X-ray Diffraction for powder sample

Save this PDF as:
 WORD  PNG  TXT  JPG

Size: px
Start display at page:

Download "X-ray Diffraction for powder sample"

Transcription

1 X-ray Diffraction for powder sample Rigaku Corporation Application laboratory Keigo Nagao Today s topics (AM) Features of Rigaku TTRAXⅢ Basics of powder XRD Feature of XRD Evaluation item Texture analysis for bulk sample Measurement and Process SAXS for nano-size sample Principle and Optics Application 1

2 Feature of TTRAXⅢ Rigaku TTRAXⅢ X-ray source θ θ 2θ 2θ Detector Sample holder In-Plane measurement Horizontal goniometer High power X-ray source Parallel beam method In-Plane axis (2θχ/φscan) Feature of TTRAXⅢ In case the sample isn t set to horizontal. Hard-to-pack sample Thin layer sample Semi-liquid sample 2

3 Feature of TTRAXⅢ In Horizontal goniometer Hard-to-pack sample Independent on sample condition Thin layer sample Semi-liquid sample Feature of TTRAXⅢ High power X-ray source Sealed-off X-ray tube 2~3kW Cooling water Rotating anode X-ray tube 10~18kW Be window Target 3

4 Feature of TTRAXⅢ Geometry for powder sample Focusing method Parallel Beam Detector X-ray source RS X-ray source DS SS Detector DS Multi layer Miller Parallel slit analyzer Sample Systematic error Intensity Focusing method 1. Flat sample 2. Umbrella effect 3. Adsorption effect 4. Eccentric error Strong Sample Parallel beam Umbrella effect medium Feature of TTRAXⅢ Cross Beam Optics Rigaku patented technology BB and PB geometries are simultaneously mounted, aligned, and selectable. X-ray source BB selection slit PB selection slit Multilayer mirror Sample Sample Focusing geometry (BB) Parallel beam geometry (PB) 4

5 Feature of TTRAXⅢ Measurement of rough sample surface Focusing method Parallel beam Sample : Zeolite Flat θ(deg) Rough θ(deg) Hold of peak shape, peak position and FWHM Feature of TTRAXⅢ Free from Eccentric error (Parallel beam) X-ray source 2θ 0 order detector Receiving slit : open Parallel slit analyzer Datum surface Eccentric surface 2θ 2θ X 2θ- θ 5

6 Basics of XRD Interaction of substance and X-ray :1 Bragg s condition of diffraction The conditions for a reflected ( diffracted ) beam are given by the relation 2dsinθ = nλ Bragg s equation d θ θ 2dsinθ = λ d:interplanar spacing λ:x-ray wavelength θ:bragg angle n:1,2,3 Basics of XRD Interaction of substance and X-ray :2 X-ray diffuse scattering X-ray Sample Scattering angle ( 2θ = 0~10 deg. ) 1000 Intensity ( a.u. ) θ (deg.) 6

7 Basics of XRD Interaction of substance and X-ray :3 Reflection and interference Two beams reflected on the surface and the interface interfere each other. reflection 10 0 X-ray reflectivity profile θ θ d refraction Reflectivity refraction reflection θ/θ (degree) Basics of XRD Evaluation item in powder sample (more than 2θ=5deg) Peak Peak positions positions d d values values : : Phase Phase Identification Identification Lattice Lattice constant constant d d shift shift : : Residual Residual stress stress Solid Solid solution solution Intensity FWHM FWHM Crystal Crystal quality quality Crystallite Crystallite size size Lattice Lattice strain strain Intensity Intensity vs. vs. Orientation Orientation Preferred Preferred orientation orientation Fiber Fiber structure structure Pole Pole figure figure Integrated Integrated Int. Int. of of amorphous amorphous Crystallinity Integrated Integrated Int. Int. of of crystal crystal : : Quantitative Quantitative analysis analysis Angle(2θ) 7

8 Basics of XRD Phase Identification in X-ray diffraction The powder diffraction pattern is characteristic of the substance The diffraction pattern indicates the state of chemical combination Intensity ( counts ) Anatase (Photocatalyst etc) TiO2 2θ ( deg. ) Rutile (Cosmetic etc) Basics of XRD Quantitative analysis(rir method) The concentration of each phase is calculated by integrated intensity and RIR value Polymorphs of TiO 2 Rutile (RIR:3.40) Anatase (RIR:3.30) Brookite Preparation Rutile:Anatase=3:1 Result Rutile: 71.6wt% Anatase: 28.4wt% 8

9 Basics of XRD Crystallite size Polycrystal There is one or multiple crystalline in one particle. Small angle X-ray scattering Particle size Crystallite size The width of diffracted line Scherrer method Hall method Basics of XRD Intensity(cps) 強度 (CPS) Crystallite size Mo -Mo- The width of diffracted line broaden in crystallite size less than 100nm(1000A ) Debye ring 900A 100A 900A 100A x10^3 I Molybdenum - Mo θ(deg) 9

10 Basics of XRD Crystallinity Plastic wrap 非晶質結晶質 Crystallinity 66.15% I > (CH2)x - N-Paraffin θ(deg) Basics of XRD Change of lattice constant Monitoring the change of lattice constant in real time in situ measurement Intensity(CPS) Al 2 O dsinθ= λ θ(deg) 10

11 Basics of XRD Stress and interplanar spacing Compressive stress d 1 > d 2 > d 3 > d 4 d 1 d 2 d 3 d 4 Tensile stress d 1 < d 2 <d 3 < d 4 d 1 d 2 d 3 d 4 Bragg s condition of diffraction 2d sinθ = nλ Basics of XRD Peak shift and sin 2 ψdiagram Normal line of sample surface :N Normal line of lattice plane :N N(N ) ψ=0 ψ N N ψ N N ψ N Intensity(counts) 2θ 2θ(deg) sin 2 ψ 11

