal system, as we will be using the appropriate terminology throughout the remainder of the unit. Starting with bones in the lower limbs.
20 Pelvis: Male less circular Narrower Female less depth Wider and shallower Larger opening Why?
21 LEG: Femur largest bone in the body Strongest bone of the lower limbs Posterior view (right) Anterior view (left)
22 PATELLA: knee cap Helps make up the knee joint Round bone
23 Tibia and Fibula: Tibia shin bone, on the right Third bone to make up the knee joint Fibula lateral to the tibia Along with tibia they help make up the ankle joint
24 TARSALS: Small bones in the foot, Also help make up the ankle joint
25 Metatarsals and Phalanges: Metatarsals are the bones between the tarsals and the phalanges (5 in total) Phalanges toes Two phalanges on the big toe, and three phalanges on bones two through five. (14 in total)
26 VERTEBRAL COLUMN: The vertebral column id divided into five areas: The cervical spine or neck (7 vertebrae) Thoracic spine (12 vertebrae) Lumbar, or lower back (5 vertebrae) The sacrum has 5 bones that are fused into a single unit Coccyx, or tailbone has 4 bones In total there are 33 segments to the spine in 5 sections
27 The major bones of the upper extremities: SCAPULA shoulder blade wing like bone in the back of the shoulder Helps make up the shoulder joint
28 CLAVICLE: This is your collarbone This is in constant movement (with your breathing rate) Second bone that helps make the shoulder joint
29 : HUMERUS: Long, upper arm bone Helps make shoulder and elbow joint Anterior view on left Posterior view on right
30 RADIUS-ULNA: These are your forearm bones. Radius is lateral to the ulna in the body s anatomical position These bones make up elbow joint proximally and wrist joint distally
31 Carpals and Metacarpals: Carpals make up wrist joint with the radius and the ulna There 8 carpal bones There are five metacarpal bones
34 Terms of movement When describing human movement there is an anatomical starting point the anatomical position. In this position all joints are considered to be in a neutral position, or 0 degrees, with no movement having occurred
35 Abduction: think! To abduct means to take away. Anatomy Terms of movement Abduction: Movement away from the midline of the body Adduction: Movement towards the midline of the body
36 Terms of movement Flexion: Decrease the angle formed by bones of the joint Extension: Increasing of the joint angle. Returning a joint in flexion to the anatomical positions is considered extension
37 Terms of movement Dorsiflexion: Raising the toe to the shin Plantarflexion: Pointing the toe downward.
38 Terms of movement Rotation: Medial towards the midline (internal) Lateral away from the midline (external)
39 Terms of movement Supination: Rotation of the palm so it faces upward Pronation: Rotation of the palm so it faces downward
40 Terms of movement Inversion: sole of the foot turns inwards Eversion: sole of the foot turns outwards
42 Group project In groups of four, write down what movements occur with each of the following actions: Start with anatomical position Specify each joint 1. Walking 2. Kicking a soccer ball 3. Crossover skating 4. Setting a volleyball
43 Group project
44 Joints (Articulations) As mentioned before there are 206 bones in the human body (80 in the Axial Skeleton, and 126 in the Appendicular Skeleton). These bones are joined together by ligaments. The number and strength of these ligaments around the body joints vary. Ankle and hip strong Knee and shoulder fewer and smaller ligaments: must rely on strength of surrounding muscles to stabilize joint.
45 Three types of joints are present in the human body: 1. Fibrous Joints: Very stable joint, with no observable movement Bones are fused (I.e cranium sutures of the skull
46 2. Cartilaginous Joints: Example: Intervertebral discs Slight movement occurs, absorbs shock Fibro-cartilage, or dense connective tissue, occupies the space between the bones, and provides for wear and tear, shock absorption. With age, fibro-cartilage loses its resilience, causing the joint to be more susceptible to movement and injury
47 3. Synovial Joints: Allows considerable movement elbow and knee.. Movement occurs as a result of muscular contraction Hyaline cartilage smooth, elastic substance covering the ends of the bones, decrease friction and absorbs shock A joint cavity provides space for movement of the bones and contains synovial fluid to lubricate cartilage. Synovial membrane surrounds the joint capsule
48 The SIX most common and important types of SYNOVIAL Joints are: a. Hinge Joint Movement in one plane of motion. Knee and elbow joints
49 b. Ellipsoid Joint: Movement in two planes of motion, or about two axes. Wrist Joint
50 c. Ball and Socket Joint Movement in three planes of motion or about three axes. One bone has a concave surface that accommodates the spherical aspect of the other bone. Hip and shoulder joints
51 d. Gliding joints Motion is sliding rather than rotation about an axis. Sliding movement is not extensive Bones of the foot.
