ENGINE FIRE / SEVERE DAMAGE / SEPARATION ON TAKEOFF

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1 ENGINE FIRE / SEVERE DAMAGE / SEPARATION ON TAKEOFF According to RYANAIR Procedures PF PM REMARKS Control the aircraft (FULL T/O thrust can be manually selected) Announce «ENGINE FAILURE» or «ENGINE FIRE» Ask «GEAR UP» Respond «POSITIVE RATE» Ask «HEADING SEL» Ask «STATE THE MALFUNCTION» Ask «ENGINE FIRE, SEVERE DAMAGE OR SEPARATION RECALL ITEMS» Ask «BUG UP» Ask «FLAPS 1» Ask «FLAPS UP» Ask «LEVEL CHANGE / MAXIMUM CONTINUOUS THRUST» Call «COMMAND A» and engage A/P. Call «MY R/T» and take radio. Ask «ENGINE FIRE,SEVERE DAMAGE OR SEPARATION NON-NORMAL CHECK-LIST» ABOVE 400 FEET Select HDG SEL on MCP and bank angle 15 if necessary Check engine parameters Respond «ENGINE SEIZURE ENGINE NUMBER 1» Ask «AUTOTHROTTLE OFF, THRUST LEVER CLOSE, CONFIRM NUMBER 1?» Ask «START LEVER CUT OFF NUMBER 1, CONFIRM?» Ask «ENGINE FIRE WARNING SWITCH PULL NUMBER 1, CONFIRM?» Call «ENGINE FIRE, SEVERE DAMAGE OR SEPARATION RECALL ITEMS COMPLETED» MFRA (Minimum Flaps Retraction Altitude) Announce for ex: «RYANAIR XXX MAYDAY- MAYDAY-MAYDAY, RUNWAY HEADING, CLIMBING 3000 FEET, STANDBY» Select Bug Up Respond «SPEED CHECKS, FLAPS 1» Select Flaps 1 Respond «SPEED CHECKS, FLAPS UP» Select Flaps Up then call «FLAPS UP NO LIGHT» Select LEVEL CHANGE and select PERF / N1 LIMIT page on FMS then select CONT Take the QRH and read the appropriate C/L Perform items of the C/L PF controls the aircraft on the ground using Rudder. PM calls out Engine failure or Engine Fire. Do not indicate which engine has failed or diagnose the cause of the failure at this point.. At Vr, PF rotates slowly to an initial target attitude of 12.5 degrees. The rate of rotation is 2.5 degrees per second. When the Flight Director adjusts to the engine failure follow it accurately and trim the aircraft. PF flies at V2 to V2+20 and continue straight ahead or proceed for an Emergency turn at V2* Note: If an engine failure occurs during takeoff, the FD pitch command target speed is: V2, if airspeed is < V2 existing speed, if airspeed is between V2 and V V2 + 20, if airspeed is > V PM should actively assist and prompt the PF. PM identifies out loud the failure by crosschecking the engine indications (e.g. «No N1 rotation, engine number one»). PM then calls out the specific failure e.g. «Engine Seizure, Engine number one». The PF confirms this. Complete the recall items aloud, no aural crosscheck except thrust lever, start lever and fire warning switch In this example, there is no evidence of fire. MAYDAY message could have been passed before, time permitting For Flaps 5 takeoff PM adjusts thrust on live engine. PF climbs at the UP speed until above MSA. The Non Normal Checklist is always requested by PF at or above the MSA, when the aircraft is under control. Because the APU will take approximately 30 secs to start, at the item APU START IF AVAILABLE, the PF will ask the PM to take radio and ask for latest weather (requested airport of diversion) to ATC. Page 1

2 PF PM REMARKS Ask «AFTER TAKEOFF CHECK-LIST» Call «ENGINE FIRE, SEVERE DAMAGE OR SEPARATION NON-NORMAL CHECK-LIST COMPLETED» when C/L is completed Respond «AFTER TAKEOFF CHECK-LIST COMPLETED» when C/L is completed When AFTER TAKEOFF C/L is completed: - Check WXR (DEP / /ALT) if not checked - Check QRH Performance data (at least landing distance) - Take decision and inform ATC / Company - Set FMC & NAVAIDS - Inform CSS with the NITS drill ** * Emergency Turn procedure requires that the aircraft is flown at V2 and 15 degrees bank angle until the turn is completed i.e. the defined track is established and the minimum flap retraction altitude is reached. Once these two conditions are met, the aircraft may be accelerated to bug up. ** NITS means: F/O takes control while Captain takes PA and asks «NUMBER 1 TO THE FLIGHT DECK IMMEDIATELY» Captain starts the NITS (See Evacuation Briefing) to the Number 1 by saying distinctly «THIS IS A NITS DRILL, PLEASE LISTEN CAREFULLY». Take into account that : - An engine failure at or after V1 initially affects yaw much like a crosswind effect. Vibration and noise from the affected engine may be apparent and the onset of the yaw may be rapid. - The airplane heading is the best indicator of the correct rudder pedal input. To counter the thrust asymmetry due to an engine failure, stop the yaw with rudder. - Flying with lateral control wheel displacement or with excessive aileron trim causes spoilers to be raised. If an engine fails between V1 and liftoff, maintain directional control by smoothly applying rudder proportionate with thrust decay. The rate of rotation with an engine inoperative is also slightly slower (1/2 per second less) than that for a normal takeoff. After liftoff adjust pitch attitude to maintain the desired speed. If the engine failure occurs at or after liftoff apply rudder and aileron to control heading and keep the wings level. In flight, correct rudder input approximately centers the control wheel. To center the control wheel, rudder is required in the direction that the control wheel is displaced. This approximates a minimum drag configuration. Liftoff attitude depicted in the following tables should be achieved in approximately 5 seconds. Adjust pitch attitude, as needed, to maintain desired airspeed of V2 to V2+20 knots. The following diagram and table show the effect of flap position on liftoff pitch attitude and minimum tail clearance during takeoff with one engine inoperative. Additionally, the last column shows the pitch attitude for tail contact with wheels on the runway and landing gear struts extended. The tail strike pitch attitude remains the same as during takeoffs with all engines operating. Page 2

