1 Lecture PowerPoints Chapter 23 Physics: Principles with Applications, 7 th edition Giancoli This work is protected by United States copyright laws and is provided solely for the use of instructors in teaching their courses and assessing student learning. Dissemination or sale of any part of this work (including on the World Wide Web) will destroy the integrity of the work and is not permitted. The work and materials from it should never be made available to students except by instructors using the accompanying text in their classes. All recipients of this work are expected to abide by these restrictions and to honor the intended pedagogical purposes and the needs of other instructors who rely on these materials.
3 Contents of Chapter 23 The Ray Model of Light Reflection; Image Formed by a Plane Mirror Formation of Images by Spherical Mirrors Index of Refraction Refraction: Snell s Law
4 Contents of Chapter 23 Total Internal Reflection; Fiber Optics Thin Lenses; Ray Tracing The Thin Lens Equation Combinations of Lenses Lensmaker s Equation
5 We see light in two ways: The object may be a source of light When the object reflects light What is light? How it s created?..geometric Opics
6 23-1 The Ray Model of Light Light very often travels in straight lines. We represent light using rays, which are straight lines emanating from an object. This is an idealization, but is very useful for geometric optics.
7 Reflection Laws of Reflection
8 23-2 Reflection; Image Formation by a Plane Mirror Law of reflection: the angle of reflection (that the ray makes with the normal to a surface) equals the angle of incidence.
10 23-2 Reflection; Image Formation by a Plane Mirror When light reflects from a rough surface, the law of reflection still holds, but the angle of incidence varies. This is called diffuse reflection.
11 23-2 Reflection; Image Formation by a Plane Mirror With diffuse reflection, your eye sees reflected light at all angles. With specular reflection (from a mirror), your eye must be in the correct position.
12 23-2 Reflection; Image Formation by a Plane Mirror What you see when you look into a plane (flat) mirror is an image, which appears to be behind the mirror.
13 23-2 Reflection; Image Formation by a Plane Mirror This is called a virtual image, as the light does not go through it. The distance of the image from the mirror is equal to the distance of the object from the mirror.
14 How many unique images are there?
15 23-3 Formation of Images by Spherical Mirrors Spherical mirrors are shaped like sections of a sphere, and may be reflective on either the inside (concave) or outside (convex)
16 23-3 Formation of Images by Spherical Mirrors Rays coming from a faraway object are effectively parallel.
17 23-3 Formation of Images by Spherical Mirrors Parallel rays striking a spherical mirror do not all converge at exactly the same place if the curvature of the mirror is large; this is called spherical aberration.
18 23-3 Formation of Images by Spherical Mirrors If the curvature is small, the focus is much more precise; the focal point is where the rays converge.
19 23-3 Formation of Images by Spherical Mirrors Using geometry, we find that the focal length is half the radius of curvature: (23-1) Spherical aberration can be avoided by using a parabolic reflector; these are more difficult and expensive to make, and so are used only when necessary, such as in research telescopes.
20 23-3 Formation of Images by Spherical Mirrors We use ray diagrams to determine where an image will be. For mirrors, we use three key rays, all of which begin on the object: 1. A ray parallel to the axis; after reflection it passes through the focal point 2. A ray through the focal point; after reflection it is parallel to the axis 3. A ray perpendicular to the mirror; it reflects back on itself
22 23-3 Formation of Images by Spherical Mirrors
23 23-3 Formation of Images by Spherical Mirrors The intersection of these three rays gives the position of the image of that point on the object. To get a full image, we can do the same with other points (two points suffice for many purposes).
24 23-3 Formation of Images by Spherical Mirrors Geometrically, we can derive an equation that relates the object distance, image distance, and focal length of the mirror: (23-2)
25 23-3 Formation of Images by Spherical Mirrors We can also find the magnification (ratio of image height to object height). (23-3) The negative sign indicates that the image is inverted. This object is between the center of curvature and the focal point, and its image is larger, inverted, and real.
26 23-3 Formation of Images by Spherical Mirrors If an object is inside the focal point, its image will be upright, larger, and virtual.