12 Basics of XRD Calculation of stress value Δ2θ σ(stress value)= K Δsin 2 ψ K(stress constant)= -E cosθ 2(1+ν) 0 π 180 Material-specific value {E:young s modulus, ν:poisson ratio, θ 0 :diffraction angle in stress free condition} Slope of sin 2 ψ diagram SC N XG N ψ N N N ψ XG N SC minus psi plus psi Iso-inclination method(fixed Psi) 2θ tension compress 2θ ー sin 2 ψ 0 0 sin 2 ψ compress tension Basics of XRD Measurement of residual stress Iron plate Before rubbing Sample After rubbing 12

13 Texture evaluation and pole figure analysis for bulk sample Texture evaluation Texture and substance Nonoriented sample:brick, concrete, (powder) Oriented sample:aluminium foil, iron plate plastic bottle Single crystal:silicon wafer,diamond,quartz 13

14 Texture evaluation What is oriented sample? The condition that a lattice plane faces to the same direction Metal orientation (rolled sample) Approximate equivalent to single crystal (Epitaxial film) Uni-axial orientation (fiber orientation) Texture evaluation 2D image and 2θ-I diffraction pattern nonoriented oriented 2D image Diffraction pattern I I 2θ 2θ 14

15 Texture evaluation What is the purpose of texture? Which plane is faced to Rolling direction and Normal direction? X Z X Y a c b Y Z Texture evaluation Spherical projection method and Stereographic projection method 3D is described with 2D Stereographic projection figure Spherical projection method Stereographic projection method 15

16 Texture evaluation Pole figure RD(Rolling direction) X TD (Transverse direction ) Z TD Y ND(Normal direction) Texture evaluation Reflection method Sample behavior in Reflection method and Transmission method α βrotation Beta rotation at each alpha angle Alpha:5deg step (ex deg) Beta: 5deg step (ex deg/α angle) βrotation α Transmission method Sample is moved centering around purple line 16

17 Texture evaluation Orientation analysis :step1 Pole figure of (111) in rolled Cu-Zn(70-30) 20 RD Wulff net. The angle between RD and each pole is estimated with Wulff net. Texture evaluation Orientation analysis :step2 Polar net The angle between ND and each pole is estimated with Polar net. 17

18 Texture evaluation Orientation analysis :step3 Angle between plane in (h 1 k 1 l 1 ) and (h 2 k 2 l 2 ) of cubic crystal (h 1 k 1 l 1 ) RD ND (h 2 k 2 l 2 ) Texture evaluation Orientation analysis :step4 Angle between plane of cubic (111)(110)=35.5,90 (111)(211)=19.5,61.9,90 ND RD Rotate standard (110) projection of cubic crystal 35degree clockwise. RD is [112] This texture is (110)[112]. (hkl)[uvw]=h*u+k*v+l*w=0 ND RD 18

19 Texture evaluation Process by stereographic objection figure [112] Rotate 35degree [112] RD Standard (110)objection of cubic crystal Small angle X-ray scattering for nano-size sample 19

20 Small angle X-ray scattering Purpose of SAXS Small Angle X-ray Scattering Particle size estimation (X-ray scattering) Phase identification (X-ray diffraction) Particle size the distribution molecular structure Small angle X-ray scattering Principle of SAXS X-ray Sample Scattering angle ( 2θ = 0~10 deg. ) 1000 Scattering Diffraction 2dsinθ=nλ 1000 Intensity ( a.u. ) Intensity ( a.u. ) θ (deg.) 2θ (deg.) 20

21 Small angle X-ray scattering Particle information Particle size and particle distribution Intensity ( a.u. ) Shape of SAXS profile : Breadth of distribution Slope of SAXS profile : Average size θ (deg.) Small angle X-ray scattering Long-period structure Phase information Intensity ( a.u. ) / 3 1/2 Peak position of SAXS : Structure and Interval θ (deg.) 21

22 Small angle X-ray scattering Instrument for SAXS UltimaⅣ TTRAX III NANO-Viewer Small angle X-ray scattering Point focus optics NANO-Viewer ( 2D-SAXS System ) Semiconductor 2D detector Pilatus100k 2D image X-ray source 1st slit 2nd slit 3rd slit 2D detector Sample 3slits optics 22

23 Small angle X-ray scattering NANO-Solver Automatic particle size & distribution estimation! Intensity ( a.u. ) θ (deg.) SAXS profile Distribution ( a.u. ) Particle / Pore size ( nm ) size distribution Closely particle sphere cylinder Core/shell Small angle X-ray scattering Relations of size and profiles Size : 3nm Size : 60nm Intensity (a.u.) Intensity (a.u.) θ (deg.) θ (deg.) Normalized dispersion : 10 % 23

24 Small angle X-ray scattering Relations of dispersion and profiles Dispersion : 10 % Dispersion : 90 % Intensity (a.u.) Intensity (a.u.) θ (deg.) θ (deg.) Average diameter : 3 nm Small angle X-ray scattering Applications of SAXS Particle size estimation ( transmission mode ) 24

25 Small angle X-ray scattering SAXS profiles and size distribution Au nanoparticles Intensity (CPS) No.1 No.2 No.3 Distribution( a.u.) No.1 No.2 No θ (deg.) Particle size ( nm ) Small angle X-ray scattering Comparison of TEM image TEM image No.1 No.2 No.3 SAXS Distribution( a.u.) No.1 No.2 No Particle size ( nm ) 25

26 Small angle X-ray scattering Nano size of porous silica Mesoporous silica Intensity (a.u.) Intensity (a.u.) θ (deg.) θ (deg.) 26

