# 12.1 What is Refraction pg Light travels in straight lines through air. What happens to light when it travels from one material into another?

Save this PDF as:

Size: px
Start display at page:

Download "12.1 What is Refraction pg. 515. Light travels in straight lines through air. What happens to light when it travels from one material into another?"

## Transcription

1 12.1 What is Refraction pg. 515 Light travels in straight lines through air. What happens to light when it travels from one material into another? Bending Light The light traveling from an object in water to your eyes appears to travel in a straight line. Yet if you try to reach the coin in the water you miss it. The light traveling from the water travels from one medium into another, this will cause the light to either slow down or speed up, causing to bend. When light slows down or speeds up, it is called refraction of light. Refraction is the bending or changing in direction of light when it travels from one medium into another. Figure 1 the refraction of light going from air into water What Causes Refraction When light strikes a translucent or transparent material, it bends, or refracts. The refraction of light is due to its speed changing as it passes from one material into another.

2 Figure 3: A wagon changes direction when traveling at an angle from the pavement onto sand because on front wheel slows down while the other wheels continue moving at a higher speed. Depending on the material, light either speeds up or slows down. Light cannot travel any faster than 3.0 x10 8 m/s, which is the speed of light in a vacuum. How fast is the Speed of Light? The speed of light in water is different from the speed of light in air. Speed of light in Air is 3.0 x10 8 m/s Speed of light in Water is 2.26 x10 8 m/s Speed of light in Acrylic is 1.76 x10 8 m/s The Rules for Refraction The speed of light changes depending on the medium through which the light is traveling. The Angle of Refraction is the angle between the refracted ray and the normal. There are three predictable results when light refracts:

3 1. The incident ray, the refracted ray, and the normal all lie in the same plane. 2. Light bends toward the normal if it travels more slowly in the second medium than in the first. 3. Light bends away from the normal if it travels faster in the second medium than in the first. The Bent Spoon The light traveling from the spoon to your eye must travel through water (2.26 x10 8 m/s) to air (3.0 x10 8 m/s). The speed of light leaving the spoon increase when it enters air at the boundary between the water and air. The angle of incidence is measured from the normal to the incident ray and the angle of refraction is measured from the normal and the refracted ray. As the light enters air it speeds up and bends away from the normal. The brain perceives the light is traveling a straight line and does not account for refraction. Partial Reflection and Refraction Refraction is often accompanied by reflection. Some of the light that strikes water is reflected, while some light is refracted. Windows exhibit the same property. The property creates a mirrored surface.

4 Check Your Learning, questions 1 7, page 519

5 12.4: The Index of Refraction pg. 524 French Physicist Jean Foucault made the first measurement of the speed of light in a medium (other than a vacuum or air) in The speed of light in air is 3.00 x 10 8 m/s and the speed of light in water is 2.26 x 10 8 m/s. The speed of light is different in different mediums. The change in speed of light at the boundary of the mediums causes Refraction. Refraction: the bending of light or change in direction of light when it travels from one medium into another. These changes are distinct optical properties. Index of Refraction: for a medium is the ratio of the speed of light in a vacuum to the speed of light in that medium. Index of Refraction: the ratio of the speed of light in a vacuum to the speed of light in a medium, n = c/v; this value is also equal to the ratio of the sine of the angle of incidence ray in a vacuum to the sine of the angle of refraction ray in a medium, n = n = Index of Refraction equation: n = c c = speed of Light in a Vacuum v v = speed of light in a Medium or equation: n = sin i sin R i = angle of Incidence R = angle of Refraction

6 Problem #1: (GRASP) Given: Speed of Light in Air: 3.00 x 10 8 m/s Speed of Light in Sodium Chloride (NaCl) 1.96 x 10 8 m/s Required: Determine the Index of Refraction (n) Analysis: Formula Solution: n = c v n = c v Sub: n = 3.00 x 10 8 m/s 1.96 x 10 8 m/s n = 1.53 Paraphrase: The Index of Refraction is 1.53 for Sodium chloride (NaCl)

7 Problem #2: Given: Speed of light 3.00 x 10 8 m/s Index of Refraction is 1.48 for Olive Oil Required:Determine the Speed of Light through the Olive Oil. Analysis: Formula n = c v Solution: n = c v Sub: n = c v 1.48 = 3.00 x 10 8 m/s v v x 1.48 = 3.00 x 10 8 x v m/s v v x 1.48 = 3.00 x m/s v = 3.00 x 10 8 m/s 1.48 v = 2.03 x 10 8 m/s Paraphrase: the speed of light through the Olive Oil is 2.03 x 10 8 m/s Check Your Learning: questions 1 10, pg. 525