52 e. Saddle joint: Movement in two planes of motion. One bone is positioned in an articular surface of the other bone. Thumb joint
53 f. Pivot Joint: Allows rotation in one plane (uniaxial). A rounded point of one bone fits onto a groove of another. Atlantoaxial Articular Joint
G.C.S.E. PHYSICAL EDUCATION Unit 1 Factors Affecting Participation and Performance SKELETON AND JOINTS Name: G.C.S.E. P.E. Teacher:. By the end of this booklet you should be able to: Understand what the
THE SKELETAL SYSTEM The skeleton is the body s bony framework which consists of 206 bones. The bones are made up of water(45%), calcium and phosphorous(35%) and other organic materials(20%). The calcium
THE APPENDICULAR SKELETON BIO 137 ANATOMY AND PHYSIOLOGY I MARY CATHERINE FLATH, Ph.D. Dr. Mary Cat Flath, Copyright 2015 AXIAL SKELETON SKULL (all flat bones) Cranium = 8 bones Facial Skeleton with Mandible
Definition: A joint or articulation is a place in the body where two bones come together. CLASSES OF JOINTS. 1. Joints are classified according to how the bones are held together. 2. The three types of
Based on the material that binds the bones together Based on the degreee of movement they permit Diarthroses: Synovial Joints Freely movable Each joint contains a fluid filled joint cavity called the synovial
Model of the Human Skeleton Have students read about the skeletal system below and take the two short answer quizzes. They can study the labeled skeleton and then try to label a whole skeleton themselves.
Articulations Articulations - where two bones interconnect. Immovable joints Synarthroses, or fibrous Example: Sutures of skull Slightly moveable joints Amphiarthroses, or cartilaginous Example: Symphysis
UNIT - HUMAN PHYSIOLOGY Chapter 18 LOCOMOTION AND MOVEMENT Movement is an important feature of living organism. Both the microbes and macrobes show wide range of movements. The movements results in change
Name: Period: Unit 4: Skeletal System Test Review Test Review 1. List four functions of the skeletal system: a. b. c. d. 2. Define ossification and identify the roles of the osteoblasts, osteocytes, and
OBJECTIVES: 1. Define the term articulation. 2. Distinguish between the functional and structural classification of joints, and relate the terms that are essentially synonymous. 3. Compare and contrast
STRUCTURE AND FUNCTION: JOINTS Joints A connection between 2 or more bones A pivot point for bony motion The features of the joint help determine The ROM freedom Functional potential of the joint Axial
Vocabulary Words Week 1 1. arteries Any of the blood vessels that carry blood away from the heart to all parts of the body 2. heart The muscular organ inside the chest that pumps blood through the body
Osteokinematics (how the bones move) & Arthrokinematics (how the joints move) Planes & Axes Planes of Action = Three fixed lines of reference along which the body is divided. Each plane is at right angles
Unit 2 The skeletal system In this unit Bones of the human skeleton: medical and common names Plural nouns of Latin origin Describing bones Adjectives describing anatomical position Bone structure Osteoporosis
Skeletal System Review 1. List four functions of the skeletal system: a. b. c. d. 2. Define ossification and identify the roles of the osteoblasts, osteocytes, and osteoclasts in the growth of bones. 3.
