1 2014 NIFA CRM Contestant Briefing Guide San Diego, California Region 2 SAFECON 2014 November This document supports the 2014 NIFA Collegiate Cockpit Resource Management Simulation and is not for use in real aircraft under any circumstances All Rights Reserved Kestrel Aviation Group LLC
2 NIFA CRM CONTESTANT BRIEFING Overview You are the aircrew for a company flight department conducting this flight operation under FAR Part 91. Today, you are hauling boxes. Aircraft will be at a high gross weight, with the CG within limits. Your routing, weather, and other pertinent information will be provided for you. You will have at least an hour to look over the material before you get into the simulator. The flight will already be planned for you. You will need to familiarize yourselves with the route of flight, airports, weather, and NOTAM s. All the charts and maps necessary will be provided to your crew if desired, otherwise you can use your own paper or electronic charts. NOTE: if you use your own charts, digital or paper, they MUST BE UP TO DATE, just as is the FAA requirement for a real flight in IFR conditions. You will be flying a twin-engine, piston-powered aircraft. We realize that this simulator may represent an aircraft model that you may not be familiar with. We will not grade your ability to fly this type of aircraft, other than grading basic airmanship which includes not crashing the simulator. No autopilot or flight directors will be used. The flying skills that will be judged include adherence to the departure and arrival profiles (including; checklists, briefing guidelines, takeoff, approach and go-around procedures, etc.), as well as basic IFR navigation and airmanship. You will also be judged on your team s compliance with the Federal Aviation Administration regulations that affect this flight (FAR Part 91, AIM, etc.) and, of course, your ability to work as a team on the flight deck. NOTE: There is no flight attendant on this trip.
3 Pilots will be evaluated and judged on a wide variety of items. Every team will be graded the same way, with the same criteria. Here are some of the items that the judges are looking for: General Evaluation: Is there a clear definition of cockpit duties? Are the major elements of CRM in use? Command, Leadership, Resource Management, Communications, Situational Awareness, Decision Making Ability, Workload Management, etc. Is one pilot always flying the airplane? Departure briefing completeness Full Approach briefing for each approach NAVAID set-up (Are radios pre-tuned)? Are OBS/HSI courses preset / set correctly? transponder, etc. Are cleared altitudes selected and verified? Are proper callouts made? (1000 feet to level off, approaching DH, course alive, etc.) Are checklists completed at the appropriate time? Is pertinent weather and NOTAM reviewed at the appropriate time? Are proper IFR procedures followed? Radios and COMM If you need to talk to ATC, set up the simulator radios, and transmit as you normally would in a real aircraft. The judges will respond on the appropriate ATC/FSS facility frequencies, if the radios are set up properly.
4 Phase of Flight - Crew Briefing The crew shall brief, at a minimum, the following items: 1) PRE-DEPARTURE BRIEFING Aircraft Trim Settings, Wind Effect, Takeoff Profile Altimeter Setting, Crew Duties, Clearance/SID Flap Setting, Runway Condition, Terrain/Obstacles Takeoff Power Setting, Rejected Takeoff, Traffic Watch, Airspeeds Emergency contingency after airborne 2) APPROACH BRIEFING Chart Number / Date / Airport Name / ATIS NAVAIDS & Frequencies NOTAMS Final Approach Speed FAF/Crossing Altitude Missed Approach Point / Decision Height or Decision Altitude Missed Approach Procedure Runway Exit Plan 3) CONTINGENCY OR EMERGENCY BRIEFING (as desired or required) Engine Fire or Failure during any phase Any other contingency requiring immediate action by the crew Standard Callouts and Procedures The following callouts should be considered Standard to our CRM event. They simulate common calls made today in the commercial aviation industry. NOTE: For our purposes, PIC = Pilot In Command, PF = Pilot Flying, PM (or PNF) = Pilot Monitoring. The Pilot in Command can assign flying duties to the Pilot Monitoring at any time during the flight, however the Pilot in Command is responsible for the aircraft and the crew at all times, whether he is actually flying the aircraft or monitoring the aircraft s flight progress. Standard operational callouts will help keep both pilots focused on the task at hand. They are divided into PF pilot flying and PM pilot monitoring responsibilities. For example, just after rotation, when the altimeter and VSI indicate a positive rate of climb, the PM will call Positive rate, The PF will respond with Gear up. The PM then places the gear handle to the up position.
