# Lesson. Objectives. Compare how plane, convex, and concave. State the law of reflection.

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3 KH_BD1_SEG5_U4C12L3_ indd 409 Structured Inquiry Discover Looking at Lenses How do lenses affect light as it passes through them? Inquiry Extension Water Drop Lens Record your work for this inquiry. Your teacher may also assign the related Guided Inquiry. Procedure 1. Open a book to a page that has both text and pictures. Stand the book upright at least 1.5 m (about 60 in.) from your eyes. Hold a convex lens at arm s length and observe the page through the lens. Note the size (larger or smaller) and position i (upright or upside down). Record your observations. 2. Observe any changes to the image as you move the lens to the following distances from the book: 100 cm (39 in.), 75 cm (30 in.), 50 cm (20 in.), 25 cm (10 in.), 10 cm (4 in.), and 5 cm (2 in.) closer to the book. Record the data in the table. Repeat Steps 1 2 with the other three lenses. 3. Hold a convex lens up to a window. Have a partner hold half a sheet of poster board behind the lens. Your partner should move the poster board toward or away from the lens until a clear image of the scene outside the window forms on the poster board. Observe the appearance of the scene. Sketch the image that you see. 4. With the meterstick, measure the distance between the lens and the screen when a clear image forms. This is the focal length of the lens. Record the data. Measure the height and width of the image. Repeat Steps 3 4 with the other three lenses. Analyze Results Use a table to compare the four different lenses you used. Extend Materials Guided Inquiry Science J o u r n a l 2 convex lenses (labeled A and B) 2 concave lenses (labeled C and D) white poster board meterstick book with text and one or more pictures Create Explanations 1. How do lenses affect light as it passes through them? 2. Did all the lenses form an image on the poster board? Why or why not? How do they compare in size with the object? 3. How did the thickness of the convex lenses affect the focal length? Why? How can you make your own lens? Extend the Structured Inquiry and challenge students to use the materials provided to make a lens and examine text on a sheet of newspaper. Teaching Tip Provide bulb pipettes, waxed paper, and newspaper. Provide water and other liquids, such as mineral oil, alcohol, or corn syrup. Students may record their work in their Science Journals. A scoring rubric can be found as an Online Teacher Resource. 409 Discover Use the inquiry activities as an opportunity for students to perform hands-on investigations and think like a scientist. Looking at Lenses How do lenses affect light as it passes through them? Preparation and Tips Plastic lenses are preferable to glass lenses. Label two convex and two concave lenses of different thicknesses for each group, and place the lenses in a plastic container. Have students work in pairs and have two pairs share one tub of lenses. Predict How does lens shape affect the appearance of an image? Science J o u r n a l Structured Inquiry Have students use their Science Journals to record their work for this inquiry. Expected Results Step 1: A & B: image is smaller, upside down; C & D: image is smaller, right side up. Step 2: A & B: image gets larger, then turns right side up; C & D: image gets larger; as you move closer to the object it gets larger. A & B: image gets smaller until it s the same size as the object; C & D: image gets larger. Step 3: A & B: image is smaller, upside down. Step 4: A & B: focal length measurements will depend on the lenses used. Create Explanations 1. See Expected Results. 2. No only convex lenses formed an image because the light rays come to a focus behind the lens. Images were enlarged, reduced, or the same size depending on an object s position. (See Expected results) 3. A thicker convex lens will have a shorter focal length than a thinner lens. Thus, a thicker lens can focus light closer to the lens than a thin lens of the same refractive index. Chapter 12 Lesson KH_BD1_TEG5_U4C12L3_ indd 409 7/5/13 2:59 PM

