# Composition of nucleus. Priority Vocabulary: Electron, Proton, Neutron, Nucleus, Isotopes, Atomic Number, Atomic Mass, Element, Electron Shell,

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1 Lake County, Lakeview, 9 th grade, Physical Science, Brent Starr Standard: H1P1 Explain how atomic structure is related to the properties of elements and their position in the Periodic Table. Explain how the composition of the nucleus is related to isotopes and radioactivity. Prior Knowledge Needed: Atomic structure, Subatomic particles, Elemental families (groups), Isotope, Atomic Mass, Skills Concepts Resources Explain Atomic structure Periodic Table CPO physical science chapter 18, 19, 20. Explain Composition of nucleus Priority Vocabulary: Electron, Proton, Neutron, Nucleus, Isotopes, Atomic Number, Atomic Mass, Element, Electron Shell, Big Ideas Essential Questions The Structure of atoms determines an element s What gives an element its properties? properties The organization of the periodic table is based on properties of elements How does the composition of an element determine the elements placement on the periodic table? Atoms are composed of smaller particles What are the particles that make up an atom? All elements have isotopes How can nuclei of the same element differ? Some nuclei can change because of radioactive decay. How do some nuclei change? Assessments Selected Response Constructed Response Performance Task

2 Lake County, Lakeview, 9 th grade, Physical Science, Brent Starr 1. Why are elements arranged in columns in the periodic table? a. Elements arranged in columns have the same number of valence electrons b. Elements arranged in columns have the same number of neutrons c. Elements arranged in columns have the same number of protons d. Elements arranged in columns have the same number of electrons Answer a. 2. Which subatomic particle of matter is used to identify an element? a. Proton b. Neutron c. Electron d. Nucleus Answer a 3. Which subatomic particles determine the mass of an element? a. protons and electrons b. protons and neutrons c. electons and neutrons d. isotopes and electrons Answer b 4. If the atomic number of Carbon is 6, which of the following particles will always be 6? a. ions b. protons c. neutrons d. valence electrons Answer b

3 Lake County, Lakeview, 9 th grade, Physical Science, Brent Starr 5. How many electrons are there in a neutral atom of magnesium? a. 4 b. 8 c. 12 d. 16 Answer c 6. The isotope carbon 14 has an atomic number of 6. What is the number of neutrons in the nucleus of carbon 14? a. 4 b. 8 c. 12 d. 14 Answer b 7. Would you normally expect the element neon (Ne) to form compounds? a. Yes, but neon is a rare gas and difficult to obtain. b. No, neon needs six electrons to fill its outermost shell. c. Yes, neon needs six electrons to fill its outermost shell. d. No, neon has eight electrons in its outermost level and is stable. Answer d 8. Which of the following particles has a positive one (1+) charge? a. isotopes b. protons c. electrons d. neutrons Answer b 9. The half life of Carbon 14 is about 5730 years. What percentage of carbon 14 would remain after years. a. 100% b. 50% c. 25% d. 12.5% Answer c

4 Lake County, Lakeview, 9 th grade, Physical Science, Brent Starr Physical Science Constructed Response H1P1 Standard: Explain how atomic structure is related to the properties of elements and their position in the Periodic Table. Explain how the composition of the nucleus is related to isotopes and radioactivity. Question: Lithium has an atomic mass of 7; Nitrogen has an atomic number of 7. Explain the difference between the two and why they are in two different families but the same period on the periodic table? Your answer must include the following terms: Protons, Neutrons, Valence Electrons, Atomic Number, Atomic Mass, Families, and Periods. Proficiency: In order to be proficient the student must include - Valence electrons determine the family that an element is in - Atomic number shows the number of protons in an atom - Atomic mass shows the number of protons and neutrons - The period an element is found in is determined from the energy level of the outermost electrons.

5 Jefferson County School District 509J, Madras High School, Grade 10, Physical Science Coles, Vick, Scranton, Tyler, Vega, White & Kezele Standard: H1P1: Explain how atomic structure is related to the properties of elements and their position in the Periodic Table. Explain how the composition of the nucleus is related to isotopes and radioactivity. Prior Knowledge Needed: Skills Concepts Resources Explain Explain (how) atomic structure is related to the properties of elements and position on the Periodic table (how) the composition of nucleus is related to isotopes and radioactivity Priority Vocabulary: electron, proton, neutron, group/family, period, atomic mass, atomic number, mass number, ions, isotopes, radioactivity, periodic table and electric charge, decay, valence electrons. Big Ideas Isotopes are forms of an element with different numbers of neutrons in the nucleus. All elements are composed of the same three subatomic particles and its position on the periodic table is based upon its atomic structure. Radioactive decay is measured in half-lives, is constant over time and results in new element formation. Essential Questions How are elements arranged on the periodic table? Why do different elements have different properties? How does radioactive decay affect the nucleus of the atom? What are the three sub-atomic particles? How are different elements formed from existing elements? What is radioactive half life?