Basic Biomechanics the body as a living machine for locomotion What is Kinesiology? Kinesis: To move -ology: to study: The study of movement What the heck does that mean? Why do we need Kinesiology? As
Skeletal System Overview and General Anatomy 1 Bone Functions Support Protection Movement Storage Fat, calcium, phosphorus Hemopoiesis While we usually think of the skeleton as just our support framework,
STRUCTURE AND FUNCTION: JOINTS The Skeletal System Made up of the numerous bones of the human body Gives support and framework to the body Protects vital organs Manufactures blood cells Storage of calcium
Chapter 9 1 JOINTS Chapter 9 Anatomy and Physiology Lecture Chapter 9 2 JOINTS (Bones are too rigid to bend without causing damage.) (Bones are held together at joints by flexible connective tissue.) (Imagine
Skeletal System Chapter 11 11.1 Overview of the skeletal system What are the functions of the skeletal system? 1. Supports the body 2. Protects the soft body parts 3. Produces blood cells 4. Stores minerals
Human Anatomy Study Guide The Skeletal System: Chapter 6 Name Unit Objectives At the end of this unit, you should be able to 1) List the functions of the skeletal system. 2) Describe the anatomy of a long
Chapter 2 Skeletal System Objectives Describe the functions of the skeleton Differentiate axial and appendicular skeleton Recognize and describe the composition of bone Identify and explain the structure
THE SKELETAL & ARTICULAR SYSTEMS The Bones & Joints Is made up of numerous bones and is the rigid framework of the human body It gives support and shape to the body It protects vital organs such as the
Vertebral Column and Upper Appendicular Skeleton The axial skeleton consists of 80 bones in the head and trunk of the human body. In this lab you will look at the vertebral column, just one part of that
BONES AND JOINTS The adult human skeleton usually consists of 206 bones which are connected by various joints. Muscles produce force which causes movement at these joints. These bones can be grouped in
Radiology Reference Guide Your skeleton gives your body structure and support. It is made of living bone cells, living tissues, blood vessels, mineral deposits and water. Your skeleton also protects delicate
i A Wealth of Information. A World of Ideas. Instructor s Guide The Human Body: How It Works Introduction This program is part of the nine-part series The Human Body: How It Works. The series uses physiologic
Shoulder Girdle Clarification of Terms Shoulder girdle = scapula and clavicle Shoulder joint (glenohumeral joint) = scapula and humerus What is the purpose (or function) of the shoulder and entire upper
Essentials of Human Anatomy & Physiology Elaine N. Marieb Seventh Edition Chapter 5 The Skeletal System The Skeletal System Parts of the skeletal system Bones (skeleton) Joints Cartilages Ligaments (bone
2016 Suite Cambridge TECHNICALS LEVEL 3 SPORT AND PHYSICAL ACTIVITY Unit 1 Body systems and the effects of physical activity K/507/4452 Guided learning hours: 90 Version 2 - Revised content - March 2016
Language of Anatomy Anatomical Position Body erect, feet slightly apart, palms facing forward, thumbs point away from body Right, left, front, back, top, bottom are the subject s (cadaver s) P.O.V. NOT
NURS1004 Week 6 Part I Prepared by Didy Button Skeletal system An Introduction to the Skeletal System The Skeletal System Includes: Bones of the skeleton Cartilages, ligaments, and connective tissues 6-1
anatomy and physiology The skeletal and muscular systems CHAPTER 1: Anatomy and physiology LEARNING OBJECTIVES By the end of this chapter, you should be able to: Describe an overview of the skeletal system
2011 Comprehensive Anatomy and Physiology for ICD-10-CM Coding Your guide to the anatomical and physiological specificity of ICD-10-CM coding NEW! See sample pages of this new product. ICD-10 A full suite
P R E S E N T S Dr. Mufa T. Ghadiali is skilled in all aspects of General Surgery. His General Surgery Services include: General Surgery Advanced Laparoscopic Surgery Surgical Oncology Gastrointestinal
Epicranius Anatomy and Physiology 121: Muscles of the Human Body Covers upper cranium Raises eyebrows, surprise, headaches Parts Frontalis Occipitalis Epicranial aponeurosis Orbicularis oculi Ring (sphincter)
CONTINUING EDUCATION COURSES for Massage Therapists Online! ccmh Halifax Canadian College of Massage & Hydrotherapy Online Continuing Education Program CCMH Halifax offers a variety of Continuing Education