3 The initial climb attitude should be adjusted to maintain a minimum of V2 and a positive climb. After liftoff the flight director provides proper pitch guidance. Cross check indicated airspeed, vertical speed and other flight instruments. The flight director commands a minimum of V2, or the existing speed up to a maximum of V If the flight director is not used, attitude and indicated airspeed become the primary pitch references. Retract the landing gear after a positive rate of climb is indicated on the altimeter. The initial climb attitude should be adjusted to maintain a minimum of V2. If an engine fails at an airspeed between V2 and V2 + 20, climb at the airspeed at which the failure occurred. If engine failure occurs above V2 + 20, increase pitch to reduce airspeed to V and maintain V until reaching acceleration height. The flight director roll mode commands wings level or HDG SEL (as installed) after liftoff until LNAV engagement or another roll mode is selected. If ground track is not consistent with desired flight path, use HDG SEL/LNAV to achieve the desired track. Indications of an engine fire, impending engine breakup or approaching or exceeding engine limits, should be dealt with as soon as possible. Accomplish the appropriate recall checklist items as soon as the airplane is under control, the gear has been retracted and a safe altitude (typically 400 feet AGL or above) has been attained. Accomplish the reference checklist items after the flaps have been retracted and conditions permit. Page 3

4 If an engine failure has occurred during initial climb, accomplish the appropriate checklist after the flaps have been retracted and conditions permit. Obstacle clearance or departure procedures may require a special engine out departure procedure. - If an immediate turn is required, initiate the turn at the appropriate altitude (normally at least 400 feet AGL). Maintain V2 to V knots with takeoff flaps while maneuvering. - Emergency Turn Procedure (ETP) requires that the aircraft is flown at V2 and 15 degrees bank angle until the turn is completed i.e. the defined track is established and the minimum flap retraction altitude is reached. Once these two conditions are met, the aircraft may be accelerated to bug up. Note: Limit bank angle to 15 until V knots. Bank angles up to 30 are permitted at V knots with takeoff flaps. Without Emergency Turn Procedure At engine out acceleration height, select flaps up maneuvering speed on the MCP. Engine-out acceleration and climb capability for flap retraction are functions of airplane thrust to weight ratio. The flight director commands a near level or a slight climb (0-200 fpm) flap retraction segment. Accelerate and retract flaps on the flap-speed schedule. If the flight director is not being used at acceleration height, decrease pitch attitude to maintain approximately level flight while accelerating. Retract flaps on the flap-speed schedule. As the airplane accelerates and flaps are retracted, adjust the rudder pedal position to maintain the control wheel centered and trim to relieve rudder pedal pressure. If an engine failure has occurred during initial climb, accomplish the appropriate checklist after the flaps have been retracted and conditions permit. After flap retraction and at flaps up maneuvering speed, select LVL CHG, set maximum continuous thrust (CON) and continue the climb to the obstacle clearance altitude. Initiate the appropriate engine failure non-normal checklist followed by the After Takeoff checklist when the flaps are up and thrust is set. Remain at flaps up maneuvering speed until all obstructions are cleared (until above MSA), then select the engine-out schedule from the CDU CLB page (depending on the next course of action). Ensure the autothrottle is disconnected before reaching level off altitude. After level off, set thrust as needed. When an engine failure occurs after takeoff, noise abatement is no longer a requirement. Engine Failure During Assumed Temperature Method A reduced thrust takeoff using the ATM is based on a minimum climb gradient that clears all obstacles with an engine failure after V1. If an engine failure occurs during an ATM takeoff, based on takeoff performance data, it is not necessary to increase thrust on the remaining engine. However, if more thrust is desired during an ATM takeoff, thrust on the operating engine may be increased to full takeoff thrust by manually advancing the thrust levers. This is because the takeoff speeds consider VMCG and VMCA with full takeoff thrust for the actual temperature. Advancing the operating engine to full takeoff thrust provides additional performance margin. This additional performance margin is not a requirement of the reduced thrust takeoff certification and its use is at the discretion of the flight crew. Engine Failure During a Fixed Derate Takeoff During a fixed derate takeoff, the takeoff speeds at low gross weights may not provide a safe operating margin to minimum control if the thrust levers are advanced beyond the fixed derate limit. A thrust increase beyond the fixed derate limit following an engine failure, could result in loss of directional control and should not be accomplished unless, in the opinion of the captain, terrain contact is imminent. This is because the takeoff speeds consider VMCG and VMCA at the fixed derate level of thrust. Page 4

5 Engine Failure During a Combined Takeoff During a takeoff using both ATM and fixed derate methods of reduced thrust, the takeoff speeds at low gross weights may not provide a safe operating margin to minimum control if the thrust levers are advanced beyond the fixed derate limit. This is because the takeoff speeds consider VMCG and VMCA only at the fixed derate level of thrust for the actual temperature. Since the crew has no indication where the fixed derate limit is, a thrust increase should not be accomplished unless in the opinion of the captain, terrain contact is imminent. Do not rotate before Vr. Do not rotate too quickly. Do not over rotate to more than 12.5 degrees initially. Do not try to control direction with aileron only, use rudder. Do not forget to get the gear up. Do not forget the Emergency Turn (if necessary). Do not forget to call ATC with at least a PAN call. Page 5

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