6 Assessments Selected Response Constructed Response Performance Task Selected Response: Physical Science H1P1 Which statement best describes an atom s nucleus? a. The nucleus contains nearly all of the atom s mass, but very little of the volume. b. The nucleus contains nearly half of the atom s mass, but very little of the volume. c. The nucleus contains nearly all of the atom s mass, and nearly all of the volume. d. The nucleus contains half all of the atom s mass, and nearly all of the volume. Answer: a How many neutrons would be found in the isotope Mg-26? a. 12 b. 14 c. 26 d. 38 Answer: b

7 If a radioactive sample has a half-life of 10 years, what fraction of the sample will remain after 30 years? a. 1/8 b. 1/4 c. 1/3 d. 1/2 Answer: a An isotope decreased to one-fourth its original amount in 18 months. What is the half-life of this radioactive isotope? a. 2 months b. 3 months c. 6 months d. 9 months Answer: d Which one of the following particles in the atom change to form an isotope? a. Protons b. Electrons c. Neutrons d. Positrons Answer: c

8 Constructed Response Item#1: H1P1 Question: A new element has just been discovered! It has 3 valence electrons and 130 protons. The atomic mass is 320 a.m.u.. a. Explain how you would determine the type, location and number of each particle in and around the nucleus and include these numbers in your response. b. Explain where we would place this element on the periodic table. How did you determine its placement? c. If a one gram sample were produced and half of it decayed in 15 minutes, explain how much would be left after one hour (in grams)? Proficient: (2 out of 3 complete, quality answers OR one complete and two partially correct responses) Exceeds: (3 out of 3 complete, quality answers) a. By subtracting the atomic number (130) from the atomic mass (320) the number of neutrons can be determined. Therefore, there are 130 protons and 130 electrons and 190 neutrons. The protons and neutrons are in the nucleus and the electrons orbit the nucleus. b. The element should be placed in column 13 under Californium in period 8. We know this because of the 3 valence electrons. (Students might also respond that it goes under another +3 element like iron (Fe)). c. If you start with one gram and the half life is 15 minutes, in one hour four half-lives would occur. You would have 1/16 of a gram or.0625 grams of the original sample after one hour.

9 Constructed Response Item #2: H1P1 Question: Identify an element that would have chemical properties similar to magnesium. Explain your reasoning for choosing this element. Terms that may be used in your answer: valence electrons, group/family, period. Proficient: Correctly chooses an element from Family 2. Correctly justifies answer with 1 of the 2 terms. Exceeds: Correctly chooses an element from Family 2. Correctly justifies answer with both of the terms. Constructed Response #3: H1P1 Question: a. Draw a model of the carbon-14 atom in the space provided. Include the correct number of the subatomic particles in the correct location in the atom. b. Carbon-14 s half-life is about 6000 years and can be used to accurately date matter up to eight half-lives. Using carbon-14 dating, which sample from the list below could most accurately be dated and explain why. Sample list: 5,000 year old skull; 500,000 year old tooth; 5,000,000 year old pine cone; 500,000,000 clam. Proficient: Any one of these and one partial. Exceeds: Both complete.

10 ESD Harney UH1J 9th grade physical science James Driskell Standard: H.1P.1 Explain how atomic structure is related to the properties of elements and their position in the Periodic Table. Explain how the composition of the nucleus is related to isotopes and radioactivity. Prior Knowledge Needed: Sub-atomic particles, Families or Groups, Isotope, Atomic Mass, Skills Concepts Resources Explain How Atomic structure is related to the properties of elements and their position on the Periodic Table. Periodic Table CPO Foundations of Physical Science CPO Atomic game Explain Composition of the nucleus. Priority Vocabulary Proton, Electron, Neutron, Isotopes, Atomic Number, Atomic Mass, Radioactivity, Element, Electron Shell, Nucleus, Big Ideas The structure of atoms determines the properties of an element. There is an organization to the periodic table. Essential Questions How does the structure of an atom determine the properties of an element? Why is the periodic table organized the way it is? Nuclei can change by radioactive decay. How does the structure of an atom s nucleus change by radioactive decay. Assessments Selected Response Constructed Response Performance Task

11 ESD Harney UH1J 9th grade physical science James Driskell Selected Response: Physical Science H1P1 1. Which statement best describes an atom s nucleus? A. Contains nearly all the atom s mass, but very little of the volume B. Contains nearly half the atom s mass, but very little of the volume C. Contains nearly all the atom s mass, and nearly all of the volume D. Contains half the atom s mass and nearly all the volume answer:a 2. How many neutrons does the isotope Mg 26 possess? A. 12 B. 14 C. 26 D. 38 answer:b

12 ESD Harney UH1J 9th grade physical science James Driskell 3. If a radioactive sample has a half life of 10 years, what fraction of the sample will remain after 30 years? A. 1/8 B. 1/4 C. 1/3 D. 1/2 answer: a 4. An isotope decreased to one-fourth its original amount in 18 months. What is the half-life of this radioactive isotope? A. 2 months B. 3 months C. 6 months D. 9 months answer: d 5. How many protons are in the nucleus of a Carbon atom? A. 5 B. 6 C. 7 D. 8 answer: b

13 ESD Harney UH1J 9th grade physical science James Driskell 6. How many neutrons are in the nucleus of a Carbon-12 atom? A. 3 B. 4 C. 5 D. 6 answer: d 1. Why are elements arranged in columns in the periodic table? a. Elements arranged in columns have the same number of valence electrons b. Elements arranged in columns have the same number of neutrons c. Elements arranged in columns have the same number of protons d. Elements arranged in columns have the same number of electrons 2. Which subatomic particle of matter is used to identify an element? a. Proton b. Neutron c. Electron d. Nucleus 3. The number of which subatomic particle determines where an element is located on the periodic table? a. Proton b. Neutron c. Electron d. Nucleus 4. Which subatomic particles determine the mass of an element? a. protons and electrons b. protons and neutrons c. electons and neutrons d. isotopes and electrons 5. If the atomic number of Carbon is 6, which of the following particles will always be 6? a. ions b. protons c. neutrons

14 ESD Harney UH1J 9th grade physical science James Driskell d. valence electrons 6. How many electrons are there in a neutral atom of magnesium? a. 4 b. 8 c. 12 d The isotope carbon 14 has an atomic number of 6. What is the number of neutrons in the nucleus of carbon 14? a. 4 b. 8 c Would you normally expect the element neon (Ne) to form compounds? a. Yes, but neon is a rare gas and difficult to obtain. b. No, neon needs six electrons to fill its outermost shell. c. Yes, neon needs six electrons to fill its outermost shell. d. No, neon has eight electrons in its outermost level and is stable. 9. Which of the following particles has a positive one (1+) charge? a. isotopes b. protons c. electrons d. neutrons

