Louisiana Tech University Flight Operations Cessna 172 VFR Profiles

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1 PURPOSE Louisiana Tech University Flight Operations Cessna 172 VFR Profiles The information contained herein has been developed for the purpose of compliance with 14 CFR The main objective of this document is to improve training standardization throughout the Private Pilot training course. In addition, Louisiana Tech University Flight School must maintain techniques of training which are acceptable to the Administrator in order to maintain certification as a Part 141 Flight School. Standardization of instruction is an important aspect of our flight school which gives Louisiana Tech aviation students the highest quality and efficiency of training. These profiles shall be utilized by all instructors during all training activities. During stage checks, the stage check evaluator will ensure compliance with profiles and discuss any discrepancies with the recommending instructor. Current as of: 9/9/2010 1

2 Attitude Flying Attitude + Power = Performance The desired attitude is obtained by using the outside horizon as a reference in relation to the cowling, dash, or instrument panel of the airplane. The desired power is obtained using the RPM. The pilot adjusts the attitude and the power to get the desired performance. The performance of the aircraft can be seen by looking at the following flight instruments: a. Airspeed Indicator b. Turn Coordinator c. Altimeter d. Vertical Speed Indicator e. Directional Gyro Passenger Briefing TASKS During the before start checklist, each passenger shall be briefed on: Seatbelt operations Aircraft emergency exits Location of emergency equipment Smoking Taxiing Complete passenger briefing. Use proper wind correction with the flight controls. Let the airplane roll forward and then test the brakes at both pilot positions to ensure that they work properly. Maintain proper speed. Maintain centerline Use the integrated method of instruction: using both outside and inside references to obtain desired performance. Current as of: 9/9/2010 2

3 Normal Take-Off and Climb Finish the before takeoff briefing. Taxi on the runway centerline with proper wind correction. Advance the power smoothly to full. Position the aileron full deflection into the wind As airplane accelerates, gradually reduce aileron deflection as needed. Maintain centerline with rudder. Rotate - 55 kts Climb - Set pitch attitude for 74 kts (Vy) Climb Checklist o Call out 1,000 Feet, Climb check Short Field Take-Off and Maximum Performance Climb Finish the before takeoff briefing. Flaps - 10 Taxi on the runway centerline with proper wind correction. Hold the brakes, add full power, check engine instruments, and release the brakes. Rotate - 55 kts Climb Set pitch attitude for 56 kts until obstacle is clear. Reduce pitch attitude to maintain 74 kts (Vy) Flaps up upon reaching 74 kts (Vy) and verifying positive rate. o Call out Vy, Positive Rate, Flaps Up Climb Checklist o Call out 1,000 Feet, Climb check Current as of: 9/9/2010 3

4 Soft Field Takeoff and Climb Finish the before takeoff briefing. Flaps - 10 Taxi on the runway centerline with proper wind correction. Smoothly advance the throttle to full power. Check the engine instruments. Hold enough back pressure to keep the nosewheel slightly off the ground. Stay in ground effect until 74 kts (or 56 kts to clear obstacle) Climb Set pitch for 74 kts (or 56 kts to clear obstacle) Flaps up upon reaching 74 kts (Vx) and verifying positive rate. o Call out Vy, Positive Rate, Flaps Up Climb Checklist o Call out 1,000 Feet, Climb check Normal Traffic Pattern The traffic pattern shown above uses standard traffic pattern procedures. The traffic pattern may vary to suit the situation. Level off at 1000 AGL 2000 RPM 90Kts Turn crosswind AGL 1500 RPM 10 flaps 75Kts 1500 RPM 20 flaps 70Kts 30 flaps 500 AGL 65Kts on Final Current as of: 9/9/2010 4

5 Normal and Crosswind Approach and Landing 1. Downwind Key Position Complete before landing checklist. Power 1500 RPM, 10 flaps down below 110 kts. Maintain 75 kts. 2. Base Flaps - 20 below 85 kts (Vfe) Maintain 70 kts. Flaps - 30, or as required by gust factor 3. Final (Approximately 500 ft AGL) Maintain stabilized approach Maintain 65 kts with the use of power. Apply aileron into wind to control drift. Apply rudder as needed to keep the nose of the aircraft straight and on centerline. 4. Roundout and Flare Reduce power to idle at aiming point. Transition from approach attitude to landing attitude. Smoothly increase elevator deflection until touchdown. Maintain wind correction inputs and directional control throughout landing roll. Go-Around/Rejected Landing 1. Full power, Level Pitch 2. Retract flaps to 20 with positive control of the airplane. - Callout: Control, flaps Airspeed - 62 kts, positive rate of climb, retract flaps to Callout: Vx, positive rate, flaps Airspeed - 74 kts (Vy), positive rate of climb, retract flaps to 0. - Callout: Vy, positive rate, flaps Maneuver to side of runway, if necessary. 6. Climg Checklist -Callout: 1,000 Feet, Climb check Current as of: 9/9/2010 5

6 Forward Slip to Landing Avoid slipping with flaps extended beyond 20º Avoid slipping with less than 1/4 tank fuel Power - Idle Simultaneously place wing down (into the wind, if possible) to hold centerline and full opposite rudder. Maintain kts with the power. Maintain proper pitch attitude to hold airspeed and a ground track aligned with the centerline. Discontinuing the slip: neutralize rudder, then bring wings level. Short Field Approach and Landing If an obstacle is given, the student must select an aiming point that will allow the student to clear the obstacle and utilize the maximum amount of runway. 1. Downwind Key Position Complete before landing checklist. Power 1500 RPM, 10 flaps down below 110 kts. Maintain 75 kts. 2. Base Flaps - 20 below 85 kts (Vfe) Maintain 70 kts. Flaps - 30, or as required by gust factor 3. Final (Approximately 500 ft AGL) Maintain stabilized approach until aiming point. Maintain 61 kts with the use of power. 4. Roundout and Flare Reduce power to idle at aiming point. Transition from approach attitude to landing attitude. After touchdown, apply heavy braking, retract flaps to 0. Smoothly increase elevator deflection throughout landing roll. Maintain wind correction inputs and directional control. Current as of: 9/9/2010 6

