# Point Lattices in Computer Graphics and Visualization how signal processing may help computer graphics

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1 Point Lattices in Computer Graphics and Visualization how signal processing may help computer graphics Dimitri Van De Ville Ecole Polytechnique Fédérale de Lausanne Biomedical Imaging Group IEEE Visualization Tutorial (Image Processing 2D)

2 Overview B-splines: the right tool for interpolation fundamental properties spline fitting interpolation; smoothing; least-squares quantitative approximation quality A primer to the wavelet transform multi-resolution, semi-orthogonal wavelets 2-D extension: hex-splines on any regular periodic lattice hexagonal versus Cartesian lattice 2

3 Notations one-sided Fourier transform Z-transform 3

4 Polynomial splines is a polynomial spline of degree n with knots iff Piecewise polynomial (of degree n) within each interval Higher-order continuity at the knots of Effective degrees of freedom is 1 Cardinal splines : Unit spacing: number of knots 4

5 Polynomial B-splines B-spline of degree n Symmetric B-spline Key properties compact support piecewise polynomial positivity smoothness (continuity) [Schoenberg, 1946] 5

6 B-spline representation The link between continuous and discrete analog signal in the continuous domain B-spline coefficients in the discrete domain 6

7 Fundamental B-spline properties Partition of unity reproduction of the constant and of polynomials up to degree n Riesz basis stability: small perturbation of coefficients results into small change of spline signal unambiguity: each representation is unique m-scale relation (for m integer) 7

8 B-spline Fourier expression Fourier transform of basic element: 8

9 B-spline differential property poor man s derivative (finite difference) exact derivative Link between discrete and exact derivatives discrete filtering spline degree reduction 9

10 Generalized fractional B-splines Definition in the Fourier domain [Unser & Blu 2000, Blu & Unser 2003] 10

11 Spline fitting How to find the spline coefficients? 11

12 Spline fitting: (1) spline interpolation Spline interpolation (exact, reversible) discrete input filtering such that Smoothing spline Least square splines (approximation between spline spaces) 12

13 Spline interpolation Discrete B-spline kernels Satisfying interpolation condition: inverse filter! Efficient recursive implementation: cascade of causal and anti-causal filters e.g., cubic spline interpolation anti-causal causal 13

14 Spline interpolation Generic C-code main recursion void ConvertToInterpolationCoefficients ( double c[ ], long DataLength, double z[ ], long NbPoles, double Tolerance) { double Lambda = 1.0; long n, k; if (DataLength == 1L) return; for (k = 0L; k < NbPoles; k++) Lambda = Lambda * (1.0 - z[k]) * ( / z[k]); for (n = 0L; n < DataLength; n++) c[n] *= Lambda; for (k = 0L; k < NbPoles; k++) { c[0] = InitialCausalCoefficient(c, DataLength, z[k], Tolerance); for (n = 1L; n < DataLength; n++) c[n] += z[k] * c[n - 1L]; c[datalength - 1L] = (z[k] / (z[k]*z[k] - 1.0)) * (z[k]*c[datalength - 2L] + c[datalength - 1L]); for (n = DataLength - 2L; 0 <= n; n--) c[n] = z[k] * (c[n + 1L]- c[n]); } } initialization double InitialCausalCoefficient ( double c[ ], long DataLength, double z, double Tolerance) { double Sum, zn, z2n, iz; long n, Horizon; Horizon = (long)ceil(log(tolerance) / log(fabs(z))); if (DataLength < Horizon) Horizon = DataLength; zn = z; Sum = c[0]; for (n = 1L; n < Horizon; n++) {Sum += zn * c[n]; zn *= z;} return(sum); } 14

15 Spline interpolation Interpolating or fundamental B-spline 15

16 Spline interpolation The fundamental spline converges to sinc as the degree goes to infinity Shannon s theory appears as a particular case 16

17 Spline fitting: (2) smoothing spline Spline interpolation Smoothing spline discrete and noisy input filtering subject to regularization Least square splines (approximation between spline spaces) 17

18 Smoothing spline The solution (among all functions) of the smoothing spline problem is a cardinal spline of degree 2m-1. Its coefficients can be obtained by suitable digital filtering of the input samples: Related to: MMSE (Wiener filtering); splines form optimal space!!! Special case: the draftman s spline Minimum curvature interpolant is obtained for = cubic spline! [Unser & Blu 2005; Ramani et al. 2005] 18