8 12.5: Total Internal Reflection pg. 526 As light enters a medium, some is reflected and is refracted. Light moves further from the normal when it speeds up. The Angle of incidence is less than the Angle of refraction. Light moves closer to the normal when it slows down. The Angle of incidence is greater than the Angle of refraction. Eventually the angle of refraction will become Therefore the angle of incidence has reached a point called the Critical Angle. Critical Angle: is the angle of incidence that results in an angle of refraction of If the Critical Angle is passed, the refracted ray will no longer exit the medium, but will reflect back into the medium from which it came, the refracted ray disappears. This event is called Total Internal Reflection. Total Internal Reflection: the situation when the angle of incidence is greater than the critical angle.

9 Total Internal Reflection occurs only if 2 conditions are met; 1. Light is traveling more slowly in the first medium than in the second. 2. The angle of incidence is large enough that no refraction occurs in the second medium. The ray is reflected back into the medium. Water has a critical angle of If the angle of incidence is greater than , a total internal reflection will occur. Figure 3: Ray 1 is refracted as it passes from water into air. Ray 2 has an angle of refraction of 90 0 ; the angle incidence is equal to the critical angle. Ray 3 is reflected internally back into water and does not go into air. Note that in (a) and (b), some light is reflected internally but not as strongly as in (c).

10 Diamonds Are Forever Diamonds sparkle due to the cut of the diamond faces. Diamonds have a high index of refraction, n = 2.42 Diamonds also have a critical angle of Therefore a lot of light undergoes Total Internal Reflection. Figure 4: (a) Many light rays undergo two total internal reflections inside a diamond (b) this is what makes a diamond sparkle. pg. 527 Fibre Optics Technology which uses light to transmit information is called Fibre Optics. Light travels in a glass cable and it is not permitted to escape. The cable has a small critical angle, most light entering has a angle of incidence greater than the critical angle, therefore the light undergoes Total Internal Reflection. Figure 5: (a) A laser beam undergoes total reflection in a Lucite rod. (b) In close-up, you can see the point at which total internal reflection occurs. pg. 528 Triangular Prism A Triangular Prism exhibits total internal reflection. The critical angle for glass is If the angle of incidence is greater than , total internal reflection occurs, and 100% of the light is reflected. The Emergent Ray can be either 90 0 or to the Incident Ray, this depends on the prism.

11 Retro reflectors and Prisms Retro-reflector is an optical device in which the emergent ray is parallel to the incident ray. The incident ray is returned back in exactly the same direction from which it came. retroreflectors bike reflectors reflective strips on clothing and helmets road signs light can return along the same path as the incident light Check Your Learning, questions 1 9, pg. 531

12 12.7: Phenomena Related to Refraction pg. 535 Apparent Depth - The depth that an object appears to at due to the refraction of light in a transparent medium. - Our brain perceives light rays travel in straight lines. - Looking a figure 2. The pencil in the water is perceived to be in a specific location, based on our brain s understanding of light travels in a straight line, is actually a Virtual Image. Fig. 2: Refraction causes the pencil to appear closer to the surface than it actually is. pg The Virtual Image is higher then the Actual Image. - This is an optical illusion - When looking at a fish in the water it appears closer to the surface then where it is really located, deeper. Figure 3: The Illusion of apparent depth. Pg. 535 The Flatten Sun As the sun sets and moves closer to the horizon, the sun appears flat. The light from the bottom of the sun is refracted more then the light generated from the top of sun. The phenomena created, because there is a change (difference) in the angle of incidence between the top and bottom of the sun. This difference is created because of the density of air near the Earth s surface.

13 Figure 5: the flattening of the Sun is the result of refraction in Earth s atmosphere. pg. 536 Water on Pavement The Mirage On some days you can notice what appears to be a pool of water in front of you as you drive along a road. It always appears in front of you but you never seem to catch up to it. This pool of water is called a mirage. The mirage is created when light travels from cooler air into warmer air, and the index of refraction decreases as the air gets warmer. The result is the light bends further away from the normal. As the light rays move closer to a 90 0 angle, total internal reflection occurs. The virtual image created is actually an image of the sky on the highway. Figure 6b: There appears to a pool of water on the highway. This illusion is caused by the refraction and reflection of light as it goes through air of different temperatures. pg. 537