15 ESD Harney UH1J 9th grade physical science James Driskell Constructed Response 1. A new element has just been discovered. It has 3 valence electrons and 130 protons. The atomic mass is 320 amu. a) Explain how you determine the type and number of each sub-atomic particle in and around the nucleus of this element and include these numbers in your response? b) Where would this element be placed on the periodic table. How did you determine this placement? c) If one gram of this element was created and its half-life was determined to be 15 minutes, explain how much would remain after one hour in grams. Meets: Any two of these in complete form or one complete and two partials. Exeeds: All three of these in complete form. a) By subtracting the atomic number 130 from the atomic mass 320 the number of neutrons can be determined. Therefore there are 130 electrons and 190 neutrons. The protons and neutrons are in the nucleus and the electrons orbit the nucleus. b) The element should be placed in column 13 under Californium in period 8. We know this because of the 3 valence electrons. c) If you start with one gram and the half-life is 15 minutes, in one hour four half-lives would have occurred. You would have 1/16 of a gram, or grams of the original sample after one hour. 2. a) Draw a model of a Carbon -14 atom. Include the particle types, and their correct location in the atom. b) The half-life of Carbon -14 is about 6000 years. Using the technique of Carbon-14 dating, explain which sample could most accurately be dated, and explain why. Sample list: 5000 year old skull, year old tooth, year old pine cone, year old clam. Meets: Any one of these and one partial. Exceeds: Both of these in complete form. 3. Although electrons have mass, they are not considered in determining the mass number of an atom. Why? a. The mass of an electron is so small as compared to the mass of a proton and neutron it is considered to be negligible.

16 ESD Harney UH1J 9th grade physical science James Driskell b. Conversely the masses of a proton and a neutron overshadow the electrons. Meets: Any one of these. Exceeds: Both of these in any order. 4. An atom of sodium-23 (atomic number =11) has a positive charge of +1. Given this information, how many electrons does it have? How many protons and neutrons does this atom have? a. The atom has 10 electrons. This is because the atom s overall charge is positive, showing it to be missing an electron. b. The atom has 11 protons to even be sodium (this is required). It has 12 neutrons, because 23(the mass) minus 11 protons equals 12 neutrons. Meets: Any one of these, and one partial. Exceeds: Both of these in complete form. Physical Science Constructed Response H1P1 Standard: Explain how atomic structure is related to the properties of elements and their position in the Periodic Table. Explain how the composition of the nucleus is related to isotopes and radioactivity. Question: Lithium has an atomic mass of 7; Nitrogen has an atomic number of 7. Explain the difference between the two and why they are in two different families but the same period on the periodic table? Include the terms: Protons, Neutrons, Valence Electrons, Atomic Number, Atomic Mass, Families, and Periods. Proficiency: In order to be proficient the student must include - Valence electrons determine the family that an element is in - Atomic number shows the number of protons in an atom

17 ESD Harney UH1J 9th grade physical science James Driskell - Atomic mass shows the number of protons and neutrons - The period an element is found in is determined from the energy level of the outermost electrons.

18 Lake County, Lakeview, 9 th grade, Physical Science, Brent Starr Standard: H1P2 Describe how different types and strengths of bonds affect the physical and chemical properties of compounds. Prior Knowledge Needed: Electrons, Electron configurations, Ions, Characteristics of matter, Compound, Skills Concepts Resources Describe Types of bonds affect physical and chemical properties of compounds. Describe Strengths of bonds affect physical and chemical properties of compounds. Priority Vocabulary Ionic Bonds, Covalent Bonds, Electrons, Energy Levels, Valence Electrons, Ion, Chemical Families, Density, states of matter Big Ideas Covalent bonds are formed by the sharing of electrons. Bonds are formed to stabilize atoms. Ionic bonds are formed by the attraction of opposite charges. Physical and chemical properties are affected by the type of bond. Essential Questions How do atoms form a covalent bond? Why do atoms bond together to form compounds? What creates an opposite charge in an ionic bond? What determines the physical and chemical properties of a compound? Assessments Selected Response Constructed Response Performance Task

19 Lake County, Lakeview, 9 th grade, Physical Science, Brent Starr 1. What is a covalent bond? a. a covalent bond occurs when protons are shared between atoms b. a covalent bond occurs when electrons are shared between atoms c. a covalent bond occurs when neutrons are given up to another compound d. a covalent bond occurs when atoms are given up to compounds answer b 2. Use the periodic table of elements to determine which of the following elements are most likely to form an ionic bond? a. K and Cl b. C and H c. Si and O d. N and O Answer a 3. Sodium Chloride conducts electricity when dissolved in water. What type of bond is present in NaCl? a. Covalent b. Hydrogen c. Ionic d. Nuclear Answer c

20 Lake County, Lakeview, 9 th grade, Physical Science, Brent Starr 4. Which of the following examples best demonstrates the changes needed between atoms to create an ionic bond. a. electrons are exchanged between atoms b. protons are shared between atoms c. the nucleus of an atom is broken down d. neutrons are exchanged between elements Answer a 5. Comparison between two bonds. Bond Type X Bond Type Y Makes compounds Makes Molecules Transfers, gives/ takes electrons shares electrons resulting in a Resulting in noble configuration. noble configuration. Made with metals and nonmetals. Made of nonmetals Examples: NaCl, CaCl 2 Examples: H 2 O, CO 2, NH 3, CH 4 Which of these correctly identifies the bond types? A. X is ionic and Y is covalent B. X is ionic and Y is Hydrogen C. X is covalent and Y is Ionic D. X is hydrogen and Y is covalent Answer a 6. Which type of bond is the strongest? a. Ionic b. covalent c. metallic d. hydrogen Answer b