X-ray Diffraction and EBSD

X-ray Diffraction and EBSD X-ray Diffraction and EBSD Jonathan Cowen Swagelok Center for the Surface Analysis of Materials Case School of Engineering Case Western Reserve University October 27, 2014 Outline X-ray Diffraction (XRD)

More information

Chapter 7: Basics of X-ray Diffraction

Chapter 7: Basics of X-ray Diffraction Providing Solutions To Your Diffraction Needs. Chapter 7: Basics of X-ray Diffraction Scintag has prepared this section for use by customers and authorized personnel. The information contained herein is

More information

X-ray thin-film measurement techniques

X-ray thin-film measurement techniques Technical articles X-ray thin-film measurement techniques II. Out-of-plane diffraction measurements Toru Mitsunaga* 1. Introduction A thin-film sample is two-dimensionally formed on the surface of a substrate,

More information

Introduction to X-Ray Powder Diffraction Data Analysis

Introduction to X-Ray Powder Diffraction Data Analysis Introduction to X-Ray Powder Diffraction Data Analysis Center for Materials Science and Engineering at MIT http://prism.mit.edu/xray An X-ray diffraction pattern is a plot of the intensity of X-rays scattered

More information

X-RAY DIFFRACTION PROCEDURES

X-RAY DIFFRACTION PROCEDURES X-RAY DIFFRACTION PROCEDURES For Polycrystalline and Amorphous Materials HAROLD P. KLUG HEAD OF THE DEPARTMENT OF RESEARCH IN CHEMICAL PHYSICS LEROY E. ALEXANDER SENIOR FELLOW IN X-RAY DIFFRACTION Mellon

More information

X-ray diffraction techniques for thin films

X-ray diffraction techniques for thin films X-ray diffraction techniques for thin films Rigaku Corporation Application Laboratory Takayuki Konya 1 Today s contents (PM) Introduction X-ray diffraction method Out-of-Plane In-Plane Pole figure Reciprocal

More information

X-Ray Diffraction HOW IT WORKS WHAT IT CAN AND WHAT IT CANNOT TELL US. Hanno zur Loye

X-Ray Diffraction HOW IT WORKS WHAT IT CAN AND WHAT IT CANNOT TELL US. Hanno zur Loye X-Ray Diffraction HOW IT WORKS WHAT IT CAN AND WHAT IT CANNOT TELL US Hanno zur Loye X-rays are electromagnetic radiation of wavelength about 1 Å (10-10 m), which is about the same size as an atom. The

More information

Phase Characterization of TiO 2 Powder by XRD and TEM

Phase Characterization of TiO 2 Powder by XRD and TEM Kasetsart J. (Nat. Sci.) 42 : 357-361 (28) Phase Characterization of TiO 2 Powder by XRD and TEM Kheamrutai Thamaphat 1 *, Pichet Limsuwan 1 and Boonlaer Ngotawornchai 2 ABSTRACT In this study, the commercial

More information

LAUE DIFFRACTION INTRODUCTION CHARACTERISTICS X RAYS BREMSSTRAHLUNG

LAUE DIFFRACTION INTRODUCTION CHARACTERISTICS X RAYS BREMSSTRAHLUNG LAUE DIFFRACTION INTRODUCTION X-rays are electromagnetic radiations that originate outside the nucleus. There are two major processes for X-ray production which are quite different and which lead to different

More information

CHE.525 Laboratory Course Technical Chemistry II (CHE.525) Nanostructural characterisation by small-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS)

CHE.525 Laboratory Course Technical Chemistry II (CHE.525) Nanostructural characterisation by small-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS) Meeting point: NTEG250 Stremayrgasse 9 Ground floor, XRD Lab Supervisor: Manfred Kriechbaum E-Mail: manfred.kriechbaum@tugraz.at Institut für Anorganische Chemie Tel: 873-32145 CHE.525 Laboratory Course

More information

Effect of surface area, pore volume and particle size of P25 titania on the phase transformation of anatase to rutile

Effect of surface area, pore volume and particle size of P25 titania on the phase transformation of anatase to rutile Indian Journal of Chemistry Vol. 48A, October 2009, pp. 1378-1382 Notes Effect of surface area, pore volume and particle size of P25 titania on the phase transformation of anatase to rutile K Joseph Antony

More information

X-ray diffraction in polymer science

X-ray diffraction in polymer science X-ray diffraction in polymer science 1) Identification of semicrystalline polymers and Recognition of crystalline phases (polymorphism) of polymers 2)Polymers are never 100% crystalline. XRD is a primary

More information

Rigaku XRD-System Instruction Manual v4/19/03. The Krishnan Group/Wilcox 132, University of Washington

Rigaku XRD-System Instruction Manual v4/19/03. The Krishnan Group/Wilcox 132, University of Washington Rigaku XRD-System Instruction Manual v4/19/03 The Krishnan Group/Wilcox 132, University of Washington Contents: - General information - Safety - How to turn on the X-rays - How to turn off the X-rays -

More information

X-Ray Diffraction. wavelength Electric field of light

X-Ray Diffraction. wavelength Electric field of light Light is composed of electromagnetic radiation with an electric component that modulates versus time perpendicular to the direction it is travelling (the magnetic component is also perpendicular to the

More information

Introduction to Powder X-Ray Diffraction History Basic Principles

Introduction to Powder X-Ray Diffraction History Basic Principles Introduction to Powder X-Ray Diffraction History Basic Principles Folie.1 History: Wilhelm Conrad Röntgen Wilhelm Conrad Röntgen discovered 1895 the X-rays. 1901 he was honoured by the Noble prize for

More information

X-ray Diffraction (XRD)

X-ray Diffraction (XRD) X-ray Diffraction (XRD) 1.0 What is X-ray Diffraction 2.0 Basics of Crystallography 3.0 Production of X-rays 4.0 Applications of XRD 5.0 Instrumental Sources of Error 6.0 Conclusions Bragg s Law n l =2dsinq