14 Shimmering The image of the Moon on the water is created when light travels from the Moon to the surface of the water. The light travels through cooler air to warmer air near the surface. The light travels more slowly in the cooler air and begins to speed up in the warmer air. This causes different refraction angles, bending further from the normal. Eventually total internal reflection occurs, resulting in multiple virtual images on the water s surface. Figure 7: Shimmering on a lake is caused by light traveling at slightly different speeds through air layers of different temperatures. pg. 537 The Rainbow Dispersion is the separation of white light into its constituent colours. Isaac Newton used a triangular prism to separate white light into a continuous sequence of colours. The dispersion of light occurs because visible light travels at a slightly different speed when goes through the prism. Refraction occurs, with violet bending more toward the normal and the red light the least. The rainbow is an optical phenomenon that is produced by water droplets in the Earth s atmosphere. The rainbow can only be seen when the sun is located behind you. The light from the sun passes into the water droplet, and is refracted, then internal reflection occurs and finally leaves the droplet as it is refracted again.

15 Figure 10: the rainbow is caused by a combination of dispersion and partial internal reflection in water droplets in the atmosphere. Millions of raindrops are necessary to produce a rainbow. pg 538 Check Your Learning, questions 1 7, pg. 539

### Bronx High School of Science Regents Physics

Bronx High School of Science Regents Physics 1. Orange light has a frequency of 5.0 10 14 hertz in a vacuum. What is the wavelength of this light? (A) 1.5 10 23 m (C) 6.0 10 7 m (B) 1.7 10 6 m (D) 2.0

### It bends away from the normal, like this. So the angle of refraction, r is greater than the angle of incidence, i.

Physics 1403 Lenses It s party time, boys and girls, because today we wrap up our study of physics. We ll get this party started in a bit, but first, you have some more to learn about refracted light.

### Chapter 17 Light and Image Formation

Chapter 7 Light and Image Formation Reflection and Refraction How is an image in a mirror produced? Reflection and Image Formation In chapter 6 we studied physical optics, which involve wave aspects of

### Light and its effects

Light and its effects Light and the speed of light Shadows Shadow films Pinhole camera (1) Pinhole camera (2) Reflection of light Image in a plane mirror An image in a plane mirror is: (i) the same size

### Ray Optics 11/96. Physical Science 101 Name Section. Partner s Name

Physical Science 101 Name Section Partner s Name Purpose: The purpose of this lab is to study the laws of reflection and refraction for flat surfaces and to find out how converging lenses and converging

### REFLECTION & REFRACTION

REFLECTION & REFRACTION OBJECTIVE: To study and verify the laws of reflection and refraction using a plane mirror and a glass block. To see the virtual images that can be formed by the reflection and refraction

### ConcepTest Reflection

ConcepTest 23.1 When watching the Moon over the ocean, you often see a long streak of light on the surface of the water. This occurs because: Reflection 1) the Moon is very large 2) atmospheric conditions

### Lecture PowerPoints. Chapter 23 Physics: Principles with Applications, 7th edition Giancoli

Lecture PowerPoints Chapter 23 Physics: Principles with Applications, 7th edition Giancoli This work is protected by United States copyright laws and is provided solely for the use of instructors in teaching

### REFLECTION AND REFRACTION

L2 REFLECTION AND REFRACTION General aims OBJECTIVES When you have finished studying this chapter you should understand the nature of reflection and refraction of light and the simple laws which govern

### 2/16/2016. Reflection and Refraction WHITEBOARD WHITEBOARD. Chapter 21 Lecture What path did the light follow to reach the wall?

Chapter 21 Lecture What path did the light follow to reach the wall? Reflection and Refraction Represent the path from the laser to the wall with an arrow. Why can t you see the beam of light itself but

### Physics 1402 Reflection and Refraction

Physics 1402 Reflection and Refraction At the end of our last program, I showed you this little pink pig, and you saw that my fingers go right through it. So it must be an image. Well, here s the real

### Refractive Index and Dispersion: Prism Spectrometer

Refractive Index and Dispersion: Prism Spectrometer OBJECTIVES: The purpose of this experiment is to study the phenomenon of dispersion i.e. to determine the variation of refractive index of the glass

### 3.14 understand that light waves are transverse waves which can be reflected, refracted and diffracted

Light and Sound 3.14 understand that light waves are transverse waves which can be reflected, refracted and diffracted 3.15 use the law of reflection (the angle of incidence equals the angle of reflection)

### Chapter 17: Light and Image Formation

Chapter 17: Light and Image Formation 1. When light enters a medium with a higher index of refraction it is A. absorbed. B. bent away from the normal. C. bent towards from the normal. D. continues in the

### Law of Reflection. The angle of incidence (i) is equal to the angle of reflection (r)

Light GCSE Physics Reflection Law of Reflection The angle of incidence (i) is equal to the angle of reflection (r) Note: Both angles are measured with respect to the normal. This is a construction line