19 Spline fitting: (3) least-square spline Spline interpolation Smoothing spline Least-square spline (approximation between spline spaces) spline model resampling & filtering error such that 19

20 Least-square spline Minimize quadratic error between splines with 1. determine ; e.g., by spline interpolation 2. resample using with 3. obtain samples of new spline representation prefilter resampling postfilter [Unser et al. 1995] 20

21 Least-square spline Special case: surface projection first-order B-splines on source and target grid weight of sample = overlap between B-splines support

22 Quantitative approximation quality Best approximation in a space? analog input filtering & sampling analysis function at scale a Orthogonal projection Results for: Fixed scale Asymptotically with error kernel [Blu & Unser 1999] 22

23 Quantitative approximation quality fixed support W=4 [Thévenaz et al. 2000] 23

24 B-spline interpolation in 2D 2D separable model Geometric transformations 2D filtering 2D resampling Applications zooming, rotation, resizing, warping 24

25 High-quality image interpolation performance cost [Thévenaz et al. 2000] 25

26 Interpolation benchmark Cumulative interpolation experiment: the best algorithm wins bilinear windowed sinc cubic spline 26

27 High-quality isosurface rendering 3D B-spline representation of volume data Isosurface analytical knowledge of normal vectors [Thévenaz et al. 2000] 27

28 Multi-resolution approximation m-scale relation Pyramid or tree algorithms ( ) fast evaluation of binomial filter n=1 for high n ~ Gaussian filter 28

29 Wavelets Admissible scaling function ( father wavelet ) Riesz basis conditions partition of unity two-scale relation B-splines are perfect candidates Then there exists a wavelet such that forms a Riesz basis of L 2 [Mallat-Meyer 1989] 29

30 Haar wavelet transform revisited Signal representation basis function: Multi-scale signal representation multi-scale basis function: 30

31 Haar wavelet transform revisited Wavelet: 31

32 Semi-orthogonal wavelets Scaling and wavelet spaces Semi-orthogonality conditions

33 Wavelets Wavelets act as differentiators orthogonal cubic B-spline wavelet Effect on transient features: 1) locality 2) sparsity (vanishing moments) 33

34 Wavelets and differentiation Fundamental property: multiscale differentiator Responsible for vanishing moments decorrelation Very successful for coding applications JPEG

35 Hexagonal lattices r 2 Voronoi cell = best tessellation: Six equivalent neighbours Twelve-fold symmetry High isotropy r 1 Bee-splines? lattice matrix: 35

36 Hex-splines Basis functions for hexagonal grids First order 36

37 Hex-splines Basis functions for hexagonal grids Second order 37

38 Hex-splines Basis functions for hexagonal grids Third order 38

39 Hex-splines Basis functions for hexagonal grids Fourth order 39

40 Hex-splines B-spline-like construction algorithm: generating functions (~ differentiation operator in 3 directions) localization operators (~ discrete versions of the operators) B-spline-like properties: convolution property (by construction) positivity, partition of unity, compact support convergence to Gaussian Hex-splines exist for all periodic lattices coincide with separable B-splines for cartesian lattice Fitting: interpolation, smoothing, least-squares But no two-scale relation 40

41 Hex-splines versus B-splines Keep sampling density equal: det(r)=ω Hex-splines on hexagonal grid B-splines on orthogonal grid r 2 r 2 r 1 r 1 41

42 Hex-splines versus B-splines Extra samples so approximation quality B-splines equals that one of hex-splines (asymptotical result) 43

43 Hex-splines versus B-splines Classical result: isotropic band-limited signals are better approximated on hexagonal lattices [Mersereau, 1979] Here, result for non-bandlimited signals first order (nearest neighbor) on hexagonal lattices does not pay at least second order (linear-like) hex-splines should be used; second-order still have easy analytical characterization 44

44 Conclusions B-splines are a great tool for interpolation and approximation: link continuous and discrete! short support; analytical expression; tunable degree fundamentally linked to differential operators Shift-invariant spaces due to uniform sampling brings along fast algorithms (filtering, FFT-based, ) powerful theoretical results (error kernel) Multi-resolution m-scale relation for pyramids and wavelets Multi-dimensional extensions and variations tensor-product, hex-splines, box-splines (see later) 45

45 And finally Many thanks go to Michael Unser Thierry Blu Philippe Thévenaz Papers, demonstrations, source code: The Wavelet Digest: ( subscribers) Annette Unser 46

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