5 The calls below are not the only callouts the competitors should make. For example, if the PF is maneuvering low on the glideslope [or non-precision approach], or, is getting slow on approach speed [or over-speeding the aircraft in cruise flight], the PM should announce Glideslope or say Airspeed, and state whatever the non-standard condition exists at that moment. The PF will acknowledge with Correcting, and correct the condition. Good CRM is not limited by a fixed list of callouts. Appropriate calls should be made by the PM whenever the aircraft s energy state, lateral or horizontal position is not consistent with what is required for a safe, successful outcome for any given phase of flight (or specific maneuver). Examples of good PF and PM situational awareness callouts, during various phases of flight, are listed/suggested below: Takeoff PM When the Before Take Off Checklist is complete, the PM will announce, Before Take Off Checklist Complete. PF - The pilot flying will visually observe that the flaps are properly set, engine instruments are normal, and that the aircraft trim setting is reasonable, and reply, Verified, and then issue the command to Set Power, while physically advancing the throttles for take-off. PM - Replies Power Set after refining and ensuring that the engine power is set properly for take-off, and all engine gauges indicate normal engine function, at that moment in time. PM - V1, VR, (V2), when such speeds are reached (not appropriate in all aircraft). PF - Rotates the aircraft to the initial pitch setting, and the aircraft lifts off the ground. PM - Says Positive Rate when the altimeter and VSI indicate a positive rate of climb. PF - Commands Gear Up, the PM then places the gear handle to the UP position.
6 Climb Out PF - Above 1,500 feet, the PF calls for the Climb Checklist. The PM will complete the Climb Checklist items, while refining and monitoring the initial climb power setting, at the same time maintaining a traffic watch regardless of atmospheric condition (VFR condition = visual - lookout the window, IFR flights = TCAS awareness, if available). PM also talks on the radios to ATC. PM - When the Climb Checklist is complete, the PM will say, Climb Checklist complete. After climbing above the first segment of the climb profile, the PF maintains the appropriate climb power setting and airspeed with his hand on the throttles as the aircraft climbs to an intermediate altitude. PM monitors the rate of climb, pitch attitude, and engine gauges (also traffic watch), during this phase of flight. Cruise PF When the aircraft levels off at the assigned cruise altitude, and is stable at that altitude, the PF calls for the Cruise Checklist. PM - The PM will again set/adjust the cruise power setting, and complete the items on the cruise checklist. When the Cruise Checklist is completed, the PM will announce, Cruise Checklist Complete. Descent PF - The PF will call for the Descent Checklist as soon as practical, prior to, or immediately thereafter commencing the beginning of the descent. The PM will then complete the Descent Checklist. PM When the descent checklist is complete, the PM will announce Descent Checklist Complete. Approach and Landing Prior to beginning an approach for landing, PF will brief the approach with the PM. PF Commands Before Landing Checklist. PM Conducts the Before Landing Checklist as appropriate (timing-wise).
7 PF Commands various flap settings for landing. PM sets the flap setting as commanded by the PF. PF Commands, Gear Down, when appropriate. PM Moves the landing gear lever (or switch) to the gear down position, and announces, Gear Down. PM - Ensures all items complete on the Before Landing Checklist (and/or Landing Checklist), and announces, Before Landing Checklist Complete. (May also be Landing Checklist Complete [aircraft dependent]). PF - Commands Landing Flaps The PM will set the final landing flap position. Precision Approach PM - Localizer Alive when the localizer comes alive, and moves from full-scale deflection towards center. PM - Glideslope Alive when the glideslope comes alive and moves off full-scale deflection towards center. PM when 200 feet above the appropriate minimums for the approach. PM when 100 feet above the appropriate minimums for the approach. PM - Runway In Sight if the runway, or runway environment (runway lights, approach lighting system, etc), is in sight upon reaching the appropriate minimum altitude for the approach being flown Or; PM - Go-Around, if the runway or runway environment (runway lights, approach lighting system, etc), is not in sight, upon reaching the appropriate minimum altitude for the approach being flown.