### The Electromagnetic Spectrum

The Electromagnetic Spectrum 1 Look around you. What do you see? You might say "people, desks, and papers." What you really see is light bouncing off people, desks, and papers. You can only see objects

### Light, Light Bulbs and the Electromagnetic Spectrum

Light, Light Bulbs and the Electromagnetic Spectrum Spectrum The different wavelengths of electromagnetic waves present in visible light correspond to what we see as different colours. Electromagnetic

### Physical Science Study Guide Unit 7 Wave properties and behaviors, electromagnetic spectrum, Doppler Effect

Objectives: PS-7.1 Physical Science Study Guide Unit 7 Wave properties and behaviors, electromagnetic spectrum, Doppler Effect Illustrate ways that the energy of waves is transferred by interaction with

### Solution Derivations for Capa #13

Solution Derivations for Capa #13 1) A super nova releases 1.3 10 45 J of energy. It is 1540 ly from earth. If you were facing the star in question, and your face was a circle 7 cm in radius, how much

### Physics 1230: Light and Color

Physics 1230: Light and Color Exam 1 is finished, Avg: 84 +/- 10.5 Solutions on the web and scores on CULearn. HW4: Due Thursday, 5PM Lecture 6: Reflection, mirror images, and refraction. Reading: Chapter

### Study Guide for Exam on Light

Name: Class: Date: Study Guide for Exam on Light Multiple Choice Identify the choice that best completes the statement or answers the question. 1. Which portion of the electromagnetic spectrum is used

### Light Energy. Countdown: Experiment 1: 1 tomato paste can (without top or bottom) table lamp white poster board, 7 x 9

Light Energy Grade Level: 5 Time Required: 1-2 class periods Suggested TEKS: Science - 5.8 Suggested SCANS: Information. Acquires and evaluates information. National Science and Math Standards Science

### STOP for science. Light is a wave. Like waves in water, it can be characterized by a wavelength.

INTRODUCTION Most students have encountered rainbows, either spotting them directly on those special days when the raindrops fall while the Sun still finds cloudless regions to peek through, or at least

### Turnbull High School Physics Department. CfE. National 4 /National. Physics. Unit 1: Waves and Radiation. Section 3: Light

Turnbull High School Physics Department CfE National 4 /National 5 Physics Unit 1: Waves and Radiation Section 3: Light Name: Class: 1 National 5 Unit 1: Section 3 I can state the law of reflection and

### The Theory of The Rainbows

Thao Dang Physic 464 Project Report The Theory of The Rainbows I) Abstract: The purpose of the project is to help students apply their knowledge that they learn form optics class to real life. The Theory

### Physics 101 HW#10 Solutions Koskelo

Physics 101 HW#10 Solutions Koskelo 1.) a.) Light slows down when it enters a material. What is actually going on (on a microscopic scale) that causes this to happen? The light is actually passed from

### AP Physics B Ch. 23 and Ch. 24 Geometric Optics and Wave Nature of Light

AP Physics B Ch. 23 and Ch. 24 Geometric Optics and Wave Nature of Light Name: Period: Date: MULTIPLE CHOICE. Choose the one alternative that best completes the statement or answers the question. 1) Reflection,

### Refraction and Lenses. Snell s Law Total internal reflection Dispersion Absorption Scattering

Refraction and Lenses Snell s Law Total internal reflection Dispersion Absorption Scattering Refraction Two things happen when a light ray is incident on a smooth boundary between two transparent materials:

### LIGHT SECTION 6-REFRACTION-BENDING LIGHT From Hands on Science by Linda Poore, 2003.

LIGHT SECTION 6-REFRACTION-BENDING LIGHT From Hands on Science by Linda Poore, 2003. STANDARDS: Students know an object is seen when light traveling from an object enters our eye. Students will differentiate

### Objectives 426 CHAPTER 10 LIGHT AND OPTICAL SYSTEMS

Objectives Explain what is meant by the curvature and focal length of mirrors and lenses. Explain how curvature and focal length are related. Use light rays to trace light from an object to a mirror to

### Lecture PowerPoints. Chapter 23 Physics: Principles with Applications, 7 th edition Giancoli

Lecture PowerPoints Chapter 23 Physics: Principles with Applications, 7 th edition Giancoli This work is protected by United States copyright laws and is provided solely for the use of instructors in teaching

### PHYS-2020: General Physics II Course Lecture Notes Section XI

PHYS-2020: General Physics II Course Lecture Notes Section XI Dr. Donald G. Luttermoser East Tennessee State University Edition 4.0 Abstract These class notes are designed for use of the instructor and

