APPENDIX 3-B Airplane Upset Recovery Briefing. Briefing. Figure 3-B.1

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1 APPENDIX 3-B Airplane Upset Recovery Briefing Industry Solutions for Large Swept-Wing Turbofan Airplanes Typically Seating More Than 100 Passengers Briefing Figure 3-B.1 Revision 1_August 2004

2 Airplane Upset Recovery Figure 3-B.2

3 Causes of Airplane Upset Figure 3-B.3

4 Airplane Upset Recovery Figure 3-B.4

5 Upset Recovery Training Objectives To increase the pilot s ability to recognize and avoid upset situations. To improve the pilot s ability to recover control, if avoidance is not successful. Figure 3-B.5

6 Upset Recovery Training Will Review The causes of airplane upsets Swept-wing airplane fundamentals Airplane upset recovery techniques Figure 3-B.6

7 What is Airplane Upset? Figure 3-B.7

8 Causes of Airplane Upset Incidents Are Environmentally induced Systems-anomalies induced Pilot induced A combination of all three Figure 3-B.8

9 Environmental Causes of Airplane Upset Include Turbulence Clear air turbulence Mountain wave Windshear Thunderstorms Microbursts Wake turbulence Airplane icing Figure 3-B.9

10 Turbulence Is Primarily Caused by Jet streams Convective currents Obstructions to wind flow Windshear Figure 3-B.10

11 Clear Air Turbulence (CAT) Is Characterized by Marked Changes in Pressure Temperature Wind direction Wind velocity Figure 3-B.11

12 Mountain Wave Turbulence Figure 3-B.12

13 Windshear Figure 3-B.13

14 Thunderstorms Figure 3-B.14

15 Microbursts Cloud Base Virga or rain Horizontal vortex Downdraft Outflow front 1000 ft 0 Approximate scale 1000 ft Outflow Figure 3-B.15

16 Wake Turbulence Figure 3-B.16

17 Airplane Icing Figure 3-B.17

18 System-Anomalies Induced Airplane Upsets Primarily Involve Flight instruments Autoflight systems Flight controls and other anomalies Figure 3-B.18

19 System-Anomalies Induced Airplane Upsets Figure 3-B.19

20 Flight Instruments Figure 3-B.20

21 Autoflight Systems Figure 3-B.21

22 Flight Control and Other Anomalies Figure 3-B.22

23 Pilot-Induced Causes of Airplane Upset Include Instrument misinterpretation or slow cross-check Inattention and distraction from primary cockpit duties Vertigo or spatial disorientation Figure 3-B.23

24 Instrument Cross-Check Figure 3-B.24

25 Distraction Figure 3-B.25

26 Vertigo or Spatial Disorientation Figure 3-B.26

27 Improper Use of Airplane Automation Figure 3-B.27

28 Causes of Airplane Upsets Summary 1. Environmental: Turbulence, CAT, mountain wave, windshear, thunderstorms, microbursts, wake turbulence, and airplane icing 2. Systems anomalies: Flight instruments, autoflight systems, and flight control anomalies 3. Pilot induced: Instrument cross-check, inattention and distraction from primary cockpit duties, vertigo or spatial disorientation, and improper use of airplane automation Figure 3-B.28

29 Swept-Wing Airplane Fundamentals Will Overview Flight dynamics Energy states Load factors Aerodynamic flight envelope Aerodynamics Figure 3-B.29

30 Flight Dynamics Figure 3-B.30

31 The Three Sources of Energy Available to the Pilot Are 1. Kinetic energy, which increases with increasing speed 2. Potential energy, which is approximately proportional to altitude Figure 3-B.31

32 Energy Relationships Kinetic energy Aerodynamic forces, maneuver capability Potential energy Chemical energy Figure 3-B.32

33 Load Factors Four Forces of Flight Drag Lift = 1 x weight Weight Thrust Level flight path Figure 3-B.33

34 Load Factors Airplane in Pull-Up Lift > 1 x weight Flight path is curved. Weight Figure 3-B.34

35 Aerodynamic Flight Envelope Load factor Flaps down Flaps up V = flaps up 1-g stall S1 speed V A V C = design maneuver speed, flaps up = design structured cruising speed 0 V S1 V A V C V D Airspeed V D = design dive speed -1 Flaps up Maximum operating altitude M MO = maximum operating Mach number M MO M DF M DF = maximum flightdemonstrated Mach number Altitude Stall speed* V MO V DF = maximum operating airspeed = maximum flightdemonstrated airspeed Airspeed V MO V DF * Function of airplane configuration and load factor. Figure 3-B.35