More information

Chapter 10 - Liquids and Solids

Chapter 10 - Liquids and Solids Chapter 10 - Liquids and Solids 10.1 Intermolecular Forces A. Dipole-Dipole Forces 1. Attraction between molecules with dipole moments a. Maximizes (+) ----- ( - ) interactions b. Minimizes (+) ----- (

More information

Experiment: Crystal Structure Analysis in Engineering Materials

Experiment: Crystal Structure Analysis in Engineering Materials Experiment: Crystal Structure Analysis in Engineering Materials Objective The purpose of this experiment is to introduce students to the use of X-ray diffraction techniques for investigating various types

More information

WAVELENGTH OF LIGHT - DIFFRACTION GRATING

WAVELENGTH OF LIGHT - DIFFRACTION GRATING PURPOSE In this experiment we will use the diffraction grating and the spectrometer to measure wavelengths in the mercury spectrum. THEORY A diffraction grating is essentially a series of parallel equidistant

More information

POWDER DIFFRACTION FOR CULTURAL HERITAGE ON INES AT ISIS

POWDER DIFFRACTION FOR CULTURAL HERITAGE ON INES AT ISIS POWDER DIFFRACTION FOR CULTURAL HERITAGE ON INES AT ISIS SoNS School of Neutron Scattering seminar 1 Summary 1. What is neutron diffraction? 2. What are the properties that neutron diffraction can measure?

More information

Benchtop Powder Diffraction. High Accuracy Powder Diffraction & Reliability in a Benchtop Configuration

Benchtop Powder Diffraction. High Accuracy Powder Diffraction & Reliability in a Benchtop Configuration Benchtop Powder Diffraction High Accuracy Powder Diffraction & Reliability in a Benchtop Configuration The AXRD Benchtop is easy to use and provides accurate and reliable measurement results with comparable

More information

Applications of New, High Intensity X-Ray Optics - Normal and thin film diffraction using a parabolic, multilayer mirror

Applications of New, High Intensity X-Ray Optics - Normal and thin film diffraction using a parabolic, multilayer mirror Applications of New, High Intensity X-Ray Optics - Normal and thin film diffraction using a parabolic, multilayer mirror Stephen B. Robie scintag, Inc. 10040 Bubb Road Cupertino, CA 95014 Abstract Corundum

More information

Thin Film Mechanics. Joost Vlassak. DEAS Harvard University

Thin Film Mechanics. Joost Vlassak. DEAS Harvard University Thin Film Mechanics Joost Vlassak DEAS Harvard University AP 298r Spring 2004 OVERVIEW 1. Origin of residual stresses in thin films Epitaxial stresses Thermal stresses Intrinsic or growth stresses - surface

More information

ORIENTATION CHARACTERISTICS OF THE MICROSTRUCTURE OF MATERIALS

ORIENTATION CHARACTERISTICS OF THE MICROSTRUCTURE OF MATERIALS ORIENTATION CHARACTERISTICS OF THE MICROSTRUCTURE OF MATERIALS K. Sztwiertnia Polish Academy of Sciences, Institute of Metallurgy and Materials Science, 25 Reymonta St., 30-059 Krakow, Poland MMN 2009

More information

How can I tell what the polarization axis is for a linear polarizer?

How can I tell what the polarization axis is for a linear polarizer? How can I tell what the polarization axis is for a linear polarizer? The axis of a linear polarizer determines the plane of polarization that the polarizer passes. There are two ways of finding the axis

More information

MAG*I*CAL Reference Standard for TEM

MAG*I*CAL Reference Standard for TEM N Norrox Scientific Ltd. MAG*I*CAL Reference Standard for TEM FRAGILE! The MAG*I*CAL calibration reference standard that you are receiving now looks like Figure A, below. If not handled carefully, it will

More information

Powder diffraction and synchrotron radiation

Powder diffraction and synchrotron radiation Powder diffraction and synchrotron radiation Gilberto Artioli Dip. Geoscienze UNIPD CIRCe Center for Cement Materials single xl diffraction powder diffraction Ideal powder Powder averaging Textured sample

More information

Stress and Deformation Analysis. Representing Stresses on a Stress Element. Representing Stresses on a Stress Element con t

Stress and Deformation Analysis. Representing Stresses on a Stress Element. Representing Stresses on a Stress Element con t Stress and Deformation Analysis Material in this lecture was taken from chapter 3 of Representing Stresses on a Stress Element One main goals of stress analysis is to determine the point within a load-carrying

More information

X-Ray Diffraction Studies of Copper Nanopowder

X-Ray Diffraction Studies of Copper Nanopowder X-Ray Diffraction Studies of Copper Nanopowder T. Theivasanthi (1) and M. Alagar (2) (1) Department of Physics, PACR Polytechnic College, Rajapalayam, India. (2) Department of Physics, Ayya Nadar Janaki

More information

CHAPTER 3 THE STRUCTURE OF CRYSTALLINE SOLIDS PROBLEM SOLUTIONS

CHAPTER 3 THE STRUCTURE OF CRYSTALLINE SOLIDS PROBLEM SOLUTIONS CHAPTER THE STRUCTURE OF CRYSTALLINE SOLIDS PROBLEM SOLUTIONS Fundamental Concepts.6 Show that the atomic packing factor for HCP is 0.74. The APF is just the total sphere volume-unit cell volume ratio.

More information

6) How wide must a narrow slit be if the first diffraction minimum occurs at ±12 with laser light of 633 nm?