27 23-3 Formation of Images by Spherical Mirrors If an object is outside the center of curvature of a concave mirror, its image will be inverted, smaller, and real.
28 23-3 Formation of Images by Spherical Mirrors For a convex mirror, the image is always virtual, upright, and smaller.
29 23-3 Formation of Images by Spherical Mirrors Problem Solving: Spherical Mirrors 1. Draw a ray diagram; the image is where the rays intersect. 2. Apply the mirror and magnification equations. 3. Sign conventions: if the object, image, or focal point is on the reflective side of the mirror, its distance is positive, and negative otherwise. Magnification is positive if image is upright, negative otherwise. 4. Check that your solution agrees with the ray diagram.
30 Spherical mirror (convex), r = 16m. Determine the location of the image and magnification for an object that is 10m from the mirror. f = -r/2
31 23-4 Index of Refraction In general, light slows somewhat when traveling through a medium. The index of refraction of the medium is the ratio of the speed of light in vacuum to the speed of light in the medium: (23-4)
32 23-5 Refraction: Snell s Law Light changes direction when crossing a boundary from one medium to another. This is called refraction, and the angle the outgoing ray makes with the normal is called the angle of refraction.
33 23-5 Refraction: Snell s Law Refraction is what makes objects half-submerged in water look odd.
34 23-5 Refraction: Snell s Law The angle of refraction depends on the indices of refraction, and is given by Snell s law: (23-5)
35 23-6 Total Internal Reflection; Fiber Optics If light passes into a medium with a smaller index of refraction, the angle of refraction is larger. There is an angle of incidence for which the angle of refraction will be 90 ; this is called the critical angle: (23-6)
36 23-6 Total Internal Reflection; Fiber Optics If the angle of incidence is larger than this, no transmission occurs. This is called total internal reflection.
37 23-6 Total Internal Reflection; Fiber Optics Binoculars often use total internal reflection; this gives true 100% reflection, which even the best mirror cannot do.
38 23-6 Total Internal Reflection; Fiber Optics Total internal reflection is also the principle behind fiber optics. Light will be transmitted along the fiber even if it is not straight. An image can be formed using multiple small fibers.
39 23-7 Thin Lenses; Ray Tracing Parallel rays are brought to a focus by a converging lens (one that is thicker in the center than it is at the edge).
40 23-7 Thin Lenses; Ray Tracing A diverging lens (thicker at the edge than in the center) make parallel light diverge; the focal point is that point where the diverging rays would converge if projected back.
41 23-7 Thin Lenses; Ray Tracing The power of a lens is the inverse of its focal length. (23-7) Lens power is measured in diopters, D. 1 D = 1 m 1
42 23-7 Thin Lenses; Ray Tracing Ray tracing for thin lenses is similar to that for mirrors. We have three key rays: 1. This ray comes in parallel to the axis and exits through the focal point. 2. This ray comes in through the focal point and exits parallel to the axis. 3. This ray goes through the center of the lens and is undeflected.
43 23-7 Thin Lenses; Ray Tracing
44 23-7 Thin Lenses; Ray Tracing For a diverging lens, we can use the same three rays; the image is upright and virtual.
45 23-8 The Thin Lens Equation The thin lens equation is the same as the mirror equation: (23-8)
46 23-8 The Thin Lens Equation The sign conventions are slightly different: 1. The focal length is positive for converging lenses and negative for diverging. 2. The object distance is positive when the object is on the same side as the light entering the lens (not an issue except in compound systems); otherwise it is negative. 3. The image distance is positive if the image is on the opposite side from the light entering the lens; otherwise it is negative. 4. The height of the image is positive if the image is upright and negative otherwise.
47 23-8 The Thin Lens Equation The magnification formula is also the same as that for a mirror: (23-9) The power of a lens is positive if it is converging and negative if it is diverging.