### Physics I Honors: Chapter 14 Practice Test - Refraction of Light

Physics I Honors: Chapter 14 Practice Test - Refraction of Light Multiple Choice Identify the letter of the choice that best completes the statement or answers the question. 1. Refraction is the bending

### Atmospheric Optical Phenomena

Atmospheric Optical Phenomena Atmospheric Optical Phenomena are produced by the reflection, refraction, dispersion and scattering / diffusion of rays of sunlight. These principles in physics explain commonly

### Reflection and Refraction

Equipment Reflection and Refraction Acrylic block set, plane-concave-convex universal mirror, cork board, cork board stand, pins, flashlight, protractor, ruler, mirror worksheet, rectangular block worksheet,

### Ray Tracing: the Law of Reflection, and Snell s Law

Ray Tracing: the Law of Reflection, and Snell s Law Each of the experiments is designed to test or investigate the basic ideas of reflection and the ray-like behavior of light. The instructor will explain

### Chapter 23. Ray Optics. Chapter 23. Ray Optics. What is specular reflection? Chapter 23. Reading Quizzes

Chapter 23. Ray Optics Chapter 23. Ray Optics Our everyday experience that light travels in straight lines is the basis of the ray model of light. Ray optics apply to a variety of situations, including

### b. In Laser View - click on wave. Pose an explanation that explains why the light bends when it enters the water.

Sierzega/Ferri: Optics 5 Observation Experiments: Light Bending Go to: http://phet.colorado.edu/en/simulation /bending-light You have a laser beam (press the button to turn it on!) that is shining from

### 1 of 9 2/9/2010 3:38 PM

1 of 9 2/9/2010 3:38 PM Chapter 23 Homework Due: 8:00am on Monday, February 8, 2010 Note: To understand how points are awarded, read your instructor's Grading Policy. [Return to Standard Assignment View]

### Properties of Light By Cindy Grigg

Properties of Light By Cindy Grigg 1 Light is one form of energy that travels in electromagnetic waves. This energy is both magnetic and electrical. 2 There are many different types of electromagnetic

### Refraction of Light at a Plane Surface. Object: To study the refraction of light from water into air, at a plane surface.

Refraction of Light at a Plane Surface Object: To study the refraction of light from water into air, at a plane surface. Apparatus: Refraction tank, 6.3 V power supply. Theory: The travel of light waves

### Lecture 14 Images Chapter 34

Lecture 4 Images Chapter 34 Preliminary topics before mirrors and lenses Law of Reflection Dispersion Snell s Law Brewsters Angle Law of Reflection Dispersion Snell s Law Brewsters Angle Geometrical Optics:Study

### Processes affecting propagation of electromagnetic radiation (light)

Chapter 4 Light and Color, and Atmospheric Optics Useful links: http://www.atoptics.co.uk/ http://www.gi.alaska.edu/atmossci/links.mainpage/arcti c_optical.html Processes affecting propagation of electromagnetic

### 12. Reflection and Refraction

12. Reflection and Refraction Wave fronts Spherical waves are solutions to Maxwell s equations Molecules scatter spherical waves Spherical waves can add up to plane waves Reflection and refraction from

### Question based on Refraction and Refractive index. Glass Slab, Lateral Shift.

Question based on Refraction and Refractive index. Glass Slab, Lateral Shift. Q.What is refraction of light? What are the laws of refraction? Ans: Deviation of ray of light from its original path when

### Refractive Index Measurement Principle

Refractive Index Measurement Principle Refractive index measurement principle Introduction Detection of liquid concentrations by optical means was already known in antiquity. The law of refraction was

### Basic Optics System OS-8515C

40 50 30 60 20 70 10 80 0 90 80 10 20 70 T 30 60 40 50 50 40 60 30 C 70 20 80 10 90 90 0 80 10 70 20 60 50 40 30 Instruction Manual with Experiment Guide and Teachers Notes 012-09900B Basic Optics System

### How can I predict how big my reflection will appear in a mirror? Think about it and we might try your solution.

How can I predict how big my reflection will appear in a mirror? Think about it and we might try your solution. Introduction to Optics Lecture 12 (See Giancoli Chapter 23) Refraction Phenomena Silas Laycock,

### PHY208FALL2008. Week3HW. Is Light Reflected or Refracted? Due at 11:59pm on Sunday, September 21, [ Print ] View Grading Details

Assignment Display Mode: View Printable Answers PHY208FALL2008 Week3HW [ Print ] Due at 11:59pm on Sunday, September 21, 2008 View Grading Details The next exercise is about reflection and refraction of

### Waves Sound and Light

Waves Sound and Light r2 c:\files\courses\1710\spr12\wavetrans.doc Ron Robertson The Nature of Waves Waves are a type of energy transmission that results from a periodic disturbance (vibration). They are

### After a wave passes through a medium, how does the position of that medium compare to its original position?

Light Waves Test Question Bank Standard/Advanced Name: Question 1 (1 point) The electromagnetic waves with the highest frequencies are called A. radio waves. B. gamma rays. C. X-rays. D. visible light.