6) How wide must a narrow slit be if the first diffraction minimum occurs at ±12 with laser light of 633 nm? Test IV Name 1) In a single slit diffraction experiment, the width of the slit is 3.1 10-5 m and the distance from the slit to the screen is 2.2 m. If the beam of light of wavelength 600 nm passes through

More information

Polarization of Light

Polarization of Light Polarization of Light References Halliday/Resnick/Walker Fundamentals of Physics, Chapter 33, 7 th ed. Wiley 005 PASCO EX997A and EX999 guide sheets (written by Ann Hanks) weight Exercises and weights

More information

UNIT I: INTRFERENCE & DIFFRACTION Div. B Div. D Div. F INTRFERENCE

UNIT I: INTRFERENCE & DIFFRACTION Div. B Div. D Div. F INTRFERENCE 107002: EngineeringPhysics Teaching Scheme: Lectures: 4 Hrs/week Practicals-2 Hrs./week T.W.-25 marks Examination Scheme: Paper-50 marks (2 hrs) Online -50marks Prerequisite: Basics till 12 th Standard

More information

The atomic packing factor is defined as the ratio of sphere volume to the total unit cell volume, or APF = V S V C. = 2(sphere volume) = 2 = V C = 4R

The atomic packing factor is defined as the ratio of sphere volume to the total unit cell volume, or APF = V S V C. = 2(sphere volume) = 2 = V C = 4R 3.5 Show that the atomic packing factor for BCC is 0.68. The atomic packing factor is defined as the ratio of sphere volume to the total unit cell volume, or APF = V S V C Since there are two spheres associated

More information

Asian Journal on Energy and Environment

Asian Journal on Energy and Environment As. J. Energy Env. 2005, 6(04), 193-201 Asian Journal on Energy and Environment ISSN 1513-4121 Available online at www.asian-energy-journal.info Synthesis,Characterization and Application of Single and

More information

A NATIONAL MEASUREMENT GOOD PRACTICE GUIDE. No. 52. Determination of Residual Stresses by X-ray Diffraction - Issue 2

A NATIONAL MEASUREMENT GOOD PRACTICE GUIDE. No. 52. Determination of Residual Stresses by X-ray Diffraction - Issue 2 A NATIONAL MEASUREMENT GOOD PRACTICE GUIDE No. 52 Determination of Residual Stresses by X-ray Diffraction - Issue 2 The DTI drives our ambition of prosperity for all by working to create the best environment

More information

COMPARISON OF TEXTURE IN COPPER AND ALUMINUM THIN FILMS DETERMINED BY XRD AND EBSD *

COMPARISON OF TEXTURE IN COPPER AND ALUMINUM THIN FILMS DETERMINED BY XRD AND EBSD * 201 COMPARISON OF TEXTURE IN COPPER AND ALUMINUM THIN FILMS DETERMINED BY XRD AND EBSD * J. Müller 1, D. Balzar 1,2, R.H. Geiss 1, D.T. Read 1, and R.R. Keller 1 1 Materials Reliability Division, National

More information

Introduction to microstructure

Introduction to microstructure Introduction to microstructure 1.1 What is microstructure? When describing the structure of a material, we make a clear distinction between its crystal structure and its microstructure. The term crystal

More information

LECTURE SUMMARY September 30th 2009

LECTURE SUMMARY September 30th 2009 LECTURE SUMMARY September 30 th 2009 Key Lecture Topics Crystal Structures in Relation to Slip Systems Resolved Shear Stress Using a Stereographic Projection to Determine the Active Slip System Slip Planes

More information

EFFECT OF THE RESIDUAL STRESS ON THE MECHANICAL STRENGTH OF THE THIN FILMS 1 Masahide Gotoh, 2 Shigeki Takago, 3 Toshihiko Sasaki and 3 Yukio Hirose

EFFECT OF THE RESIDUAL STRESS ON THE MECHANICAL STRENGTH OF THE THIN FILMS 1 Masahide Gotoh, 2 Shigeki Takago, 3 Toshihiko Sasaki and 3 Yukio Hirose Copyright JCPDS - International Centre for Diffraction Data 23, Advances in X-ray Analysis, Volume 46. 173 EFFECT OF THE RESIDUAL STRESS ON THE MECHANICAL STRENGTH OF THE THIN FILMS 1 Masahide Gotoh, 2

More information

Preparation of ZnS and SnS Nanopowders by Modified SILAR Technique

Preparation of ZnS and SnS Nanopowders by Modified SILAR Technique Journal of Physical Sciences, Vol. 13, 009, 9-34 ISSN: 097-8791 : www.vidyasagar.ac.in/journal Preparation of ZnS and SnS Nanopowders by Modified SILAR Technique Department of Physics The University of

More information

Crystal Structure of High Temperature Superconductors. Marie Nelson East Orange Campus High School NJIT Professor: Trevor Tyson

Crystal Structure of High Temperature Superconductors. Marie Nelson East Orange Campus High School NJIT Professor: Trevor Tyson Crystal Structure of High Temperature Superconductors Marie Nelson East Orange Campus High School NJIT Professor: Trevor Tyson Introduction History of Superconductors Superconductors are material which

More information

Laboratory #3 Guide: Optical and Electrical Properties of Transparent Conductors -- September 23, 2014

Laboratory #3 Guide: Optical and Electrical Properties of Transparent Conductors -- September 23, 2014 Laboratory #3 Guide: Optical and Electrical Properties of Transparent Conductors -- September 23, 2014 Introduction Following our previous lab exercises, you now have the skills and understanding to control

More information

Laue lens for Nuclear Medicine

Laue lens for Nuclear Medicine Laue lens for Nuclear Medicine PhD in Physics Gianfranco Paternò Ferrara, 6-11-013 Supervisor: prof. Vincenzo Guidi Sensors and Semiconductors Lab, Department of Physics and Earth Science, University of