4 Explain (cont.) Develop Key Vocabulary concave Point out that concave means curving inward, like a cave in a hillside. focus Tell students that focus is used as a noun on this page, but can also be used as a verb, as in Focus your camera or the picture will be fuzzy. real image Explain that this term refers to an image formed when actual rays of light come to a focus. focal length Photographers use focal length to take crisp pictures. Longer focal lengths require shorter exposure times and minimize blurring caused by shaky hands. Teach Science Concepts Have students place a light-colored sheet of paper on the floor with one long edge against the wall. Students will roll a small rubber ball toward the wall of the classroom and draw the angles of incidence and reflection of the ball. How is the path the ball follows like the path of a reflected light ray? The angle at which the ball is reflected equals the angle at which the ball hit the wall. What scientific law does this illustrate? the law of reflection What happens if the object being reflected is between the focus and the mirror? It forms a virtual, enlarged image located on the other side of the mirror. Where would an image form with each type of curved mirror? What kind of image would it be? The image would form at the focus. A concave mirror would form a real image in front of the mirror and a convex mirror would form a virtual image that appeared to be behind the mirror. What is the basic difference between a concave and a convex mirror? Both are spherical mirrors. The concave mirror reflects light inward and the convex mirror reflects light outward. 410 Reflected light rays What is the basic difference between a concave and a convex mirror? Incident light rays English Language Learners KH_BD1_SEG5_U4C12L3_ indd 410 Concave Mirrors A concave mirror is curved like the inside of the bowl or a spoon. The edges of the mirror curve toward you. What other objects in your everyday life are concave? What does an image in a concave mirror look like? Concave mirrors reflect light rays to a point in space called the focus. The focus is in front of the mirror. If you put a piece of paper there, you could see the image on it. The image formed by a concave mirror is called a real image because it would appear on a piece of paper. The distance from the center of the mirror to the focus is the focal length. What happens if the object being reflected is located between the focus and the mirror? Concave mirrors have many uses. Since they tend to make an object appear larger, they are used in science equipment, such as microscopes, and in dental equipment. Make-up mirrors are concave mirrors. The satellite dishes you see on people s roofs are shaped like concave mirrors for other electromagnetic waves. What are other potential uses for a concave mirror? Incident light rays Focal point Convex mirror Concave mirror image characteristics depend on object s location Focal point virtual, smaller, upright image Assist with Comprehension Draw the shapes of a plane mirror, a concave mirror, and a convex mirror on the board. Label each one. Have students use a sheet of paper to model the shapes of each kind of mirror as they repeat the terms after you. Tell students the curved mirror side should point toward themselves. Repeat several times. Then erase the board and ask them to make the mirror shapes as you call them out. Visually check to see if all students are making the correct shapes. 7/9/13 1:36 PM 410 Chapter 12 Lesson 3 KH_BD1_TEG5_U4C12L3_ indd 410 7/9/13 3:21 PM

5 Convex Mirrors A convex mirror is curved like the back of a spoon. The edges of the mirror curve away from you. A convex mirror makes reflected light rays spread out. The green lines in the convex mirror diagram are where the reflected rays are traced backwards. They seem to come to a point behind the mirror, forming a smaller, virtual image. Convex mirrors are used on vehicles as the side-view mirrors to help drivers have a wider view of surrounding cars to the side and at the back of the vehicle. What are other uses for a convex mirror? Scripture Spotlight Read James 1:23. What does James say someone is like who listens to God s word but does not do what it says? What is he trying to tell us? Develop Key Vocabulary convex Explain that a convex mirror is shaped the opposite of a concave mirror. It bulges outward like the outside of a ball. Check for Understanding Plane mirrors are flat mirrors that reflect light. Concave and convex mirrors are spherical mirrors that have the reflective coating on the inside or outside of the surface of the ball. Check for Understanding Compare and contrast the three types of mirrors. Fun house or carnival mirrors combine concave and convex mirror shapes to distort images in amusing ways. What kind of image distortions are produced by convex or concave shapes in a fun house mirror? Scripture Spotlight James compared someone who listens to God s word, but does not do what it says to a man who looks at himself in a mirror and immediately forgets what he looks like. Have students explain to classmates who are unfamiliar what fun house or carnival mirrors look like and how they distort images. What kind of image distortions are produced by convex or concave shapes in a fun house mirror? Sample answer: The angle of the fun house mirror determines exactly what kind of distortion is created. When the mirror bulges outward (convex), the result makes one look short and fat. When the mirror curves inward (concave), it makes one look elongated and thinner. KH_BD1_SEG5_U4C12L3_ indd 411 Science Background Using Curved Mirrors A convex mirror is a spherical reflecting surface in which its bulging side faces the source of light. Since convex mirrors have wider fields of view than other reflective surfaces, such as plane mirrors or concave mirrors, they are commonly used in automobile side mirrors. A convex mirror is also a good security device. Store owners, for instance, install a number of them inside their stores and orient them in such a way that security personnel can see large portions of the store even while monitoring from a single location. They are the large disk-like reflective surfaces that you see near the ceilings of grocery stores or convenience shops. Spherical mirrors are used in fun houses to distort images: Concave mirrors stretch out an image, while convex mirrors squash an image. We also use curved mirrors to concentrate light in solar cookers and telescopes. 411 Pull Me Down! Encourage students to complete the analysis of the data gathered in the Open Inquiry activity. Remind them that they should think like scientists and use the scientific process when creating explanations. Reminder Chapter 12 Lesson KH_BD1_TEG5_U4C12L3_ indd 411 6/19/13 3:14 PM