21 Lake County, Lakeview, 9 th grade, Physical Science, Brent Starr 7. At room temperature which of the following compounds are a gas. a. NaCl b. CH 4 c. MgF 2 d. LiF Answer b 8. Which of the following compounds is most likely to be a solid at room temperature? a. CO 2 b. H 2 c. KCl d. NH 3 Answer c 9. Which chemical family (group) is most likely to form a 1+ ion? a. Halogen b. Noble Gases c. Alkaline Earth Metals d. Alkali Metals Answer d Physical Science Constructed Response H1P2 Standard: Describe how different types and strengths of bonds affect the physical and chemical properties of compounds. Question: Compare and contrast similarities and differences between Ionic and Covalent Bonds. Proficiency: In order to be proficient the student must include - Ionic bonds are between metals and nonmetals, electrons are transferred. - Covalent bonds are between non metals in which electrons are shared. - Both involve filling an electron shell meeting noble configuration

22 Jefferson County School District 509J, Madras High School, Grade 10, Physical Science Coles, Vick, Scranton, Tyler, Vega, White & Kezele Standard: H1P2: Describe how different types and strength of bonds affect the physical and chemical properties of compounds. Prior Knowledge Needed: Identify the differences between physical and chemical properties Skills Concepts Resources Describe (how) types of bonds effect the chemical and physical properties of compounds Priority Vocabulary: Ionic, covalent, metallic bonds, valence electrons, molecules, compound, property, stability, melting point, boiling point, conductivity, malleability, ductility, luster, reactivity. Big Ideas Bonding occurs when elements share, lose or gain electrons to achieve stability. Properties of compounds differ from the properties of the elements from which they are composed and the type of bond between them. Electrons are shared in covalent bonds, transferred in ionic bonds and free to move in metallic bonds. Essential Questions Why do elements bond? What is the difference between an element and a compound? How do ionic and covalent bonds differ? Assessments Selected Response Constructed Response Performance Task

23 Selected Response: Physical Science H1P2 Sodium (Na) will form a compound with what group/family on the periodic table? a. Alkali metals. b. Noble gases. c. Transition metals. d. Halogens. Answer: d Which type of bond is the strongest? a. covalent b. hydrogen c. ionic d. metallic Answer: c Which compound would you expect to have the highest boiling point? a. NaCl b. CO 2 c. CuZn d. SF 8 Answer: a

24 Constructed Response Item #1: H1P2 Question: You are given two samples of matter that look identical. You are told that one of them is sugar and the other is sodium chloride (salt). Without tasting, describe how you might distinguish between the two samples, based upon their chemical and physical properties. Include in your answer, which sample is covalently bonded together and which is ionically bonded together. You may use, but are not limited to the following terms: melting point, boiling point, solubility, conductivity. Proficient: Sugar and salt are both soluble in water. Sugar water will not conduct electricity, while salt water will. Sugar has a much lower melting point than salt. Salt forms from an ionic bond and sugar possesses covalent bonds. Exceeds: Includes above information and might also mention that molten salt will also conduct electricity, solubility would be a poor test to distinguish the two and the idea that sugar quickly decomposes upon heating and will not vaporize. Option #2: Put above information in a data table without the identity of the sample and based upon the properties, determine which is sugar and which is salt. Property Compound A Compound B Soluble in Water Yes Yes Conductivity Yes No Melting Point 801 o C 186 o C Boiling Point 1413 o C Decomposes Based on the information in the data table determine which compound is sodium chloride and which is sugar. Justify your answer by explaining the type of bond present in each compound and how that bond affects the chemical and physical properties of the compound. Proficient: Correctly identifies Compound A as salt and Compound B as sugar. Uses 2 of the 4 properties correctly to support their conclusion. Exceeds: Correctly identifies Compound A as salt and Compound B as sugar. Correctly uses all of the properties to support their answer.

25 Constructed Response Item #3: H1P2 Describe why sodium and chlorine form salt with an ionic bond, while hydrogen and oxygen form water with a covalent bond. Meets: Correctly describes an ionic bond as existing between a metal and a non-metal, while a covalent bond occurs between two or more non-metals. Exceeds: Explains how ionic bonds form by the transfer of electrons from the metal to the non-metal in order to achieve compound stability, while covalent (molecular) compounds form by sharing electrons and achieving a similar stability. (Filling up the valence shell with electrons.)

26 ESD Harney UH1J 9th grade physical science James Driskell Standard: H.1P.2 Describe how different types and strengths of bonds affect the physical and chemical properties of compounds. Prior Knowledge Needed: Electrons, Electron Configurations, Ions, Characteristics of Matter, What a compound is, Skills Concepts Resources Describe Bonds and their affects on physical and chemical properties of compounds. Periodic Table CPO Foundations of Physical Science Priority Vocabulary Covalent, Ionic, Electrons, Energy levels, Valence Electrons, Ions, Chemical Families, Density, States of Matter, Stability, Binary Compound, conductivity, malleability, Big Ideas Strong Covalent bonds are formed by the sharing of electrons. Weak ionic bonds are formed by the attraction of opposing charges. Physical and Chemical properties are affected by the type of atomic bonds that formed them. Assessments Essential Questions How do two atoms form a covalent bond? How do two atoms form an ionic bond? What causes two atoms to form an ionic bond? What determines the physical and chemical properties of a compound?