More information

The study of structural and optical properties of TiO 2 :Tb thin films

The study of structural and optical properties of TiO 2 :Tb thin films Optica Applicata, Vol. XXXVII, No. 4, 2007 The study of structural and optical properties of TiO 2 :Tb thin films AGNIESZKA BORKOWSKA, JAROSLAW DOMARADZKI, DANUTA KACZMAREK, DAMIAN WOJCIESZAK Faculty of

More information

POWDER X-RAY DIFFRACTION: STRUCTURAL DETERMINATION OF ALKALI HALIDE SALTS

POWDER X-RAY DIFFRACTION: STRUCTURAL DETERMINATION OF ALKALI HALIDE SALTS EXPERIMENT 4 POWDER X-RAY DIFFRACTION: STRUCTURAL DETERMINATION OF ALKALI HALIDE SALTS I. Introduction The determination of the chemical structure of molecules is indispensable to chemists in their effort

More information

NANO INDENTERS FROM MICRO STAR TECHNOLOGIES

NANO INDENTERS FROM MICRO STAR TECHNOLOGIES NANO INDENTERS FROM MICRO STAR TECHNOLOGIES Micro Star makes a variety of nano indenters following defined standards or custom requested geometries and dimensions. Micro Star calibration laboratory complies

More information

3.14 understand that light waves are transverse waves which can be reflected, refracted and diffracted

3.14 understand that light waves are transverse waves which can be reflected, refracted and diffracted Light and Sound 3.14 understand that light waves are transverse waves which can be reflected, refracted and diffracted 3.15 use the law of reflection (the angle of incidence equals the angle of reflection)

More information

Crystal Structure Determination I

Crystal Structure Determination I Crystal Structure Determination I Dr. Falak Sher Pakistan Institute of Engineering and Applied Sciences National Workshop on Crystal Structure Determination using Powder XRD, organized by the Khwarzimic

More information

PHYS 222 Spring 2012 Final Exam. Closed books, notes, etc. No electronic device except a calculator.

PHYS 222 Spring 2012 Final Exam. Closed books, notes, etc. No electronic device except a calculator. PHYS 222 Spring 2012 Final Exam Closed books, notes, etc. No electronic device except a calculator. NAME: (all questions with equal weight) 1. If the distance between two point charges is tripled, the

More information

Interferometers. OBJECTIVES To examine the operation of several kinds of interferometers. d sin = n (1)

Interferometers. OBJECTIVES To examine the operation of several kinds of interferometers. d sin = n (1) Interferometers The true worth of an experimenter consists in his pursuing not only what he seeks in his experiment, but also what he did not seek. Claude Bernard (1813-1878) OBJECTIVES To examine the

More information

PARALLEL BEAM METHODS IN POWDER DIFFRACTION AND TEXTURE IN THE LABORATORY.

PARALLEL BEAM METHODS IN POWDER DIFFRACTION AND TEXTURE IN THE LABORATORY. Copyright(c)JCPDS-International Centre for Diffraction Data 2000,Advances in X-ray Analysis,Vol.43 135 PARALLEL BEAM METHODS IN POWDER DIFFRACTION AND TEXTURE IN THE LABORATORY. R.A. Clapp and M.Halleti

More information

Crystal Optics of Visible Light

Crystal Optics of Visible Light Crystal Optics of Visible Light This can be a very helpful aspect of minerals in understanding the petrographic history of a rock. The manner by which light is transferred through a mineral is a means

More information

Polarization Dependence in X-ray Spectroscopy and Scattering. S P Collins et al Diamond Light Source UK

Polarization Dependence in X-ray Spectroscopy and Scattering. S P Collins et al Diamond Light Source UK Polarization Dependence in X-ray Spectroscopy and Scattering S P Collins et al Diamond Light Source UK Overview of talk 1. Experimental techniques at Diamond: why we care about x-ray polarization 2. How

More information

Chapter 23. The Refraction of Light: Lenses and Optical Instruments

Chapter 23. The Refraction of Light: Lenses and Optical Instruments Chapter 23 The Refraction of Light: Lenses and Optical Instruments Lenses Converging and diverging lenses. Lenses refract light in such a way that an image of the light source is formed. With a converging

More information

AP Physics B Ch. 23 and Ch. 24 Geometric Optics and Wave Nature of Light

AP Physics B Ch. 23 and Ch. 24 Geometric Optics and Wave Nature of Light AP Physics B Ch. 23 and Ch. 24 Geometric Optics and Wave Nature of Light Name: Period: Date: MULTIPLE CHOICE. Choose the one alternative that best completes the statement or answers the question. 1) Reflection,

More information

DIEGO TONINI MORPHOLOGY OF NIOBIUM FILMS SPUTTERED AT DIFFERENT TARGET SUBSTRATE ANGLE

DIEGO TONINI MORPHOLOGY OF NIOBIUM FILMS SPUTTERED AT DIFFERENT TARGET SUBSTRATE ANGLE UNIVERSITÀ DEGLI STUDI DI PADOVA SCIENCE FACULTY MATERIAL SCIENCE DEGREE INFN LABORATORI NAZIONALI DI LEGNARO DIEGO TONINI MORPHOLOGY OF NIOBIUM FILMS SPUTTERED AT DIFFERENT TARGET SUBSTRATE ANGLE 2 QUESTIONS

More information

PHOTOELECTRIC EFFECT AND DUAL NATURE OF MATTER AND RADIATIONS

PHOTOELECTRIC EFFECT AND DUAL NATURE OF MATTER AND RADIATIONS PHOTOELECTRIC EFFECT AND DUAL NATURE OF MATTER AND RADIATIONS 1. Photons 2. Photoelectric Effect 3. Experimental Set-up to study Photoelectric Effect 4. Effect of Intensity, Frequency, Potential on P.E.