8 Go-Around NOTE: Go Around, and Missed Approach events should be conducted in a calm and orderly fashion; it s not a fire drill! PF or PM If the pilot flying or the pilot monitoring determines at any point during the approach, (whether it be a visual approach, or instrument approach), that the aircraft is not continuously in a position to safely and successfully complete the desired approach, the callout Go Around is made. PF - The flying pilot commands Max Power, while simultaneously pushing the throttles toward max power (or go around power as appropriate) and rotating the aircraft to the desired go-around pitch attitude. PM - When the altimeter and VSI indicate a positive rate of climb, the PM states Positive Rate. PF - Commands Gear Up, the PM then places the gear handle or switch to the UP position. PF - Commands (at the appropriate speed) Flaps Up. PM - Sets the flaps appropriately, as commanded by the PF. PM After the flaps are set, the PM adjusts the climb power setting, and observes all engine parameters are within limits for the go around / missed approach, and climb out, maintains traffic watch if VFR, and communicates with ATC. PM also talks the pilot through the missed approach procedure and assists with NAV radio set-up if requested by the PF. PF - Complete the missed approach/go around climb segment utilizing normal climb procedures to the assigned, or published missed approach altitude, and fly the missed approach course as published, or directed by ATC. PF - Calls for the Climb checklist at 1,500 feet above the airport, and prepares for either, another approach, a holding pattern, or a divert to alternate airport. PF also calls for the Cruise checklist if appropriate.
9 Generic Flight Profiles NOTE: The following are generic flight profiles for your reference only. Please use the actual simulator checklist for appropriate procedures and speeds for the aircraft to be flown in this CRM session. You will not be tested on this information, it is just an example of the various flight segments. Takeoff and Climb Profile Takeoff Roll, and Initial Climb - Props full forward - Power full - Rotate at 75 knots - Pitch 7-8 degrees nose up (At 500 feet and 100 knots) - Flaps up 1,500 feet above the Airport - Climb checklist - Props 2,500 RPM - MP full knots climb speed Cruising altitude - Complete cruise checklist - Props 2,400 RPM - MP 24 Precision Approach Initial Arrival - Obtain ATIS - Brief approach - Complete descent checklist - Clean configuration - 130/140 knots Approach Inbound or Outbound for Procedure Turn - Approach flaps set knots - ILS identified
10 One Dot Low On Glideslope - Landing gear down - Landing checklist - Approach flaps set Glideslope Intercept knots minimum Visual and Landing Assured - Full flaps selected - Transition to Vref (80 knots full flaps/100 knots no flaps) - Power to idle crossing the threshold Go-Around - Max. power - Initial pitch 8-10 degrees nose up - Airspeed Vref (80 knots full flaps/100 knots no flaps) - Establish normal takeoff climb procedures and airspeeds when clear of obstacles - Flaps Up - Gear Up - Follow missed approach procedures - Complete climb and cruise checklists as appropriate Holding - Landing gear up - Flaps up knots - Tell ATC when In the hold, get EFC
11 Generic CRM SCORE SHEET The following generic score sheet gives examples of basic penalty points that will be assessed for errors made during the LOFT. The actual point values may vary greatly during the event given the gravity of the omission or error. All teams will be given the same penalty points for the same error or omission. This sheet is only intended to guide the contestants in the correct direction during their preparation. EVENT ON GROUND BEFORE TAKEOFF DEPARTURE BRIEFING Airspeeds Trim Altimeter Setting Flap Setting Takeoff Power Setting Wind Crew Duties Runway Condition Rejected Takeoff Takeoff Profile Clearance/SID Terrain/Obstacles Traffic Watch Sterile Cockpit Enroute Weather Destination Weather DEPARTURE CLEARANCE Clearance limit Route Altitude Departure Frequency Transponder code Clearance Read-back Incorrect PENALTY POINTS 20 points