27 ESD Harney UH1J 9th grade physical science James Driskell Selected Response Constructed Response Performance Task Selected Response: Physical Science H1P2 1. Sodium (Na), will form a compound with what family/group of elements from the Periodic Table? A. Hydrogen Group B. Boron Group C. Helium Group D. Fluorine Group answer:d 2. What type of bond is the strongest? A. Covalent B. Hydrogen C. Ionic D. Metallic answer: a 1. What is a covalent bond? a. a covalent bond occurs when protons are shared between atoms b. a covalent bond occurs when electrons are shared between atoms c. a covalent bond occurs when neutrons are given up to another compound d. a covalent bond occurs when atoms are given up to compounds

28 ESD Harney UH1J 9th grade physical science James Driskell 2. Use the periodic table of elements to determine which of the following elements are most likely to form an ionic bond? a. K and Cl b. C and H c. Si and O d. N and O 3. Sodium Chloride conducts electricity when dissolved in water. What type of bond is present in NaCl? a. Covalent b. Hydrogen c. Ionic d. Nuclear 4. Which of the following examples best demonstrates the changes needed between atoms to create an ionic bond. a. electrons are exchanged between atoms b. protons are shared between atoms c. the nucleus of an atom is broken down d. neutrons are exchanged between elements 5. Comparison between two bonds. Bond Type X Bond Type Y Makes compounds Makes Molecules Transfers, gives/ takes electrons shares electrons resulting in a Resulting in noble configuration. noble configuration. Made with metals and nonmetals. Made of nonmetals Examples: NaCl, CaCl 2 Examples: H 2 O, CO 2, NH 3, CH 4 Which of these correctly identifies the bond types? A. X is ionic and Y is covalent B. X is ionic and Y is Hydrogen

29 ESD Harney UH1J 9th grade physical science James Driskell C. X is covalent and Y is Ionic D. X is hydrogen and Y is covalent Constructed Response 1. You are given two samples of matter that look identical. You are told that one is sugar and the other is sodium chloride (salt). Without tasting, describe how you might distinguish between the two samples, based upon their chemical and physical properties. Include in your answer, which sample is covalently bonded together and which is ionically bonded together. You may use the following terms: melting point, solubility, conductivity. Meets: Sugar and salt are both soluble in water. Sugar water will not conduct electricitiy, while salt water will. Sugar has a much lower metling point than salt. Salt forms from an ionic bond and sugar possesses covalent bonds. Exceeds: Includes all above information and might also mention that molten salt will also conduct electricity, solubility would be a poor test to distinguish the two and the idea that sugar quickly decomposes upon heating and will not vaporize. Option 2: Put above information in a data table Physical Science Constructed Response H1P2

30 ESD Harney UH1J 9th grade physical science James Driskell Standard: Describe how different types and strengths of bonds affect the physical and chemical properties of compounds. Question: Compare and contrast similarities and differences between Ionic and Covalent Bonds. Proficiency: In order to be proficient the student must include - Ionic bonds are between metals and nonmetals, electrons are transferred. - Covalent bonds are between non metals in which electrons are shared. - Both involve filling an electron shell meeting noble configuration Describe why Sodium and Chlorine forms an ionic bond and Hydrogen and Oxygen forms a covalent bond? Meets: Is able to explain that Sodium is a metal and Chlorine is a nonmetal. Hydrogen and Oxygen are both nonmetals. Exceeds: Explain how ionic bonds form by the transfer of electrons from the metal to the non-metal in order to achieve compound stability, while the covalent compounds form by sharing electrons and achieving a similar stability.

31 Lake County, Lakeview, 9 th grade, Physical Science, Brent Starr Standard: H2P1 Explain how chemical reactions result from the making and breaking of bonds in a process that absorbs or releases energy. Explain how different factors can affect the rate of a chemical reaction. Prior Knowledge Needed: Covalent and Ionic Bonds, Energy, What is temperature, Characteristics of matter, Electron configuration, Skills Concepts Resources Explain Explain Chemical reactions make and break bonds requiring or releasing energy Factors effecting chemical reaction Barium chloride and dry ammonium hydroxide (endothermic) (physical) KCl and water (endothermic), Vinegar and Baking Soda. Copper chloride (solution) and aluminum foil. (exothermic) Ammonium hydroxide and sodium thiocyanate Potassium chlorate and gummy bear (exothermic) Priority Vocabulary- Covalent bonds, Ionic Bonds, Surface Area, Temperature, Catalysts, Endothermic, Exothermic, Mole, Atmospheric pressure, Concentration Big Ideas Essential Questions Chemical reactions require or release energy. Why is there a change in temperature during a chemical reaction? The rate of a chemical reaction is dependant on external What factors affect the rate of a chemical reaction? factors. The transformation of a substance requires the breaking How is the formation of new substances accomplished? or forming of a bond. Assessments Selected Response Constructed Response Performance Task

32 Lake County, Lakeview, 9 th grade, Physical Science, Brent Starr Physical Science Selected Response H2P1 1. Which example best illustrates how the rate of a chemical reaction can be accelerated? a. Heating the reactants b. Cooling the reactants c. Heating the products d. Cooling the products Answer - a 2. Which example best explains why a change in temperature occurs during a chemical reaction? a. Heat comes and goes when all compounds are mixed together. b. Reactants were stored at room temperature. c. Energy is absorbed or released when chemical bonds are broken. d. The temperature of products and reactants remains the same. Answer - c 3. How does the concentration of reactants affect the rate of a chemical reaction? a. Decreasing the concentration of reactants has no affect on the rate of a reaction b. Increasing Concentration of reactants increases the rate of a reaction. c. Decreasing Concentration of reactants increases the rate of a reaction. d. Increasing Concentration of reactants has no affect on the rate of reaction Answer - b

