Concept: Concept: Concept: Scientific Method Data Analysis Graphing

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1 UNIT 1 GOAL 1 SCOS CHEMISTRY Scientific Method/Data Analysis Techniques of Scientific Measurement How is the scientific method used to collect, organize, and perform needed calculations with data? Scientific Method Data Analysis Graphing How can the scientific method be used to solve problems? How do you distinguish between scientific research and technology? How would you convert SI unit data into scientific notation and from one unit to another? How can scientific data be used in calculations with correct significant digits and units? How are graphs interpreted? Hypothesis significant digits Circle Graph Theory SI Units Bar Graph Law Scientific Data Line Graph Accuracy and Precision Slope % Error Density

2 UNIT 2 GOAL 2.01/2.02 SCOS CHEMISTRY Matter: Properties/Atomic Structures How can chemical and physical properties be used to describe the differences of the structures in elements, compounds, and mixtures. Classification and laws governing matter. Discovery and Development of Atomic Theory Structure of the Atom What is the difference between physical and chemical properties? How is matter classified by composition? How do compounds/substances obey the law of conservation of mass? How did the scientists contribute to the development of atomic theory? Describe the experiments that led to atomic theory? How do you calculate the number of protons, electrons and neutrons in a neutral atom and an ion? How do you calculate the average atomic mass given the % of isotopes found in nature and their atomic mass? Chemical Property Gold-foil Experiment Atom Physical Property Cathode Ray Tube Ion Law of Cons. Of Mass Dalton s Atomic Theory Isotope Element Oil Drop Experiment Average Atomic Mass Compound Mixture Mass Number Proton Electron Neutron

3 UNIT 3 GOAL 4.04 SCOS CHEMISTRY Nuclear Chemistry What are the types of radioactive decay and how are they used to solve decay & transmutation problems? Radioactive Decay Radioactive Decay and Transmutation Fission and Fusion How do you identify alpha, beta, and gamma radiation? Describe key properties of alpha, beta, and gamma radiation. What is the relationship between unstable nuclei and radioactive decay? How do you apply knowledge to write balanced nuclear equations? How do you solve problems using radioactive decay rate? What are the similarities and differences between nuclear fission and fusion? Radioactivity Half-Life Fission Alpha Particle Transmutation Fusion Beta Particle Radioactive Decay Thermonuclear Reaction Gamma Ray Positron Critical Mass

4 UNIT 4 GOAL 3.01, 4.01 SCOS CHEMISTRY Electron Arrangements, Periodic Table, & Its Properties How is the periodic table used to predict the chemical properties of elements? How is the Bohr Model used to analyze the electron energies in the hydrogen atom? The Bohr Model Electron Configuration Periodic trends and properties What is the difference in the excited state and the ground state of an atom? How is the Bohr model used to determine color, frequency, and wavelength of light emitted? How is the Pauli Exclusion principle, the Aufbau principle and Hund s rule used to write electron configurations and orbital diagrams? How is a Lewis dot diagram derived from an orbital diagram? How do we use the key features of the periodic table to determine similarities and differences in properties of elements? How can the chart be used to determine periodic properties? Wavelength Pauli Exclusion Principle Ionization Energy Frequency Configuration Electronegativity Photon Aufbau Principle Ionic Radii Electromagnetic Spectrum Hund s Rule Atomic Radii Valence Electrons Families of Elements Electron Dot Structure

5 UNIT 5 GOAL 2.03, 2.06, 2.07 SCOS CHEMISTRY Nomenclature, Types of Bonds& Molecular Geometry How do you utilize chemical nomenclature and determine the types of chemical bonds? Nomenclature Ionic Bonds/Metallic Bonds Covalent Bonds How do you write formulas and names of covalent and ionic bonds? How do you write formulas and names for acids and bases? How are ionic bonds formed? How are properties of an ionic bond different from a metallic bond? How are electrons arranged in ionic and metallic bonds? How are covalent bonds formed? How is a Lewis structure for a covalent bond determined? How do use VSEPR to determine geometry? Ionic compounds Chemical Bond VSEPR Covalent compounds Ionic Bond Covalent Bond Acids Metallic Bond Structural Formula Bases Delocalized Electrons Oxidation # s Subscript

6 Types of Chemical Equations and Their Applications UNIT 6 GOAL 5.01,5.02,& 5.03 SCOS CHEMISTRY How do you write chemical equations, describe chemical reactions based on the type of reaction and solubility of the products? Reactions and Equations Classifying Chemical Reactions Reactions in Aqueous Solutions How do you recognize evidence of chemical change? How do you write balanced chemical equations to represent chemical reactions? What are characteristics of different classes of chemical reactions? What is a redox reaction? How are net ionic equations written? How are the types of products predicted in a net ionic equation? Chemical Reaction Synthesis Precipitate Reactant Decomposition Aqueous Solution Product Combustion Net Ionic Equation Chemical Equation Coefficient Single Replacement Double Replacement Oxidation Reduction