More information

Glancing XRD and XRF for the Study of Texture Development in SmCo Based Films Sputtered Onto Silicon Substrates

Glancing XRD and XRF for the Study of Texture Development in SmCo Based Films Sputtered Onto Silicon Substrates 161 162 Glancing XRD and XRF for the Study of Texture Development in SmCo Based Films Sputtered Onto Silicon Substrates F. J. Cadieu*, I. Vander, Y. Rong, and R. W. Zuneska Physics Department Queens College

More information

P R E A M B L E. Facilitated workshop problems for class discussion (1.5 hours)

P R E A M B L E. Facilitated workshop problems for class discussion (1.5 hours) INSURANCE SCAM OPTICS - LABORATORY INVESTIGATION P R E A M B L E The original form of the problem is an Experimental Group Research Project, undertaken by students organised into small groups working as

More information

Relevant Reading for this Lecture... Pages 83-87.

Relevant Reading for this Lecture... Pages 83-87. LECTURE #06 Chapter 3: X-ray Diffraction and Crystal Structure Determination Learning Objectives To describe crystals in terms of the stacking of planes. How to use a dot product to solve for the angles

More information

ME 612 Metal Forming and Theory of Plasticity. 1. Introduction

ME 612 Metal Forming and Theory of Plasticity. 1. Introduction Metal Forming and Theory of Plasticity Yrd.Doç. e mail: azsenalp@gyte.edu.tr Makine Mühendisliği Bölümü Gebze Yüksek Teknoloji Enstitüsü In general, it is possible to evaluate metal forming operations

More information

Supplementary Material (ESI) for Chemical Communications This journal is (c) The Royal Society of Chemistry 2009

Supplementary Material (ESI) for Chemical Communications This journal is (c) The Royal Society of Chemistry 2009 Supporting Information Supplementary Material (ESI) for Chemical Communications Controlled Synthesis of Co 3 O 4 Nanopolyhedrons and Nanosheets at Low Temperature Hongying Liang a, Joan M. Raitano a, Lihua

More information

ZINC/IRON PHASE TRANSFORMATION STUDIES ON GALVANNEALED STEEL COATINGS BY X-RAY DIFFRACTION

ZINC/IRON PHASE TRANSFORMATION STUDIES ON GALVANNEALED STEEL COATINGS BY X-RAY DIFFRACTION Copyright JCPDS - International Centre for Diffraction Data 2003, Advances in X-ray Analysis, Volume 46. 291 ZINC/IRON PHASE TRANSFORMATION STUDIES ON GALVANNEALED STEEL COATINGS BY X-RAY DIFFRACTION S.

More information

Raman spectroscopy Lecture

Raman spectroscopy Lecture Raman spectroscopy Lecture Licentiate course in measurement science and technology Spring 2008 10.04.2008 Antti Kivioja Contents - Introduction - What is Raman spectroscopy? - The theory of Raman spectroscopy

More information

Experiment 5. Lasers and laser mode structure

Experiment 5. Lasers and laser mode structure Northeastern University, PHYS5318 Spring 2014, 1 1. Introduction Experiment 5. Lasers and laser mode structure The laser is a very important optical tool that has found widespread use in science and industry,

More information

BCM 6200 - Protein crystallography - I. Crystal symmetry X-ray diffraction Protein crystallization X-ray sources SAXS

BCM 6200 - Protein crystallography - I. Crystal symmetry X-ray diffraction Protein crystallization X-ray sources SAXS BCM 6200 - Protein crystallography - I Crystal symmetry X-ray diffraction Protein crystallization X-ray sources SAXS Elastic X-ray Scattering From classical electrodynamics, the electric field of the electromagnetic

More information

* This work is an official contribution of the National Institute of Standards and Technology and

* This work is an official contribution of the National Institute of Standards and Technology and Variability in the Geometric Accuracy of Additively Manufactured Test Parts A.L. Cooke and J.A. Soons National Institute of Standards and Technology * Gaithersburg, MD, USA Abstract This paper describes

More information

Diffraction Course Series 2015

Diffraction Course Series 2015 Diffraction Course Series 2015 Mark Wainwright Analytical Centre Kensington Campus, Chemical Sciences Building F10, Room G37 The Mark Wainwright Analytical Centre is offering a new series of courses covering

More information

10Spec TM 10 Degree Specular Reflectance Accessory

10Spec TM 10 Degree Specular Reflectance Accessory Installation and User Guide 10Spec TM 10 Degree Specular Reflectance Accessory The information in this publication is provided for reference only. All information contained in this publication is believed

More information

MECHANICAL PROPERTIES OF PLASMA SPRAYED COATINGS - MEASURED BY DIFFRACTION

MECHANICAL PROPERTIES OF PLASMA SPRAYED COATINGS - MEASURED BY DIFFRACTION MECHANICAL PROPERTIE OF PLAMA PRAYED COATING - MEAURED BY DIFFRACTION Thomas Gnäupel-Herold a,b, Jiri Matejicek c, Henry J. Prask a a) National Institute of tandards and Technology, Center for Neutron

More information

Sputtered AlN Thin Films on Si and Electrodes for MEMS Resonators: Relationship Between Surface Quality Microstructure and Film Properties

Sputtered AlN Thin Films on Si and Electrodes for MEMS Resonators: Relationship Between Surface Quality Microstructure and Film Properties Sputtered AlN Thin Films on and Electrodes for MEMS Resonators: Relationship Between Surface Quality Microstructure and Film Properties S. Mishin, D. R. Marx and B. Sylvia, Advanced Modular Sputtering,

More information

2. Deposition process

2. Deposition process Properties of optical thin films produced by reactive low voltage ion plating (RLVIP) Antje Hallbauer Thin Film Technology Institute of Ion Physics & Applied Physics University of Innsbruck Investigations