36 Angle of Attack Flight path vector Angle of attack is the difference between pitch attitude and flight path angle (assumes no wind). Velocity Angle of attack Flight path angle Pitch attitude Horizon Figure 3-B.36

37 Stalls Figure 3-B.37

38 Camber Mean camber line Leading edge Trailing edge Chord line Cambered Airfoil Symmetrical Airfoil Modern Aft-Cambered Airfoil Figure 3-B.38

39 Trailing Edge Control Surfaces Angle of attack Relative wind Lift coefficient Deflected control No deflection Stall Control surface deflection Angle of attack Figure 3-B.39

40 Spoiler Devices Spoiler deflected Separation region Spoiler deflected Separation region Flaps Up Flaps Down Figure 3-B.40

41 Trim Smaller additional deflection available, this direction Maximum deflection Deflected trim tab holds surface away from neutral position Larger additional deflection available, this direction Maximum deflection Figure 3-B.41

42 Lateral and Directional Aerodynamic Considerations The magnitude of coupled roll-due-to-sideslip is determined by several factors, including Wing dihedral effects Angle of sideslip Pilot-commanded sideslip Figure 3-B.42

43 Wing Dihedral Angle Dihedral angle Figure 3-B.43

44 Angle of Slideslip Left rudder, right aileron/ spoiler Crosscontrolled Relative wind Sideslip angle Airplane velocity Relative wind Spoilers up Aileron down Aileron up Rudder deflected left to hold sideslip angle Figure 3-B.44

45 High-Speed, High-Altitude Characteristics Gross weight, kg x Altitude margin Altitude x Lowspeed margin True Mach number (M T ) Highspeed margin Ref. line Bank angle, deg CG percent MAC Normal acceleration to initial buffet, g Coefficient of lift Cruise altitude Coefficient of lift Cruise altitude Mach Mach Mach Airplane A Airplane B Airplane C Coefficient of lift Cruise altitude Figure 3-B.45

46 Static Stability Stable When ball is displaced, it returns to its original position. Unstable When ball is displaced, it accelerates from its original position. Neutral When ball is displaced, it neither returns, nor accelerates away it just takes up a new position. Figure 3-B.46

47 Maneuvering in Pitch Lift Drag Wing-body moment Tail lift Tail distance Wing distance Thrust Engine distance Weight (Moment) Tail (Moment) (Moment) (Moment) = Lift Thrust Wing-body Tail Tail + Wing Wing * * + Thrust lift distance lift distance * Engine distance + (Moment) Wing-body Total pitching moment = Total pitching moment Figure 3-B.47

48 Mechanics of Turning Flight Additional lift required so that vertical component still equals weight Lift Horizontal component produces curved flight path = turn Weight 4 3 Load factor, g's Bank angle, deg Figure 3-B.48

49 Lateral Maneuvering Roll Axis Lateral axis Longitudinal axis Roll Vertical axis Center of gravity Figure 3-B.49

50 Lateral Maneuvering Flight Dynamics Figure 3-B.50

51 Directional Maneuvering Yaw Axis Yaw Lateral axis Longitudinal axis Vertical axis Center of gravity Figure 3-B.51

52 Flight at Extremely Low Airspeeds Figure 3-B.52

53 Flight at Low Airspeeds and Thrust Effects Figure 3-B.53

54 Flight at Extremely High Speeds Figure 3-B.54

55 Summary of Swept-Wing Fundamentals Flight dynamics: Newton s laws Energy states: kinetic, potential, and chemical Load factors: longitudinal, lateral, and vertical Aerodynamic flight envelope: operating and demonstrated speeds Aerodynamics: the relationship of angle of attack and stall Figure 3-B.55

56 Airplane Upset Recovery Figure 3-B.56

57 Situational Awareness During an Airplane Upset Recognize and confirm the situation by the following key steps: Communicate with crew members Locate the bank indicator Determine pitch attitude Confirm attitude by reference to other indicators Figure 3-B.57

58 The Miscellaneous Issues Associated With Upset Recovery Have Been Identified by Pilots who have experienced an airplane upset Pilot observations in a simulator-training environment And they are associated with The startle factor Negative g force Full control inputs Counter-intuitive factors Figure 3-B.58