33 Lake County, Lakeview, 9 th grade, Physical Science, Brent Starr 4. At the same temperature, at the same pressure, and the same concentration. How can we speed up the rate of a reaction? a. Decrease the mass of the reactants b. Decrease the surface area of the reactants c. Increase the mass of the reactants d. Increase the surface area of the reactants Answer d 5. A solid lump of baking soda weighing 10 g is used in place of the 10 g of powdered baking soda. The change will a. decrease the reaction time, and the bubbles will stop sooner. b. be impossible to predict, given this information. c. have NO effect on the speed of the reaction, and the bubbles will stop in 30 seconds. d. increase the reaction time, and the bubbles will continue for a longer period of time. Answer - d 6. When iodine and ammonium hydroxide are mixed, a precipitate forms, and the temperature changes from 20 degrees C to 16 degrees C. This is an example of what type of reaction? a. Endothermic b. Exothermic c. Acid Base Reaction d. Combustion Answer - a 7. Which type of reaction requires more energy to break the bonds in the reactants than is released when new bonds are formed in the products? a. Endothermic b. Exothermic c. Acid Base Reaction d. Combustion Answer - a 8. Which type of reaction releases more energy when bonds of reactants are broken than is released when new bonds are formed in the products? a. Endothermic b. Exothermic c. Acid Base Reaction d. Combustion

34 Lake County, Lakeview, 9 th grade, Physical Science, Brent Starr Answer b 9. Which of the following examples best explains how a new compound is formed? a. a product and a reactant combine to form a new compound b. two or more products are combined to form a new compound c. bonds of reactants are broken, atoms are rearranged, and new bonds are formed d. increasing the temperature of a substance forms a new compound Answer d Physical Science Constructed Response H2P1 Standard: Explain how chemical reactions result from the making and breaking of bonds in a process that absorbs or releases energy. Explain how different factors can affect the rate of a chemical reaction. Question: List and explain three ways in which you could accelerate the rate of a chemical reaction. Proficiency: In order to be proficient the student must include Need 3 out of 5 - heating the reactants - Increasing the surface area of reactants - Increasing pressure of reactants - Increasing the concentration of reactants - Adding a catalyst

35 JCSD ESD 509J, MHS, 10 Tyler, Scranton, White, Kezele, Vega, Coles, Vick Standard: H2P1 Explain how chemical reactions result from the making and breaking of bonds in a process that absorbs or releases energy, explain how different factors can affect the rate of a chemical reaction. Prior Knowledge Needed: Skills Concepts Resources Explain (how) Chemical reactions result from the making/breaking of bonds and energy changes Priority Vocabulary (how) Chemical reaction rates are affected by temperature, pressure, and concentration Endothermic, exothermic, covalent, ionic, rate, metallic bonds, concentration, pressure, particle size, temperature & catalysts, equilibrium, chemical equation. Big Ideas Essential Questions Chemical reactions will either absorb or release energy which is stored in their bonds. What happens to energy and matter during a chemical reaction? Chemical reactions occur when chemical bonds are broken and reformed. The rate of a reaction is increased by the increases in temperature, pressure, and/or concentration How are reaction rates affected by changes in temperature, pressure, and/or concentration? Assessments Selected Response Constructed Response Performance Task

36 Selected Response: Physical Science H2P1 What could cause the boiling point of a liquid to decrease? a. The amount of heat added. b. A decrease in altitude. c. The length of time it is heated. d. An increase in altitude. Answer: d Which situation would result in the fastest reaction rate? a. high pressure, high temperature and high concentration b. low pressure, low temperature and low concentration c. high pressure, low temperature and high concentration d. low pressure, high temperature and low concentration Answer: a

37 The burning of wood is an example of what type of chemical reaction? a. synthesis b. endothermic c. exothermic d. precipitation

38 ESD Harney UH1J 9th grade physical science James Driskell Standard: H.2P.1 Explain how chemical reactions result from the making and breaking of bonds in a process that absorbs or releases energy. Explain how different factors can affect the rate of a chemical reaction. Prior Knowledge Needed: Covalent and Ionic bonds, Energy, What temperature measures, Characteristics of Matter, Electron configurations, Skills Concepts Resources Explain Chemical reactions make and Periodic Table break bonds and the energy CPO Foundations of Physical Science involved. Lab Supplies Explain Different factors of chemical reactions. Priority Vocabulary Covalent, Ionic, surface area, temperature, catalyst, endothermic, exothermic, mole, atmospheric pressure, particle size, equilibrium Big Ideas Essential Questions Chemical reactions require or release energy. Why is there a change of temperature during chemical reactions? The rate of a chemical reaction is dependant on What factors affect the rate of a chemical reaction? numerous external factors. The transformation of a compound requires the breaking How is the formation of new substances accomplished? or forming of a bonds. Assessments Selected Response Constructed Response Performance Task

39 ESD Harney UH1J 9th grade physical science James Driskell Selected Response: Physical Science H2P1 1. What would cause the boiling point of a liquid to decrease? A. The altitude increases B. The altitude decreases C. The amount of heat that is added D. The length of time it is heated answer:a 2. A solid lump of baking soda weighing 10 g is used in place of the 10 g of powdered baking soda. The change will A. decrease the reaction time, and the bubbles will stop in less than 30 seconds. B. be impossible to predict, given this information. C. have NO effect on the speed of the reaction, and the bubbles will stop in 30 seconds. D. increase the reaction time, and the bubbles will continue for more than 30 seconds. answer: d

40 ESD Harney UH1J 9th grade physical science James Driskell 3. Which situation would result in the fastest reaction rate? A. High Pressure, high temperature and High concentration B. low pressure, low termperature and low concentration C. high pressure, low termperature and high concentration D. low pressure, high temp and low concentration answer: a 4. The burning of wood is an example of what type of chemical reaction? A. Endothermic reaction B. Exothermic reaction C. Dissolution reaction D. Precipitation reaction answer:b Physical Science Selected Response H2P1 1. Which example best illustrates how the rate of a chemical reaction can be accelerated? a. Heating the reactants b. Cooling the reactants c. Heating the products d. Cooling the products 2. Which example best explains why a change in temperature occurs during a chemical reaction? a. Heat comes and goes when all compounds are mixed together. b. Reactants were stored at room temperature. c. Energy is absorbed or released when chemical bonds are broken. d. The temperature of products and reactants remains the same.