### When you shine a beam of light on a mirror, the light

REFLECTION AND REFRACTION Objectives Describe what happens when a wave reaches a boundary between two media. (29.1) Describe the law of refraction. (29.2) Describe the type of images that are produced

### Chapter 24. Wave Optics

Chapter 24 Wave Optics Wave Optics The wave nature of light is needed to explain various phenomena. Interference Diffraction Polarization The particle nature of light was the basis for ray (geometric)

### 1. Reflection, Refraction, and Geometric Optics (Chapters 33 and 34) [ Edit ]

1 of 17 2/8/2016 9:34 PM Signed in as Weida Wu, Instructor Help Sign Out My Courses Course Settings University Physics with Modern Physics, 14e Young/Freedman Instructor Resources etext Study Area ( RUPHY228S16

### ACTIVITY 1: Disappearing crystals

14 PHYSICS QUEST 2008: Nikola Tesla and the Electric Fair American Physical Society January 2009 Te a c h e r s Guide ACTIVITY 1: Disappearing crystals Intro In this activity students will use crystals

### Lecture PowerPoints. Chapter 24 Physics: Principles with Applications, 7th edition Giancoli

Lecture PowerPoints Chapter 24 Physics: Principles with Applications, 7th edition Giancoli This work is protected by United States copyright laws and is provided solely for the use of instructors in teaching

### Three Lasers Converging at a Focal Point : A Demonstration

Three Lasers Converging at a Focal Point : A Demonstration Overview In this activity, students will see how we can use the property of refraction to focus parallel rays of light. Students will observe

### LIGHT REFLECTION AND REFRACTION

QUESTION BANK IN SCIENCE CLASS-X (TERM-II) 10 LIGHT REFLECTION AND REFRACTION CONCEPTS To revise the laws of reflection at plane surface and the characteristics of image formed as well as the uses of reflection

### PREVIOUS 8 YEARS QUESTIONS (1 mark & 2 marks) 1 mark questions

230 PREVIOUS 8 YEARS QUESTIONS (1 mark & 2 marks) 1 mark questions 1. An object is held at the principal focus of a concave lens of focal length f. Where is the image formed? (AISSCE 2008) Ans: That is

### Science In Action 8 Unit C - Light and Optical Systems. 1.1 The Challenge of light

1.1 The Challenge of light 1. Pythagoras' thoughts about light were proven wrong because it was impossible to see A. the light beams B. dark objects C. in the dark D. shiny objects 2. Sir Isaac Newton

### Unit 3 Lesson 3 Mirrors and Lenses How do mirrors and lenses work?

Big Idea: Visible light is the small part of the electromagnetic spectrum that is essential for human vision Unit 3 Lesson 3 Mirrors and Lenses How do mirrors and lenses work? Copyright Houghton Mifflin

### Lab O3: Snell's Law and the Index of Refraction

O3.1 Lab O3: Snell's Law and the Index of Refraction Introduction. The bending of a light ray as it asses from air to water is determined by Snell's law. This law also alies to the bending of light by

### Christian Huygen Light is a wave, not merely a ray As waves propagate each point on the wavefront produces new wavelets. Wave Nature of Light

Wave Nature of Light Christian Huygen Light is a wave, not merely a ray As waves propagate each point on the wavefront produces new wavelets Chapter 24 Wavelength Changes Wavelength of light changes in

### Experiment #2: Determining Sugar Content of a Drink. Objective. Introduction

Experiment #2: Determining Sugar Content of a Drink Objective How much sugar is there in your drink? In this experiment, you will measure the amount of sugar dissolved in a soft drink by using two different

### EM Waves Practice Problems

EM Waves Practice Problems PSI AP Physics B Name Multiple Choice 1. Which of the following theories can explain the bending of waves behind obstacles into shadow region? (A) Particle theory of light (B)

### Exam 4--PHYS 102--S14

Class: Date: Exam 4--PHYS 102--S14 Multiple Choice Identify the choice that best completes the statement or answers the question. 1. A current goes through a loop, which is allowed to rotate on an axis,