7 Soft Field Approach and Landing 1. Downwind Key Position Complete before landing checklist. Power 1500 RPM, 10 flaps down below 110 kts. Maintain 75 kts. 2. Base Flaps - 20 below 85 kts (Vfe) Maintain 70 kts. Flaps - 30, or as required by gust factor 3. Final (Approximately 500 ft AGL) Maintain stabilized approach Maintain 65 kts with the use of power. Apply aileron into wind to control drift. Apply rudder as needed to keep the nose of the aircraft straight and on centerline. 4. Roundout and Flare Reduce power to idle at aiming point. Transition from approach attitude to a landing attitude which will protect the nosewheel. Increase power to slow sink rate. After touchdown, remove power and continue increasing elevator deflection. Maintain wind correction inputs and directional control throughout landing roll. Steep Turns Altitude - At least 1500 ft AGL Perform clearing turns. Power RPM (between knots) Use a reference point on horizon, if able. Bank - 45 or 50, as appropriate. Adjust control wheel pressure and power to maintain the bank angle, altitude, and airspeed. Roll out on the selected reference point and reduce power, if necessary. Rectangular Course Altitude 1000 ft AGL. Power RPM (below Va) Constant power and level flight Entrance- On downwind Change bank and wind correction angle to maintain distance around the rectangular field. S-Turns Across a Road Altitude 1000 ft AGL Power RPM (below Va) Constant power and level flight Entrance - On downwind Vary bank to maintain distance from the road. Exit - On downwind Current as of: 9/9/2010 7

8 Turns around a point Altitude 1000 ft AGL Power RPM (below Va) Constant power and level flight Entrance - On downwind Vary bank to maintain a constant radius from the point. Exit - On downwind Maneuvering During Slow Flight Altitude Completed no lower than 1500 ft AGL. *Note: Entry procedure is for slow flight in landing configuration. Configuration is dictated by the instructor or examiner. Recovery procedure is not configuration-specific.* 1. Entry Perform clearing turns Power 1500 RPM, 10 flaps below 110 kts. o Call out: Below 110, flaps 10 Maintain altitude with pitch. Flaps - 30 below 85 kts (Vfe) o Call out: Below 85, flaps 30 Airspeed Minimum Controllable Airspeed (MCA) Maintain altitude by power and airspeed by pitch 2. Recovery 7. Full power, Lower pitch attitude 8. Retract flaps to 20 with positive control of the airplane. - Callout: Control, flaps Airspeed - 62 kts, positive rate of climb, retract flaps to Callout: Vx, positive rate, flaps Airspeed - 74 kts (Vy), positive rate of climb, retract flaps to 0. - Callout: Vy, positive rate, flaps Current as of: 9/9/2010 8

9 Departure (Power-on) Stall Altitude - Completed no lower than 1500 ft AGL. *Can be done with up to 20º bank* 1. Entry Perform clearing turns Power 1500 RPM Maintain altitude by pitch until reaching 55 kts. (Vr) Power Full Increase the pitch gradually until stall. 2. Recovery 1. Full power, Lower pitch attitude 2. Retract flaps to 20 with positive control of the airplane. - Callout: Control, flaps Airspeed - 62 kts, positive rate of climb, retract flaps to Callout: Vx, positive rate, flaps Airspeed - 74 kts (Vy), positive rate of climb, retract flaps to 0. - Callout: Vy, positive rate, flaps Power-Off Stalls Altitude - Completed no lower than 1500 ft AGL *Can be done with up to 20º bank* 1. Entry Perform clearing turns Power 1500 RPM, 10 flaps below 110 kts. o Call out: Below 110, flaps 10 Maintain altitude with pitch. Flaps - 30 below 85 kts (Vfe) o Call out: Below 85, flaps 30 Power 1500 RPM, 10 flaps below 110 kts. Lower pitch for approach attitude. Maintain 65 kts. 2. Recovery 1. Full power, Lower pitch attitude 2. Retract flaps to 20 with positive control of the airplane. - Callout: Control, flaps Airspeed - 62 kts, positive rate of climb, retract flaps to Callout: Vx, positive rate, flaps Airspeed - 74 kts (Vy), positive rate of climb, retract flaps to 0. - Callout: Vy, positive rate, flaps Current as of: 9/9/2010 9

10 Spin Recovery 1. Power - Idle. 2. Ailerons Neutral 3. Full opposite rudder to stop rotation. 4. As rotation stops, apply briskly forward pressure to break the stall. 5. Gradually allow the aircraft s nose to rise. Be careful not to overstress aircraft. 6.. Emergency Approach and Landing NOTE: An engine failure will be simulated by retarding the throttle to idle. Never kill the engine for an emergency approach and landing. The maneuver should terminate at 1000 ft AGL unless over an airport Set the pitch attitude for best glide speed 68 kts (Vg). Flaps up, or as appropriate. Select a suitable landing field. Complete engine restart checklist (normal and aux.) if altitude and time permits. Complete forced landing checklist Always maintain positive control of the airplane. Maneuver to be abeam the landing point (Key downwind position) on downwind at 1000 ft AGL. Current as of: 9/9/

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