48 23-8 The Thin Lens Equation Problem Solving: Thin Lenses 1. Draw a ray diagram. The image is located where the key rays intersect. 2. Solve for unknowns. 3. Follow the sign conventions. 4. Check that your answers are consistent with the ray diagram.
49 25-2 The Human Eye; Corrective Lenses The human eye resembles a camera in its basic functioning, with an adjustable lens, the iris, and the retina.
50 25-2 The Human Eye; Corrective Lenses Nearsightedness can be corrected with a diverging lens.
51 25-2 The Human Eye; Corrective Lenses And farsightedness with a converging lens.
52 Summary of Chapter 23 Light paths are called rays Index of refraction: Angle of reflection equals angle of incidence Plane mirror: image is virtual, upright, and the same size as the object Spherical mirror can be concave or convex Focal length of the mirror:
53 Summary of Chapter 23 Mirror equation: Magnification: Real image: light passes through it Virtual image: light does not pass through
54 Summary of Chapter 23 Law of refraction (Snell s law): Total internal reflection occurs when angle of incidence is greater than critical angle: A converging lens focuses incoming parallel rays to a point
55 Summary of Chapter 23 A diverging lens spreads incoming rays so that they appear to come from a point Power of a lens: Thin lens equation: Magnification:
Convex Mirrors Center of curvature and focal point both located behind mirror The image for a convex mirror is always virtual and upright compared to the object A convex mirror will reflect a set of parallel
Objective Geometric Optics Converging Lenses and Mirrors Physics Lab IV In this set of lab exercises, the basic properties geometric optics concerning converging lenses and mirrors will be explored. The
EXPERIMENT 6 OPTICS: FOCAL LENGTH OF A LENS The following website should be accessed before coming to class. Text reference: pp189-196 Optics Bench a) For convenience of discussion we assume that the light
Drawing Ray Diagrams Fig. 1a Fig. 1b In this activity we explore how light refracts as it passes through a thin lens. Eyeglasses have been in use since the 13 th century. In 1610 Galileo used two lenses
PROPERTIES OF THIN LENSES Object: To measure the focal length of lenses, to verify the thin lens equation and to observe the more common aberrations associated with lenses. Apparatus: PASCO Basic Optical
PHYS1000 Optics 1 Optics Light and its interaction with lenses and mirrors. We assume that we can ignore the wave properties of light. waves rays We represent the light as rays, and ignore diffraction.
Lenses Notes_10_ SNC2DE_09-10 Types of Lenses (The word lens is derived from the Latin word lenticula, which means lentil. A lens is in the shape of a lentil. ) Most lenses are made of transparent glass
Chapter 23 The Reflection of Light: Mirrors Wave Fronts and Rays Defining wave fronts and rays. Consider a sound wave since it is easier to visualize. Shown is a hemispherical view of a sound wave emitted
Page 1 LIGHT Light is a form of energy, which induces the sensation of vision in our eyes and makes us able to see various things present in our surrounding. UNITS OF LIGHT Any object which has an ability
AP Physics B Ch. 23 and Ch. 24 Geometric Optics and Wave Nature of Light Name: Period: Date: MULTIPLE CHOICE. Choose the one alternative that best completes the statement or answers the question. 1) Reflection,
1 of 9 2/9/2010 3:38 PM Chapter 23 Homework Due: 8:00am on Monday, February 8, 2010 Note: To understand how points are awarded, read your instructor's Grading Policy. [Return to Standard Assignment View]
1. For a plane mirror, compared to the object distance, the image distance is always A) less B) greater C) the same 2. Which graph best represents the relationship between image distance (di) and object
Light GCSE Physics Reflection Law of Reflection The angle of incidence (i) is equal to the angle of reflection (r) Note: Both angles are measured with respect to the normal. This is a construction line
1 of 13 2/17/2016 5:28 PM Signed in as Weida Wu, Instructor Help Sign Out Rutgers Analytical Physics 750:228, Spring 2016 ( RUPHY228S16 ) My Courses Course Settings University Physics with Modern Physics,