7 UNIT 7 GOAL 3.02 SCOS CHEMISTRY Apply the Mole Concept How is the mole concept used to quantify atoms, determine the empirical formula/molecular formulas, find % composition, and the formula of a hydrate? Mole Usage and Calculations. How do you utilize Avogradro s number and molar mass to determine the number of moles? Utilizing the Mole 1: Empirical and Molecular Formulas How is the empiricial formula and molecular formulas for a compound from mass % and actual data calculated? Utilizing the Mole 2: Percent Composition and Hydrates. How do you calculate the % composition of a compound? How do you determine the formula and correctly name a hydrate? Avogradro s Number Empirical Formula % Composition Molar Mass Molecular Formula Hydrate Mole

8 UNIT 8 GOAL 3.03 SCOS CHEMISTRY Apply stoichiometry to a balance chemical equation. How is mathematics applied to chemical equations? Usage of Mole Ratio Usage of limiting reactants. Usage of percentage yield. How can moles of one substance be converted to moles of another substance? How can grams of reactant be converted to moles of reactant? How do limiting reagents (reactants) control a reaction? How is % yield determined? How is % error determined from % yield? Mole Ratio Limiting Reactants Theoretical Yield Stoichiometry Excess Reactants Actual Yield Percent Yield

9 UNIT 9 GOAL 2.05,2.07, & 2.08 SCOS CHEMISTRY States of Matter with the Focus on Gases Using concepts governing gases, determine how they interact quantitatively & qualitatively. Kinetic Molecular Theory Gas Laws Based on Pressure, Volume, and Temperature. Gas Stoichiometry How is the pressure of gases created? How is diffusion quantified? How do forces of attraction effect a substances behavior? How are phase diagrams interpreted? How and when are Boyle s Law, Charles Law, and Gay-Lussac s laws used? How and when is the combined gas law used? How is the mole used in gas laws? How is a balanced equation used to determine volumes of gases produced? Kinetic Molecular Theory Boyle s Law Molar Gas Constant Diffusion (Graham s Law) Charles Law Temperature Gay-Lussac s Law Pressure (manometer) Combined Gas Law Dalton s Law Ideal Gas Law Dispersion Forces STP Surface Tension Phase Diagrams

10 UNIT 10 GOAL 3.02 SCOS CHEMISTRY Solutions and their Quantification How are solutions formed and how are molarity calculations performed? Production of Solutions Solution Quantification Solution Dilution How are Solutions Formed? Which combinations work to produce solutions? How is the molarity (M) of a solution determined? How are solutions prepared? How are solutions diluted? How is the Law of Dilutions used? How are solubility diagrams read? Howa are the concentrations of ions in solutions determined? Solvation Molarity Law of Dilutions Soluble Preparation Stock Solutions Insoluble Solute Immiscible Solvent Solubility Saturated Supersaturated Unsaturated

11 UNIT 11 GOAL 4.02, 4.03 SCOS CHEMISTRY Energy Flow in a Reaction How is energy quantified? How are the energy of reactions quantified? Energy Intake-Energy Production Enthalpy, Entropy, & Free Energy Reaction Rate How is specific heat capacity used to quantify energy gain or release? How is the heat of vaporization and heat of fusion used in phase change quantification? How is enthalpy used to describe reactions? How is entropy used to describe reactions? How is free energy used to describe reactions? How are exothermic and endothermic reactions displayed? How do catalysts effect a reaction? Specific Heat Enthalpy Collision Theory Joule Entropy Heat of Reaction Calorimetry Free Energy Catalysts Energy Spontaneity Activation Energy Collision Theory Activated Complex

12 UNIT 12 GOAL 5.04 SCOS CHEMISTRY Acid and Base Properties How do you determine acid and base properties? Distinguishing and naming acids and bases. Strengths of acids and bases. ph Determination How do you determine acid and bases? How is the strength of acids determined? How is ph used and calculated? How are acids and bases described? How are definitions used to describe acids and bases? How are the strengths of bases determined? How are K values used? How is a neutralization titration performed? Arrehnius Ionization Constant ph Brontsted-Lowry Polyprotic Acids poh Conjugate Acids/Bases Binary Acids Neutralization Reaction Amphoteric Buret Hydrogen ion Indicators Hydronium ion Salt Hydroxide ion

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