Muscle Movements, Types, and Names A. Gross Skeletal Muscle Activity 1. With a few exceptions, all muscles cross at least one joint 2. Typically, the bulk of the muscle lies proximal to the joint it crossed
THE SKELETAL SYSTEM - THE AXIAL SKELETON Chapter 7 Anatomy and Physiology Lecture 1 THE SKELETAL SYSTEM THE AXIAL SKELETON Skeletal System forms the framework of the body. TYPES OF BONES: FOUR PRINCIPAL
PowerPoint Lecture Slides prepared by Barbara Heard, Atlantic Cape Community College Ninth Edition Human Anatomy & Physiology C H A P T E R 7 The Skeleton: Part B Annie Leibovitz/Contact Press Images Vertebral
Skeletal system This system is made up of hard tissues like bone and cartilages. This system gives form and shape to animal body The skeleton of a living animal is made up living structures of bones. The
ANAT2111 Introductory Anatomy Lecture 4 Articular System Structural Classes of Joints Based on the type of substance between articulating bones: Fibrous joints - least mobile Cartilaginous joints Synovial
P R E S E N T S Dr. Mufa T. Ghadiali is skilled in all aspects of General Surgery. His General Surgery Services include: General Surgery Advanced Laparoscopic Surgery Surgical Oncology Gastrointestinal
Biology 2401 A&P I - Notes exam 2 - Skeletal System Ch. 7 Functions of skeletal system : support of body protection of soft organs production of blood cells movement (as levers) storage of minerals and
Class Outline: Anterior Anatomy 5 minutes Breath of Arrival and Attendance 5 minutes Howdy Partner 35 minutes Anterior Anatomy using Power Point Presentation 5 minutes Overview of skeletal segments 5 minutes
C5 Elbow Flexors Biceps Brachii, Brachialis Patient Position: The shoulder is in neutral rotation, neutral flexion/extension, and adducted. The elbow is fully extended, with the forearm in full supination.
Practical 1 Worksheet- KEY ANATOMICAL TERMS 1. Use the word bank to fill in the missing words. All anatomical terms have a(n) reference point which is called the This is a(n) forward facing position where
Objectives Axial Skeleton 2 Vertebral Column and Thorax 1. Identify the subdivisions of the skeleton as axial or appendicular 2. Explain how the spine supports the body. 3. Explain the changes on vertebrae
Lectures of Human Anatomy Vertebral Column-I By DR. ABDEL-MONEM AWAD HEGAZY M.B. with honor 1983, Dipl."Gynecology and Obstetrics "1989, Master "Anatomy and Embryology" 1994, M.D. "Anatomy and Embryology"
Clarification of Terms The plantar aspect of the foot refers to the sole or its bottom The dorsal aspect refers to the top or its superior portion The ankle and foot perform three main functions: 1. shock
Exercise Theory s 2014 National Fitness Leadership Alliance Alberta Fitness Leadership Certification Association (AFLCA) British Columbia Recreation and Parks Association (BCRPA) Saskatchewan Parks and
I. axial vs appendicular axial skeleton forms long axis of body: skull, vertebral column, rib cage appendicular - bones of upper and lower limbs including girdles that attach limbs to axial skeleton II.
MUSCULAR AND SKELETAL SYSTEMS CFE 3272V CLOSED CAPTIONED NATIONAL GEOGRAPHIC SOCIETY 1994 Grade Levels: 5-10 20 minutes DESCRIPTION A strong, healthy body moves freely and rapidly in its daily activities,
EMG Practicum 1: Electrode location and placement Objectives Learning to - Find the correct muscles - Find the correct electrode location on the muscle - Prepare the skin - Place the electrodes correctly
Anatomy of the Arm 1 Your Ideas How can you find out or see inside the arm? What imaging techniques can we use? 2 Imaging Techniques X-ray http://health.howstuffworks.com/x-ray.htm http://web.kanazawa-u.ac.jp/~med23/nmc/prepcase9912.html
1. Which of the following BEST describes the anatomical position? a. Supine with arms crossed over the chest and knees slightly bent b. Standing, facing forward, with arms raised above the head c. Standing,
UNIT 1 BODY PLAN AND ORGANIZATION LECTURE 1.03 CONTRAST THE SCIENCES OF ANATOMY AND PHYSIOLOGY A. Anatomy Anatomy is the scientific study of structures and the relationship of.. structures to each other.
Skeletal System Axial Skeleton: Vertebral Column and Ribs Functions Regions Cervical Thoracic Lumbar Sacral Primary & secondary curvatures There are three major functions of the vertebral column. First,
Laboratory 1 Anatomical Planes and Regions Goals: Define the anatomical position, including the application of the terms right and left. List and correctly use the major directional terms used in anatomy.