41 ESD Harney UH1J 9th grade physical science James Driskell 3. How does the concentration of reactants affect the rate of a chemical reaction? a. Decreasing the concentration of reactants has no affect on the rate of a reaction b. Increasing Concentration of reactants increases the rate of a reaction. c. Decreasing Concentration of reactants increases the rate of a reaction. d. Increasing Concentration of reactants has no affect on the rate of reaction 4. At the same temperature, at the same pressure, and the same concentration. How can we speed up the rate of a reaction? a. Decrease the mass of the reactants b. Decrease the surface area of the reactants c. Increase the mass of the reactants e. Increase the surface area of the reactants 5. A solid lump of baking soda weighing 10 g is used in place of the 10 g of powdered baking soda. The change will A. decrease the reaction time, and the bubbles will stop in less than 30 seconds. B. be impossible to predict, given this information. C. have NO effect on the speed of the reaction, and the bubbles will stop in 30 seconds. D. increase the reaction time, and the bubbles will continue for more than 30 seconds. Physical Science Constructed Response H2P1 Standard: Explain how chemical reactions result from the making and breaking of bonds in a process that absorbs or releases energy. Explain how different factors can affect the rate of a chemical reaction. Question: List then explain three ways in which you could accelerate the rate of a chemical reaction.

42 ESD Harney UH1J 9th grade physical science James Driskell Proficiency: In order to be proficient the student must include Need 3 out of 4 - heating the reactants - Increasing the surface area of reactants - Increasing pressure of reactants - Increasing the concentration of reactants

43 Lake County, Lakeview, 9 th grade, Physical Science, Brent Starr Standard: H2P2 Explain how physical and chemical changes demonstrate the law of conservation of mass. Prior Knowledge Needed: Mass, Weight, Chemical Change, Physical Change, Definition of Law of Conservation of Mass. Skills Concepts Resources Explain Physical and chemical reactions. (Law of Conservation of Mass) Vinegar, baking soda in zip lock baggy Alka Seltzer and water in 20 oz screw top bottle. Priority Vocabulary Chemical Change, Physical Change, Surface Area, Closed System, Open System, Mass, Volume Big Ideas The mass of reactants and products is equal. Changing the physical properties of matter does not change the mass. Essential Questions How can an open system affect the mass of products? What effect does changing shape, or temperature have on the mass of an object? Assessments Selected Response Constructed Response Performance Task

44 Lake County, Lakeview, 9 th grade, Physical Science, Brent Starr Physical Science Selected Response H2P2 1. How does the following equation demonstrate the law of conservation of mass? 2H 2 + O 2 2H 2 O a. The number of atoms of each element is the same on the reactant side as the product side. b. The number of atoms on the reactant side is more than the number of atoms on the product side. c. The number of water molecules is the same on the reactant and product side. d. The number of atoms on the reactant side is less than the number of atoms on product side. Answer a. 2. Pick the answer that best demonstrates the law of conservation of mass. Mass of reactants Mass of Products a. 3 grams + 7 grams 5 grams + 5 grams b. 1 gram + 5 grams 4 grams + 3 grams c. 12 grams + 1 gram + 2 grams 14 grams + 4 grams d. 10 grams + 2 grams 12 grams Answer d. 3. In the reaction Zinc (Zn) with hydrochloric acid (HCL), the products of hydrogen gas and zinc chloride are produced. Which of these is the balanced equation from the reaction? a. Zn + HCl ZnCl 2 + H b. 2Zn + 4HCl Zn 2 Cl 4 + H 2 c. Zn + 2HCl ZnCl 2 + H 2 d. Zn 2 + HCl 2ZnCl + H 2 Answer c

45 Lake County, Lakeview, 9 th grade, Physical Science, Brent Starr 4. The mass of a piece of steel wool is grams. When burned the mass of the steel wool changes to grams. Which explanation best describes what has happened? a. Mass is added because fire increases the mass of all matter. b. Mass is created by the steel from the heat of the chemical reaction. c. Mass from the air bonded with Iron from the wool increasing the mass. d. Mass is destroyed when an object burns that is why ash is so light. Answer: C 5. Pick the example that is best for explaining what happens to the mass of an object when a temperature change has occurred? a. The mass disappears when the temperature increases. b. The mass stays the same when temperature increases c. The mass decreases when the temperature decreases. d. The mass increases when the temperature decreases. Answer B 6.