Chapter 36 - Lenses A PowerPoint Presentation by Paul E. Tippens, Professor of Physics Southern Polytechnic State University 2007 Objectives: After completing this module, you should be able to: Determine
Chapter 23 The Refraction of Light: Lenses and Optical Instruments Lenses Converging and diverging lenses. Lenses refract light in such a way that an image of the light source is formed. With a converging
Chapter 17: Light and Image Formation 1. When light enters a medium with a higher index of refraction it is A. absorbed. B. bent away from the normal. C. bent towards from the normal. D. continues in the
QUESTION BANK IN SCIENCE CLASS-X (TERM-II) 10 LIGHT REFLECTION AND REFRACTION CONCEPTS To revise the laws of reflection at plane surface and the characteristics of image formed as well as the uses of reflection
9/6 Optics / GEOMETRIC OPTICS PURPOSE: To review the basics of geometric optics and to observe the function of some simple and compound optical devices. APPARATUS: Optical bench, lenses, mirror, target
Option C 15 Imaging ESSENTIAL IDEAS The progress of a wave can be modelled using the ray or the wavefront. The change in wave speed when moving between media changes the shape of the wave. Optical microscopes
Chapter 27 Optical Instruments 27.1 The Human Eye and the Camera 27.2 Lenses in Combination and Corrective Optics 27.3 The Magnifying Glass Figure 27 1 Basic elements of the human eye! Light enters the
7 RAY OPTICS II 7.1 INTRODUCTION This chapter presents a discussion of more complicated issues in ray optics that builds on and extends the ideas presented in the last chapter (which you must read first!)
Revision problem Chapter 18 problem 37 page 612 Suppose you point a pinhole camera at a 15m tall tree that is 75m away. 1 Optical Instruments Thin lens equation Refractive power Cameras The human eye Combining
1. A long, straight wire carries a current I. If the magnetic field at a distance d from the wire has magnitude B, what would be the the magnitude of the magnetic field at a distance d/3 from the wire,
Light and its effects Light and the speed of light Shadows Shadow films Pinhole camera (1) Pinhole camera (2) Reflection of light Image in a plane mirror An image in a plane mirror is: (i) the same size
Winter 996 HOMEWORK 4 with Solutions. ind the image of the object for the single concave mirror system shown in ig. (see next pages for worksheets) by: (a) measuring the radius R and calculating the focal
CHAPTER-10 LIGHT REFLECTION AND REFRACTION Light rays; are; electromagnetic in nature, and do not need material medium for Propagation Speed of light in vacuum in 3*10 8 m/s When a light ray falls on a
Solution Derivations for Capa #4 ) An image of the moon is focused onto a screen using a converging lens of focal length (f = 34.8 cm). The diameter of the moon is 3.48 0 6 m, and its mean distance from
Question 1: Define the principal focus of a concave mirror. ANS: Light rays that are parallel to the principal axis of a concave mirror converge at a specific point on its principal axis after reflecting
Experiment 3 Lenses and Images Who shall teach thee, unless it be thine own eyes? Euripides (480?-406? BC) OBJECTIVES To examine the nature and location of images formed by es. THEORY Lenses are frequently
Lab 9 Name: Optics 9.1 Introduction Unlike other scientists, astronomers are far away from the objects they want to examine. Therefore astronomers learn everything about an object by studying the light
OpenStax-CNX module: m32832 1 Geometrical Optics - Grade 11 Rory Adams Free High School Science Texts Project Mark Horner Heather Williams This work is produced by OpenStax-CNX and licensed under the Creative
Light ASSIGNMENT 1. Fill in the blank spaces, by choosing the correct words from the list given below : List : large, high, moon, umbra, light, camera, transparent, straight, pass, curvature, convex, shaving,
University of Nebraska - Lincoln DigitalCommons@University of Nebraska - Lincoln Robert Katz Publications Research Papers in Physics and Astronomy 1-1-1958 Physics, Chapter 38: Mirrors and Lenses Henry