59 Startle Factor Figure 3-B.59

60 Negative G Force Figure 3-B.60

61 Use of Full Control Inputs Figure 3-B.61

62 Nonintuitive Factors Figure 3-B.62

63 Airplane Upset Recovery Techniques Will Include a Review of the Following Airplane Upset Situations: Nose high, wings level Nose low, wings level High bank angles: Nose high Nose low And a review of recommended upset recovery techniques based on two basic airplane upset situations: Nose high Nose low Figure 3-B.63

64 Airplane Upset Recovery Techniques Stall characteristics Buffeting Lack of pitch authority Lack of roll control Inability to arrest descent rate Figure 3-B.64

65 Nose-High, Wings-Level Recovery Techniques Recognize and confirm the situation Disengage autopilot and autothrottle Figure 3-B.65

66 Nose-High, Wings-Level Recovery Techniques Apply as much as full nosedown elevator Figure 3-B.66

67 Nose-High, Wings-Level Recovery Techniques Roll to obtain a nosedown pitch rate Figure 3-B.67

68 Nose-High, Wings-Level Recovery Techniques Reduce thrust (underwingmounted engines) Figure 3-B.68

69 Nose-High, Wings-Level Recovery Techniques Complete the recovery: Approaching horizon, roll to wings level Check airspeed and adjust thrust Establish pitch attitude Figure 3-B.69

70 Nose-Low, Wings-Level Recovery Techniques Recognize and confirm the situation Figure 3-B.70

71 Nose-Low, Wings-Level Recovery Techniques Disengage autopilot and autothrot- Figure 3-B.71

72 Nose-Low, Wings-Level Recovery Techniques Recover from stall, if necessary Figure 3-B.72

73 Nose-Low, Wings-Level Recovery Techniques Recover to Level Flight Apply noseup elevator Apply stabilizer trim, if necessary Figure 3-B.73

74 Nose-Low, Wings-Level Recovery Techniques Adjust thrust and drag, as necessary Figure 3-B.74

75 High-Bank-Angle Recovery Techniques Recognize and confirm the situation Disengage autopilot and autothrottle Figure 3-B.75

76 High-Bank-Angle Recovery Techniques Reduce the angle of attack Adjust bank angle to achieve nosedown pitch rate Figure 3-B.76

77 High-Bank-Angle Recovery Techniques Complete the recovery: Approaching the horizon, roll to wings level Check airspeed; adjust thrust Establish pitch attitude Figure 3-B.77

78 High-Bank-Angle Recovery Techniques Recognize and confirm the situation Disengage autopilot and autothrottle Figure 3-B.78

79 High-Bank-Angle Recovery Techniques Reduce the angle of attack, if necessary Figure 3-B.79

80 High-Bank-Angle Recovery Techniques Simultaneously reduce thrust and roll the shortest direction to wings level Figure 3-B.80

81 High-Bank-Angle Recovery Techniques Recover to level flight: Apply noseup elevator Apply stabilizer trim, if necessary Adjust thrust and drag, as necessary Figure 3-B.81

82 Summary of Airplane Recovery Techniques Nose-High Recovery Figure 3-B.82

83 Summary of Airplane Recovery Techniques Nose-High Recovery Recognize and confirm the situation Disengage autopilot and autothrottle Apply as much as full nosedown elevator Figure 3-B.83

84 Summary of Airplane Recovery Techniques Nose-High Recovery Use appropriate techniques: Roll (adjust bank angle) to obtain a nosedown pitch rate Reduce thrust (underwing-mounted engines) Figure 3-B.84

85 Summary of Airplane Recovery Techniques Nose-High Recovery Complete the recovery: Approaching the horizon, roll to wings level Check airspeed; adjust thrust Establish pitch attitude Figure 3-B.85

86 Summary of Airplane Recovery Techniques Nose-Low Recovery Figure 3-B.86

87 Summary of Airplane Recovery Techniques Nose-Low Recovery Recognize and confirm the situation Disengage autopilot and autothrottle Recover from stall, if necessary Figure 3-B.87

88 Summary of Airplane Recovery Techniques Nose-Low Recovery Roll in the shortest direction to wings level: Bank angle to more than 90 deg; unload and roll Figure 3-B.88

89 Summary of Airplane Recovery Techniques Nose-Low Recovery Recover to level flight Apply noseup elevator Apply stabilizer trim, if necessary Adjust thrust and drag, as necessary Figure 3-B.89

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