### Physics 1653 Final Exam - Review Questions

Chapter 22 Reflection & Refraction Physics 1653 Final Exam - Review Questions 1. The photon energy for light of wavelength 500 nm is approximately A) 1.77 ev B) 3.10 ev C) 6.20 ev D) 2.48 ev E) 5.46 ev

### THE REFRACTION OF LIGHT: LENSES AND OPTICAL INSTRUMENTS

CHAPTER 26 THE RERACTION O LIGHT: LENSES AND OPTICAL INSTRUMENTS CONCEPTUAL QUESTIONS 1. REASONING AND SOLUTION Since the index of refraction of water is greater than that of air, the ray in igure 26.2a

### PRACTICE Q6--Quiz 6, Ch15.1 &15.2 Interference & Diffraction

Name: Class: Date: ID: A PRACTICE Q6--Quiz 6, Ch5. &5. Interference & Diffraction Multiple Choice Identify the choice that best completes the statement or answers the question.. The trough of the sine

### (text on screen) VO In diffuse reflection, parallel incident light rays are reflected in different directions.

Physics 1401 Mirrors You ve probably heard the old saying, The end is in sight. Well, that saying applies doubly to our class. Not only do we start the final unit that ends our year of physics but today

### CH 35. Interference. A. Interference of light waves, applied in many branches of science.

CH 35 Interference [SHIVOK SP212] March 17, 2016 I. Optical Interference: A. Interference of light waves, applied in many branches of science. B. The blue of the top surface of a Morpho butterfly wing

### Page 1 Class 10 th Physics LIGHT REFLECTION AND REFRACTION

Page 1 LIGHT Light is a form of energy, which induces the sensation of vision in our eyes and makes us able to see various things present in our surrounding. UNITS OF LIGHT Any object which has an ability

### Lenses. Types of Lenses (The word lens is derived from the Latin word lenticula, which means lentil. A lens is in the shape of a lentil.

Lenses Notes_10_ SNC2DE_09-10 Types of Lenses (The word lens is derived from the Latin word lenticula, which means lentil. A lens is in the shape of a lentil. ) Most lenses are made of transparent glass

### Physics Open House. Faraday's Law and EM Waves Change in the magnetic field strength in coils generates a current. Electromagnetic Radiation

Electromagnetic Radiation (How we get most of our information about the cosmos) Examples of electromagnetic radiation: Light Infrared Ultraviolet Microwaves AM radio FM radio TV signals Cell phone signals

### WHITE LIGHT AND COLORED LIGHT

grades K 5 Objective This activity offers two simple ways to demonstrate that white light is made of different colors of light mixed together. The first uses special glasses to reveal the colors that make

### Size Of the Image Nature Of the Image At Infinity At the Focus Highly Diminished, Point Real and Inverted

CHAPTER-10 LIGHT REFLECTION AND REFRACTION Light rays; are; electromagnetic in nature, and do not need material medium for Propagation Speed of light in vacuum in 3*10 8 m/s When a light ray falls on a

### Creation. Day #1 of Creation: Light and Darkness (Genesis 1:1-5)

Creation Day #1 of Creation: Light and Darkness (Genesis 1:1-5) LESSON WARM UP Shake up a bag full of Leggos, spill them out, and ask, What can you make out of these? (Allow responses.) Then shake up an

### VIII. Optics. Warm-Up Exercises. Conflicting Contentions. 1. Lens cover-up 2. How long is a full length mirror? 3. How to spear a fish

VIII. Optics Warm-Up Exercises Conflicting Contentions 1. Lens cover-up 2. How long is a full length mirror? 3. How to spear a fish Qualitative Reasoning 1. How many reflections? 2. Image in a spoon 3.

### and that for the minima is min ( m 1 2). Divide the second equation by the first and solve for the order of the maximum, m.

USEFUL FORMULAE AND DATA 1. Wien s Law: pt = 2.90 10-3 m K 2. v=c/n, is the speed of light in a material with an index of refraction n 3. Snell s Law: n1 sin 1 = n2 sin 2, where subscripts 1 stands for

### radiation1 1the larger the objective diameter, the greater the ability to resolve fine detail on the object. You will find a discussion of

F1 The ray diagram for a simple astronomical refracting telescope is shown in Figure 23. The focal points of the f o f e objective and the eyepiece F e, F are normally made to o θ o θ coincide so that

### MULTIPLE CHOICE. Choose the one alternative that best completes the statement or answers the question.

Exam Name MULTIPLE CHOICE. Choose the one alternative that best completes the statement or answers the question. 1) Two radio antennas are 120 m apart on a north-south line. The two antennas radiate in