Image Formation Principle Michael Biddle Robert Dawson Department of Physics and Astronomy The University of Georgia, Athens, Georgia 30602 (Dated: December 8, 2015) The aim of this project was to demonstrate
Physics 6C Cameras and the Human Eye CAMERAS A typical camera uses a converging lens to focus a real (inverted) image onto photographic film (or in a digital camera the image is on a CCD chip). (Picture
Essential Question How Do Lenses and Mirrors Affect Light? What reflective surfaces do you see in your classroom? What are the different properties of these surfaces that make some reflections better than
1 OPTICAL IMAGES DUE TO LENSES AND MIRRORS * Carl E. Mungan U.S. Naval Academy, Annapolis, MD ABSTRACT The properties of real and virtual images formed by lenses and mirrors are reviewed. Key ideas are
Optics and Geometry with Applications to Photography Tom Davis email@example.com http://www.geometer.org/mathcircles November 15, 2004 1 Useful approximations This paper can be classified as applied
Experiment 8 Thin Lenses 8.1 Objectives Measure the focal length of a converging lens. Measure the focal length of a diverging lens. Investigate the relationship between power and focal length. 8.2 Introduction
Page 1 SNC 2D Grade 10 Science, Academic Unit: Light and Geometric Optics The Big Ideas: Light has characteristics and properties that can be manipulated with mirrors and lenses for a range of uses. Society
A. Using single lenses to form images Lenses and Telescopes The simplest variety of telescope uses a single lens. The image is formed at the focus of the telescope, which is simply the focal plane of the
Eighth Grade Electromagnetic Radiation and Light Assessment 1a. Light waves are the only waves that can travel through. a. space b. solids 1b. Electromagnetic waves, such as light, are the only kind of
Chapter 22: Mirrors and Lenses How do you see sunspots? When you look in a mirror, where is the face you see? What is a burning glass? Make sure you know how to:. Apply the properties of similar triangles;
11 Light Energy Can you read a book in the dark? If you try to do so, then you will realize, how much we are dependent on light. Light is very important part of our daily life. We require light for a number
LIGHT SECTION 6-REFRACTION-BENDING LIGHT From Hands on Science by Linda Poore, 2003. STANDARDS: Students know an object is seen when light traveling from an object enters our eye. Students will differentiate
1 CHAPTER 4 OPTICAL ABERRATIONS 4.1 Introduction We have hitherto made the assumption that a lens or a curved mirror is able to form a point image of a point object. This may be approximately true if the
05-232 Imaging Systems Laboratory II Laboratory 4: Basic Lens Design in OSLO April 2 & 4, 2002 Abstract: For designing the optics of an imaging system, one of the main types of tools used today is optical
Science 8 Laws; of Refraction 1. tight that moyes at an angle from a less dense medium to a more dense medium bends towards the normal. (The second medium slows the light down) Note: The angle of refraction,
Ray Optics Minicourse COMSOL Tokyo Conference 2014 What is the Ray Optics Module? Add-on to COMSOL Multiphysics Can be combined with any other COMSOL Multiphysics Module Includes one physics interface,
Chapter 8 Endoscope Optics Endoscopes are used to observe otherwise inaccessible areas within the human body either noninvasively or minimally invasively. Endoscopes have unparalleled ability to visualize
Objectives: PS-7.1 Physical Science Study Guide Unit 7 Wave properties and behaviors, electromagnetic spectrum, Doppler Effect Illustrate ways that the energy of waves is transferred by interaction with
The light Light (normally spreads out straight...... and into all directions. Refraction of light But when a light ray passes from air into glas or water (or another transparent medium), it gets refracted
context 7.2 Unit 7.2 ocusing devices: Lenses and curved mirrors Light rays often need to be controlled and ed to produce s in optical instruments such as microscopes, cameras and binoculars, and to change
Physics 202 Problems - Week 8 Worked Problems Chapter 25: 7, 23, 36, 62, 72 Problem 25.7) A light beam traveling in the negative z direction has a magnetic field B = (2.32 10 9 T )ˆx + ( 4.02 10 9 T )ŷ