12 BEFORE TAXI Before start checklist not completed or called complete Comm radios not set-up NAV radios not set-up S.I.D. not correctly set-up HIS not set for departure ANY GENERAL IFR/CRM ERRORS BEFORE TAKE-OFF Fail to set heading prior to taking the active runway Fail to identify NAVAID (if appropriate) Before takeoff checklist not completed PF/PM not sharing appropriate duties ANY GENERAL IFR/CRM ERRORS During Takeoff Before Takeoff / Takeoff checklist not completed Improper takeoff procedure Missed callouts: Set Power Power Set V1/Vr Positive Rate Gear Up PF/PM not sharing appropriate duties ANY GENERAL IFR/CRM ERRORS DURING CLIMB Improper climb procedure Fails to switch to departure 1 Climb checklist not completed Does not make a crossing restriction Fails to keep needle centered on scale during S.I.D. Full-scale needle deflection during S.I.D. PF/PM not sharing appropriate duties ANY GENERAL IFR/CRM ERRORS 25 points 20 points 5 points 5 points 5 points 5 points 5 points 25 points 0 points 200 points 100 points 200 points 25 points
13 ENROUTE NAVIGATION ONCE CLEARED ON COURSE Proper VOR s not selected TO/FROM indication incorrect NAVAID not identified HSI/OBS not set properly (±3 degrees) Missed Course alive callout (PM) Intercept course beyond 10 nm 20 points Changeover point of airway and fails set up new NAVAID 15 points Fails to identify NAVAID Fails to set-up NAVAID properly 1,000 feet to level off call missing Altitude deviation for any reason (from assigned) 100 points PF/PM not sharing appropriate duties 25 points ANY GENERAL IFR/CRM ERRORS During Cruise Cruise checklist not completed Failure to identify NAVAID Failure to properly set-up NAVAID Excessive airway deviation Changeover point of airway and fails set up new NAVAID PF/PNF not sharing appropriate duties ANY GENERAL IFR/CRM ERRORS 40 points 15 points 25 points During Arrival Fails to get or consider Wx/Field conditions 3 Failure to get weather after divert 100 points Fails to reset local altimeter before starting approach 200 points Descent checklist not completed VOR needle within 1/3 scale deflection during arrival 75 points 1,000 feet to level off not called PF/PNF not sharing appropriate duties 25 points ANY GENERAL IFR/CRM ERRORS
14 Precision approach Failure to brief the following items: Approach Chart / Index Number / Date Name of Airport ATIS NOTAMS Approach/Landing Speed Landing Flap setting Minimum Safe Altitude NAVAIDS and Frequencies Final Approach Course FAF/Crossing Altitude Minimums Missed Approach Point Missed Approach Procedure + Alt Runway Length & Exit Plan FAILURE TO SET-UP APPROACH WHILE VECTORING Radios not pre-tuned after receiving vector ILS not identified HSI/OBS not set-up OM/MM not set up Procedure Turn (if applicable) Fails to do procedure turn Time not used for procedure turn Completes procedure turn incorrectly Exceeds 10 nm (or other limit) from the FAF/FAP Reverse sensing inbound from procedure turn Approach flaps not set Localizer Alive not called out Localizer not intercepted Glideslope Alive not called out Glideslope not intercepted Gear Down; Landing Checklist not called Landing checklist not completed Landing without landing clearance 400 points 20 points 300 points 500 points 1 2 FINAL COURSE DEVIATIONS (1/2 GLIDESLOPE 1/3 LOCALIZER) Prior to final approach fix After final approach fix 300 points
15 FULL SCALE COURSE DEVIATIONS (Executes missed approach) Prior to final approach fix 100 points After final approach fix 300 points FULL SCALE COURSE DEVIATIONS (No missed approach) Prior to final approach fix 300 points After final approach fix DQ MISSED CALLOUTS above above above - Minimums; Runway In (not in) Sight - Sink Rate (Greater than 1,000 fpm, below 1,000 ) - Landing Flaps Land without flaps in the landing position Unable to land from the approach due to pilot error 1 Failure to turn on pilot controlled lighting 100 points GO AROUND (IF APPLICABLE) Go Around not executed in a timely manner 100 points - Max Power/Approach Flaps - Positive Rate/Gear Up Improper Go-Around power setting Improper Go-Around configuration 20 points Should have gone missed but did not 3 Turn started too early/late during go around 100 points Missed approach not set up during the approach Missed approach not set up properly by PM Hold pattern not briefed properly/timely manner Climb / Cruise checklist not completed 100 points End of Document