7 KH_BD1_SEG5_U4C12L3_ indd 413 Focal point Health Link Refraction of light through a convex lens Focal point Refraction of light through a concave lens Because it can focus light, a convex lens can form a real image. A concave lens cannot form a real image because it cannot focus light. What type of lens would work best to help a person who has trouble seeing small words in a newspaper? Check for Understanding Think about the images you observed in the Structured Inquiry. How do you explain the images that appeared upside down? Myopia and Hyperopia Myopia is a condition commonly called nearsightedness. It occurs because the eyeball is too long or the cornea has too great of a curvature. As a result, the rays entering the eye do not converge at the retina. Instead, the rays converge in front of the retina, so images at a distance appear blurry. Hyperopia is a condition commonly called farsightedness. It occurs because the eyeball is too short or the cornea is curved too little. As a result, the light rays converge behind the retina, so close that images appear blurry. Ask for volunteers who wear glasses or contact lenses to describe how corrective lenses help them see. 413 Teach Science Concepts Use the images on this page to clarify how the two different types of lenses focus light rays. Point out that concave lenses generally make images smaller, so they are not as common in devices as convex lenses are. Both types are used in eyeglasses however, to improve vision. Check for Understanding Refer back to the Structured Inquiry. Have student discuss the inverted images they observed and the focal point of the lenses. Sample answer: Light rays coming in parallel to the lens are bent as they pass through the lens. This causes them to all pass through a single point called the focal point on the opposite side of the lens. When the light rays cross at this focal point, the resulting image is turned upside-down. Draw students attention to the lens diagrams and have them study the caption. How do the images formed by convex and concave lenses differ? Convex lenses form real images and concave lenses form virtual images. What are three ways that convex and concave lenses differ? They differ in shape. They differ in how they bend light rays. They differ in the kind of image they form. What optical device can you think of that uses a single convex lens to observe a small object? hand lens How do these lenses relate to a common magnifying lens? Most magnifiers are doublesided two-convex lenses; single-sided convex lenses are used in many optical instruments. What type of lens would work best to help a person who has trouble seeing small words in a newspaper? convex lenses Chapter 12 Lesson KH_BD1_TEG5_U4C12L3_ indd 413 6/19/13 3:14 PM

8 Explain (cont.) Teach Science Concepts Point out that lenses have many uses in a variety of optical devices. Often they are combined with mirrors in more complex devices. Ask students to identify some ways in which different kinds of lenses are used. One of the most obvious uses is in people s glasses. Have students look at the pictures on this page and identify which kind of lens is used to help people who are nearsighted (where light focuses in front of the retina), a convex lens, and which is used to help people who are farsighted (where the light focuses behind the retina), a concave lens. Which lenses are used in devices to magnify? convex lenses Point out that while concave lenses often make images appear smaller, they are useful in producing clearer images, which is why they are often used as eyepieces. Direct student attention to the cross-sectional drawing of the human eye. You might share some of the information from the Health Link on human vision. What kind of lens does the human eye contain? The human eye contains a convex lens. The lens focuses light to the back of the eye. Tell students that they can think of the eye like a camera. The cornea acts like a lens cover and the retina acts like the camera film. Explain that behind the retina is the optic nerve, which changes the image produced on the retina to an electrical signal the brain can interpret. What type of lenses does a person who is farsighted use? What type of lenses does a person who is nearsighted use? Explain. Sample answer: Someone who is farsighted uses convex corrective lenses because the distance between the lens and the retina is too short and the image comes to a focal point behind the retina. Someone who is nearsighted uses concave corrective lenses because the image comes to a focus before the retina. This lengthens the focal length so the image forms on the retina. 414 Chapter 12 Lesson 3 Science Journal Check out your Science Journal for a Guided Inquiry that explores a use of lenses to make an optical device. Extend Your eye contains a convex lens. This lens changes its shape to focus an image on the retina at the back of your eye. People use lenses in glasses to help correct certain vision problems. 414 Inquiry Extension KH_BD1_SEG5_U4C12L3_ indd 414 Simple Optics Use of Lenses Most optical devices that control light have one or more lenses in them. Devices that magnify often use convex lenses. What other devices use these lenses? God created the eye especially to focus light so that we could see the world around us. A clear layer called the cornea covers the outer eye. The cornea actually does most of the the refraction of light in the eye. Behind the cornea is the iris, the colored part of the eye. The pupil in the center of the iris is an opening that lets reflected light enter the eye. A convex lens lies behind the iris and pupil. The lens does the finetuning that helps us see clearly. This lens is able to change shape in order to focus an image on the retina at the back of the eye. The lens becomes thicker when a person looks at a close object. It becomes thinner when a person views a distant object. Farsightedness occurs naturally with age. Usually the eye muscles become weak and cannot pull the lens into the thicker shape needed for focusing on close objects. Concave nearsightedness (myopia) Retina Iris Pupil Cornea Lens Without corrective lens Convex farsightedness (hyperopia) Without corrective lens Extend Guided Inquiry With corrective lens With corrective lens What combination of lenses will make a model optical device? Extend the lesson content by challenging students to use two lenses, a flashlight, an index card, and clay to make a model microscope or telescope. Teaching Tip Encourage students to shine the flashlight through different combinations of lenses and draw pictures of what they see through the lenses. Can they make the lenses magnify smaller objects, or make distant objects appear closer? Students might work near an outside window. Students may record their work in their Science Journals. A scoring rubric can be found as an Online Teacher Resource. 7/9/13 1:36 PM KH_BD1_TEG5_U4C12L3_ indd 414 7/9/13 3:21 PM