12.1 What is Refraction pg. 515 Light travels in straight lines through air. What happens to light when it travels from one material into another? Bending Light The light traveling from an object in water
Telescope Types and Designs There are three basic types of optical telescopes Refractor, Newtonian reflector and Catadioptric. All of these telescopes are designed to collect light and bring it to a focus
Vision Correction in Camera Viewfinders Douglas A. Kerr Issue 2 March 23, 2015 ABSTRACT AND INTRODUCTION Many camera viewfinders are equipped with a lever or knob that controls adjustable vision correction,
UNIVERSITY OF SASKATCHEWAN Department of Physics and Engineering Physics Physics 111.6 MIDTERM TEST #4 March 15, 2007 Time: 90 minutes NAME: (Last) Please Print (Given) STUDENT NO.: LECTURE SECTION (please
Name Section Date Laboratory PRELABO %ad carehlly the entire description of e laboratory and answer the folllowiaag questions based on the material contained in the reading assignment. Turn in the completed
KH_BD1_SEG5_U4C12L3_407-415.indd 407 Essential Question How Do Lenses and Mirrors Affect Light? What reflective surfaces do you see in your classroom? What are the different properties of these surfaces
Exploring Spherical Geometry Introduction The study of plane Euclidean geometry usually begins with segments and lines. In this investigation, you will explore analogous objects on the surface of a sphere,
Physical Science 20 - Final Exam Practice SHORT ANSWER IS ALL CURVED MIRRORS AND LENSES Mirrors and Lenses 1. Complete the following ray diagrams for curved mirrors. Write the 4 characteristics of each
How to make a Galileian Telescope I. THE BASICS THE PRINCIPLES OF OPTICS A Galileian telescope uses just two lenses. The objective lens is convergent (plano-convex), the ocular lens is divergent (plano-concave).
AS102 - Day Laboratory Exercise #3: Optics and Telescopes Page 1 DAY LABORATORY EXERCISE #3: OPTICS AND TELESCOPES Goals: To explore the functions of simple lenses To construct and use a refracting telescope
Lab 2L Mirrors and Lenses Euiment Not all of the euiment shown above will be used during the activities outlined in this rocedure. Image Formation in a Plane Mirror Place the light source, slit late (mounted
LENS SELECTION GUIDE 494 Optics Light Right-Hand Rule Light is a transverse electromagnetic wave. The electric E and magnetic M fields are perpendicular to each other and to the propagation vector k, as
MAS450/854 Understanding astigmatism Spring 2003 March 9th 2003 Introduction Spherical lens with no astigmatism Crossed cylindrical lenses with astigmatism Horizontal focus Vertical focus Plane of sharpest
PURPOSE In this experiment we will use the diffraction grating and the spectrometer to measure wavelengths in the mercury spectrum. THEORY A diffraction grating is essentially a series of parallel equidistant
Chapter 21 Lecture What path did the light follow to reach the wall? Reflection and Refraction Represent the path from the laser to the wall with an arrow. Why can t you see the beam of light itself but
Physics 116 Session 22 Review: ray optics Nov 4, 2011 R. J. Wilkes Email: firstname.lastname@example.org ! Exam 2 is Monday!! All multiple choice, similar to HW problems, same format as Exam 1!!! Announcements
19 - RAY OPTICS Page 1 1 ) A ish looking up through the water sees the outside world contained in a circular horizon. I the reractive index o water is 4 / 3 and the ish is 1 cm below the surace, the radius
Refraction of Light at a Plane Surface Object: To study the refraction of light from water into air, at a plane surface. Apparatus: Refraction tank, 6.3 V power supply. Theory: The travel of light waves
Optical Differences Between Telescopes and Microscopes Robert R. Pavlis, Girard, Kansas USA icroscopes and telescopes are optical instruments that are designed to permit observation of objects and details
F UNDAMENTALS OF PHOTONICS Module 1.3 Basic Geometrical Optics Leno S. Pedrotti CORD Waco, Texas Optics is the cornerstone of photonics systems and applications. In this module, you will learn about one