Chapter 2: Electromagnetic Radiation Radiant Energy I Goals of Period 2 Section 2.1: To introduce electromagnetic radiation Section 2.2: To discuss the wave model of radiant energy Section 2.3: To describe

Eighth Grade Electromagnetic Radiation and Light Assessment 1a. Light waves are the only waves that can travel through. a. space b. solids 1b. Electromagnetic waves, such as light, are the only kind of

### PhysicsQuest 2006 ACTIVITY 4. Bring it into Focus. (Lenses and optics)

ACTIVITY 4 Bring it into Focus (Lenses and optics) Table of contents Page 2: Disappearing Test Tube: Make clear objects visible or invisible using what you know about how light bends (level 1 demonstration)

### Experiment 4: Refraction and Interference with Microwaves

Experiment 4: Refraction and Interference with Microwaves Introduction Many phenomena whose study comes under the heading of "physical optics" arise from certain integral relationships between the wavelength

### PROPERTIES OF THIN LENSES. Paraxial-ray Equations

PROPERTIES OF THIN LENSES Object: To measure the focal length of lenses, to verify the thin lens equation and to observe the more common aberrations associated with lenses. Apparatus: PASCO Basic Optical

### Angle of an incident (arriving) ray or particle to a surface; measured from a line perpendicular to the surface (the normal) Angle of incidence

The maximum displacement of particles of the medium from their mean positions during the propagation of a wave Angle of an incident (arriving) ray or particle to a surface; measured from a line perpendicular

### Infrared Thermometer Guidance

Infrared Thermometer Guidance Infrared thermometers can be used to answer a range of questions, including: - What is the temperature of the clouds? - What is the greenhouse effect? - If it is sunny, how

### GEOMETRICAL OPTICS. Lens Prism Mirror

GEOMETRICAL OPTICS Geometrical optics is the treatment of the passage of light through lenses, prisms, etc. by representing the light as rays. A light ray from a source goes in a straight line through

### Planetary Energy Balance

Planetary Energy Balance Electromagnetic Spectrum Different types of radiation enter the Earth s atmosphere and they re all a part of the electromagnetic spectrum. One end of the electromagnetic (EM) spectrum

### RAY OPTICS II 7.1 INTRODUCTION

7 RAY OPTICS II 7.1 INTRODUCTION This chapter presents a discussion of more complicated issues in ray optics that builds on and extends the ideas presented in the last chapter (which you must read first!)

### Energy - Heat, Light, and Sound

Science Benchmark: 06:06 Heat, light, and sound are all forms of energy. Heat can be transferred by radiation, conduction and convection. Visible light can be produced, reflected, refracted, and separated

### THE STUDY OF HOW MUCH LIGHT IS REFLECTED OFF OF EVERYDAY HOUSEHOLD OBJECTS

THE STUDY OF HOW MUCH LIGHT IS REFLECTED OFF OF EVERYDAY HOUSEHOLD OBJECTS Joshua Pullen Cary Academy ABSTRACT The purpose of these experiments was to discover what materials reflected the most light and

### SNC 2D Grade 10 Science, Academic Unit: Light and Geometric Optics

Page 1 SNC 2D Grade 10 Science, Academic Unit: Light and Geometric Optics The Big Ideas: Light has characteristics and properties that can be manipulated with mirrors and lenses for a range of uses. Society

### Waves and Modern Physics PHY Spring 2012

Waves and Modern Physics PHY 123 - Spring 2012 1st Midterm Exam Wednesday, February 22 Chapter 32 Light: Reflec2on and Refrac2on Units of Chapter 32 Today we will cover: The Ray Model of Light Reflection;

### INTEGRATED SCIENCE 1: UNIT 4: PHYSICS

INTEGRATED SCIENCE 1: UNIT 4: PHYSICS Sub Unit 1: Waves TEST 2: Electromagnetic Waves Form A MULTIPLE CHOICE. Choose the one alternative that best completes the statement or answers the question. 1)Electromagnetic

### Objectives: To determine how rays of light reflect off the surface of mirrors.

1 Home Lab 4 Reflection of Light Rays Overview: With a simple flat mirror, paper, and a ruler we can demonstrate how we see reflections of different objects in mirrors. Activity 4-1: Tracing reflected

### 2011 FXA Properties of Waves 58 INTRODUCTION

1.5.1 Properties of Waves 58 INTRODUCTION Waves transfer energy. Waves may be either transverse or longitudinal. Electromagnetic waves are transverse, sound waves are longitudinal and mechanical waves