Anatomy of Skeletal System two main subdivisions of skeletal system: axial : skull, vertebral column, rib cage appendicular: arms and legs and girdles Bone Markings: Foramen: opening in bone passageway
COURSE TITLE Kin 505 Activities, Injuries Disease in the Larger Society On-Line offering Instructor Dr. John Miller John.Miller@unh.edu Course Description. Sports and exercise are a part of American society
BONE BINGO Background: The human skeleton is a framework of bones that is held together by ligaments and joints. Our skeleton has four major functions: Support The main job of the skeleton is to provide
Range of Motion A guide for you after spinal cord injury Spinal Cord Injury Rehabilitation Program This booklet has been written by the health care providers who provide care to people who have a spinal
Practical 1 Worksheet ANATOMICAL TERMS 1. Use the word bank to fill in the missing words. reference side stand body arms palms anatomical forward All anatomical terms have a(n) point which is called the
A Patient s Guide to Lumbar Spine Anatomy 228 West Main St., Suite D Missoula, MT 59802-4345 Phone: 406-721-3072 Fax: 406-721-2619 firstname.lastname@example.org DISCLAIMER: The information in this booklet is compiled
A Patient s Guide to Diffuse Idiopathic Skeletal Hyperostosis (DISH) Introduction Diffuse Idiopathic Skeletal Hyperostosis (DISH) is a phenomenon that more commonly affects older males. It is associated
Welcome to Anatomy & Physiology Chapter 1 -Human Organization What do you need to do to pass this class? MEMORIZE! The Scope of Human Anatomy Human anatomy is the study of the structure of the human body.
GENERAL ANATOMY TERMINOLOGIES: ANATOMICAL POSITIONS, ANATOMICAL PLANES, TERMS OF POSITION. LEARNING OBJECTIVES: At the end of the lecture, students should be able to: Define various anatomical positions
Movements of the Lower Limb - Page 1 of 12 Movements of the Lower Limb - Introduction This module presents the nomenclature of movement at the joints of the lower limb. When you first approach your study
Anatomy and Physiology Warm up questions Fall 2013 QUESTION POSSIBLE ANSWERS : Chapter 1 Introduction and Regions Chapter 2 Chemistry I can name systems of the I can identify regions of the I can describe
SKELETAL SYSTEM GRADE 3-6 BACKGROUND The Skeletal System is made up of the bones of the body and the joints between the bones, as well as certain connective tissue (cartilage and ligaments.) This lesson
Vertebral anatomy study guide. Human Structure Summer 2015 Prepared by Daniel Schmitt, Angel Zeininger, and Karyne Rabey. 1. Plan of Action: In this guide you will learn to identify these structures: Cervical
Lab 5 Overview of the Skeleton: Classification and Structure of Bones and Cartilages Exercise 9 The Axial Skeleton Exercise 10 Overview of the Skeleton Locate the important cartilages in the human skeleton
The knee is a hinge synovial joint between the femur (thigh bone) and the tibia (shin bone). The joint is protected in front by the patella (knee cap). Knee joint is a complex compound synovial joint (3
Animal Systems: The Musculoskeletal System Tissues, Organs, and Systems of Living Things Cells, Cell Division, and Animal Systems and Plant Systems Cell Specialization Human Systems The Digestive The Circulatory
1 Upper Limb QUESTIONS 1.1 Which of the following statements best describes the scapula? a. It usually overlies the 2nd to 9th ribs. b. The spine continues laterally as the coracoid process. c. The suprascapular
Tendons - connect Muscle to Bone Middle California Region USPC Upper Level Horse Management Education Tendons, Ligaments, Joints & the Skeletal System By Claudia Deffenbaugh Tendons are fibrous cords of
LESSON ASSIGNMENT LESSON 4 The Human Skeletal System. TEXT ASSIGNMENT Paragraphs 4-1 through 4-14. LESSON OBJECTIVES After completing this lesson, you should be able to: 4-1. Define skeleton. 4-2. Name
Lower Extremities Lower extremities are adjusted to provide locomotion but, at the same time, carry the full body weight. The lower limb movement is transferred through the hip joint and pelvis onto the
Physiotherapy Department Rehabilitation after shoulder dislocation Information for patients This information leaflet gives you advice on rehabilitation after your shoulder dislocation. It is not a substitute