9 KH_BD1_SEG5_U4C12L3_ indd 415 Explore-a-Lab Concept Check Assess/Reflect Science Background Guided Inquiry How do reflections of multiple mirrors interact? Work in small groups. Make a kaleidoscope by taping three mirrors (forming a hinge) together to make a triangle. Put the shiny, mirrored sides on the inside. Place plastic beads, sequins, or confetti in the center of the triangle. Observe the reflections in the mirrors. What do you notice when you look at the reflected images? Humans have developed mirrors and lenses of different shapes to manipulate electromagnetic waves. We use them in simple to complex devices to make our lives easier and explore our world. Engineers combine convex and concave lenses and mirrors to make more complex devices that work better. Optics has a long history when it comes to astronomy and microscope studies. Concave lenses are often used as eyepieces in more complex optical devices. Imagine how different your life would be without mirrors or lenses. Summary: How do lenses and mirrors affect light? Plane mirrors and convex mirrors produce virtual images. Concave mirrors produce real images. Lenses can also be convex or concave. Convex lenses bring light rays together at a point called the focus so they form real images. Concave lenses spread light rays apart so they form virtual images. 1. What is the point at which light rays come together after passing through a lens? 2. How is the way light rays reflect from a flat mirror and a curved mirror similar? 3. Explain how people use mirrors and lenses to make complex optical devices. 4. If you look at yourself in a convex mirror and move the mirror closer to your face, what happens to the image? Trilobite Eyes The trilobite is an extinct arthropod. It had unique compound eyes. The eyes consisted of many lenses of perfectly aligned and crafted six-sided crystals of pure calcium carbonate. The lens configuration allowed the eye to focus on objects up close and at a distance. In other words, the trilobite was able to focus on objects like food in the foreground, while simultaneously focusing on potential predators at a distance. The different eye forms are differentiated by the unique arrangement and number of lenses in the eye structure. Trilobite visual systems came in three forms: holochroal (many hexagonal compound eyes in one corneal layer), schizochroal (thick lenses each covered by a single cornea), and abathochroal (a few small lenses separated from each other) /19/13 10:34 AM Explore-a-Lab Practice: Observe This activity allows students to observe how kaleidoscopes produce multiple internal reflections. Have students observe the reflections by holding the mirrors above the colorful objects. Another option is to make a portable version of this optical toy using paper towel rolls, acrylic mirrors, or mylar film (or foil glued to cards), and duct tape. How do reflections of multiple mirrors interact? Sample answer: The patterns inside a kaleidoscope are made by light bouncing between the mirrors inside. You look through one end and the light enters from the other. Moving the mirrors produces different colors and patterns. Assess/Reflect Read the essential question and lesson summary with students. You may work through the concept check as a class, or use it as a formal assessment. Concept Check Guided Inquiry 1. focus 2. Whether the mirror is flat or curved, light rays always reflect off a mirror at the same angle as the light rays hit the mirror. 3. Sample answer: People combine mirrors and lenses in complex optical devices to take advantage of their properties that reflect and refract light rays in different ways. 4. The image is larger than normal. As you bring the mirror closer, the image gets even larger. Chapter 12 Lesson KH_BD1_TEG5_U4C12L3_ indd 415 7/5/13 3:00 PM

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