46 Lake County, Lakeview, 9 th grade, Physical Science, Brent Starr Physical Science Constructed Response H2P2 Standard: Explain how physical and chemical changes demonstrate the law of conservation of mass. Question 1: Explain an experiment that you could do that would demonstrate the law of conservation of mass. Talk about the measurements that you would make and what would be required to demonstrate the law. Proficiency: In order to be proficient the student must include - record the mass before and after the experiment - mass does not change during a change of state or chemical reaction

47 JCSD ESD 509J, MHS, 10 Tyler, Scranton, White, Kezele, Vega, Coles, Vick Standard: H2P2: Explain how physical and chemical changes demonstrate the law of conservation of mass. Prior Knowledge Needed: Skills Concepts Resources Explain (how) Physical and chemical changes demonstrate the law of conservation of mass through balanced chemical equation. Priority Vocabulary Boiling, evaporation, condensation, melting, freezing, deposition, precipitation, sublimation, conservation of mass Big Ideas Essential Questions Mass (matter) is neither created nor destroyed --- it What happens to mass during a physical or chemical change? simply changes form. Assessments Selected Response Constructed Response Performance Task

48 Selected Response: Physical Science H2P2 CH 4 + 2O H 2 O + CO 2 Based on the balanced chemical equation for the burning of methane, answer this question. 8. grams of methane (CH 4 ) combines with 32. grams of oxygen (O 2 ) to produce 18. grams of water (H 2 O). How much carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) will be produced? a. 8 grams CO 2 b. 22 grams CO 2 c. 32 grams CO 2 d. 40 grams CO 2 Answer: b Balance the following chemical equation, by placing the appropriate coefficients in the three blanks Fe + O 2 Fe 2 O 3 a. 2, 1, 3 b. 2, 3, 1 c. 4, 3, 2 d. 4, 2, 2 Answer: c

49 Which of the following chemical reactions is balanced? a. CS 2 + 3O 2 CO 2 + SO 2 b. 2N 2 O 5 + NO 4 NO 2 c. P 4 + 5O 2 P 2 O 5 d. 4Cu + 3O 2 2Cu 2 O 3

50 ESD Harney UH1J 9th grade physical science James Driskell Standard H.2P.2 Explain how physical and chemical changes demonstrate the law of conservation of mass Prior Knowledge Needed: Mass, Weight, Chemical change, Physical change, definition of Conservation of Mass, Skills Concepts Resources Explain Physical and chemical changes and affects on mass. CPO Foundations of Physical Science Priority Vocabulary Physical change, Chemical change, surface area, closed system, mass, volume, Coefficiant, Big Ideas The mass of products and reactants are equal. Changing the physical properties of matter does not change the mass. Essential Questions How can an open system affect the mass of products? What effect does changing the shape or temperature have on the mass of an object? Assessments Selected Response Constructed Response Performance Task

51 ESD Harney UH1J 9th grade physical science James Driskell Selected Response: Physical Science H2P2 1. Based on the balanced chemical equation for the burning of methane, answer this question. 8 grams of methane (CH 4 ) conbines with 32 grams of oxygen (O 2 ) to prduce 18 grams of water. How much carbon dioxide CO 2 will be produced? A. 40 grams of CO 2 B. 22 grams of CO 2 C. 8 grams of CO 2 D. 32 grams of CO 2 answer:b 2. Balance the following the chemical equation by placing the correct coefficient in the blank. Fe + O 2 Fe 2 O 3 A. 4, 3, 2 B. 2, 3, 1 C. 1, 2, 3 D. 3, 4, 2 answer: a 3. Which of the following chemical reactions is balanced? A. CS 2 + 3O 2 CO 2 + SO 2 B. 2N 2 O 5 + NO 4NO 2 C. P 4 + 5O 2 P 2 O 5 D. 4Cu + 3O 2 2Cu 2 O 3 answer:d

52 ESD Harney UH1J 9th grade physical science James Driskell Physical Science Selected Response H2P2 1. How does the following equation demonstrate the law of conservation of mass? 2H 2 + O 2 2H 2 O a. The number of water molecules is the same on the reactant and product side. b. The amount of atoms on the reactant side is more than the number of atoms on the product side. c. The number of atoms of each element is the same on the reactant side as the product side. d. The number of atoms on the reactant side is less than the number of atoms on product side. 2. Pick the answer that best demonstrates the law of conservation of mass. Mass of reactants Mass of Products a. 3 grams + 7 grams 5 grams + 5 grams b. 1 gram + 5 grams 4 grams + 3 grams c. 12 grams + 1 gram + 2 grams 14 grams + 4 grams d. 10 grams + 2 grams 12 grams 3. In the reaction Zinc (Zn) with hydrochloric acid (HCL), the products of hydrogen gas and zinc chloride are produced. Which of these is the balanced equation from the reaction? a. Zn + HCl ZnCl 2 + H b. 2Zn + 4HCl Zn 2 Cl 4 + H 2 c. Zn + 2HCl ZnCl 2 + H 2 d. Zn 2 + HCl 2ZnCl + H 2

53 ESD Harney UH1J 9th grade physical science James Driskell Physical Science Constructed Response H2P2 Standard: Explain how physical and chemical changes demonstrate the law of conservation of mass. Question: Explain an experiment that you could do that would demonstrate the law of conservation of mass. Talk about the measurements that you would make and what would be required to demonstrate the law. Proficiency: In order to be proficient the student must include - record the mass before and after the experiment - mass does not change during a change of state or chemical reaction

54 Lake County, Lakeview, 9 th grade, Physical Science, Brent Starr Standard: H2P3 Describe the interactions of energy and matter including the law of conservation of energy. Prior Knowledge Needed: Energy, Matter, Definition of the conservation of energy, Distance, Velocity, Mass, Friction Skills Concepts Resources Describe Interactions energy, matter (Law of conservation of energy) Newton s Cradle Golf ball lab Priority Vocabulary- Law of Conservation of Energy, Energy Transformations, Mass, Temperature, Kinetic energy, Potential energy, gravity, Mass, height, Velocity, Closed System, Open System Big Ideas Kinetic energy can change to potential energy and vice versa. The overall energy of a closed system is constant. Essential Questions How does height affect the energy of an object? How does velocity and mass affect the energy of an object? What happens to the energy of a ball that goes from motion to a resting position? Assessments Selected Response Constructed Response Performance Task

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