More information

Yield Criteria for Ductile Materials and Fracture Mechanics of Brittle Materials. τ xy 2σ y. σ x 3. τ yz 2σ z 3. ) 2 + ( σ 3. σ 3

Yield Criteria for Ductile Materials and Fracture Mechanics of Brittle Materials. τ xy 2σ y. σ x 3. τ yz 2σ z 3. ) 2 + ( σ 3. σ 3 Yield Criteria for Ductile Materials and Fracture Mechanics of Brittle Materials Brittle materials are materials that display Hookean behavior (linear relationship between stress and strain) and which

More information

EDS system. CRF Oxford Instruments INCA CRF EDAX Genesis EVEX- NanoAnalysis Table top system

EDS system. CRF Oxford Instruments INCA CRF EDAX Genesis EVEX- NanoAnalysis Table top system EDS system Most common X-Ray measurement system in the SEM lab. Major elements (10 wt% or greater) identified in ~10 secs. Minor elements identifiable in ~100 secs. Rapid qualitative and accurate quantitative

More information

Optical Communications

Optical Communications Optical Communications Telecommunication Engineering School of Engineering University of Rome La Sapienza Rome, Italy 2005-2006 Lecture #2, May 2 2006 The Optical Communication System BLOCK DIAGRAM OF

More information

Efficiency, Dispersion and Straylight Performance Tests of Immersed Gratings for High Resolution Spectroscopy in the Near Infra-red

Efficiency, Dispersion and Straylight Performance Tests of Immersed Gratings for High Resolution Spectroscopy in the Near Infra-red Changing the economics of space Efficiency, Dispersion and Straylight Performance Tests of Immersed Gratings for High Resolution Spectroscopy in the Near Infra-red J. Fernandez-Saldivar 1, F. Culfaz 1,

More information

X-ray Crystallography Lectures

X-ray Crystallography Lectures X-ray Crystallography Lectures 1. Biological imaging by X-ray diffraction. An overview. 2. Crystals. Growth, physical properties and diffraction. 3. Working in reciprocal space. X-ray intensity data collection

More information

Measurement of Enhanced Specular Reflector (ESR) Films Using a LAMBDA 1050 UV/Vis/NIR Spectrometer and URA Accessory

Measurement of Enhanced Specular Reflector (ESR) Films Using a LAMBDA 1050 UV/Vis/NIR Spectrometer and URA Accessory FIELD APPLICATION REPORT UV/Vis/NIR Spectroscopy Author: Frank Padera Shelton, CT Contributor: Chris Lynch Shelton, CT Measurement of Enhanced Specular Reflector (ESR) Films Using a LAMBDA 1050 UV/Vis/NIR

More information

Spectroscopic Ellipsometry:

Spectroscopic Ellipsometry: Spectroscopic : What it is, what it will do, and what it won t do by Harland G. Tompkins Introduction Fundamentals Anatomy of an ellipsometric spectrum Analysis of an ellipsometric spectrum What you can

More information

Stress Control in AlN and Mo Films for Electro-Acoustic Devices

Stress Control in AlN and Mo Films for Electro-Acoustic Devices Stress Control in AlN and Mo Films for Electro-Acoustic Devices Valery Felmetsger and Pavel Laptev Tegal Corporation IFCS 2008 Paper ID 3077 Slide 1 1 Introduction Piezoelectric AlN films with strong (002)

More information

Synthesis of Nanosized Anatase Particles from Commercial Rutile Powder by Using Hydrothermal Method

Synthesis of Nanosized Anatase Particles from Commercial Rutile Powder by Using Hydrothermal Method Chiang Mai J. Sci. 2008; 35(1) CE-002 1 Chiang Mai J. Sci. 2008; 35(1) : 1-5 www.science.cmu.ac.th/journal-science/josci.html Contributed Paper Synthesis of Nanosized Anatase Particles from Commercial

More information

Rolling - Introductory concepts

Rolling - Introductory concepts Rolling - Introductory concepts R. Chandramouli Associate Dean-Research SASTRA University, Thanjavur-613 401 Joint Initiative of IITs and IISc Funded by MHRD Page 1 of 8 Table of Contents 1. Rolling -

More information

Acousto-Optic Modulation

Acousto-Optic Modulation AN0510 Acousto-Optic Modulation Acousto-optic devices are primarily used for controlling laser beams. This includes Modulators, Deflectors, Tuneable Filters, Frequency Shifters and Q-switches. The basic

More information

Theremino System Theremino Spectrometer Technology

Theremino System Theremino Spectrometer Technology Theremino System Theremino Spectrometer Technology theremino System - Theremino Spectrometer Technology - August 15, 2014 - Page 1 Operation principles By placing a digital camera with a diffraction grating

More information

White-beam X-ray radioscopy and tomography with simultaneous diffraction at the EDDI beamline

White-beam X-ray radioscopy and tomography with simultaneous diffraction at the EDDI beamline White-beam X-ray radioscopy and tomography with simultaneous diffraction at the EDDI beamline F. García-Moreno 1,2, C. Jiménez 1, P. H. Kamm 2, M. Klaus 1, G. Wagener 1, J. Banhart 1,2, Ch. Genzel 1 1

More information

Development of certified reference material of thin film for thermal diffusivity

Development of certified reference material of thin film for thermal diffusivity Development of certified reference material of thin film for thermal diffusivity Takashi Yagi, Thermophysical properties section, NMIJ/AIST Joshua Martin MML, National Institute of Standards and Technology

More information

UV/Vis Spectroscopy. Varka Evi-Maria Ph.D. Chemist AUTH Thessaloniki 2012

UV/Vis Spectroscopy. Varka Evi-Maria Ph.D. Chemist AUTH Thessaloniki 2012 UV/Vis Spectroscopy Varka Evi-Maria Ph.D. Chemist AUTH Thessaloniki 2012 Introduction of Spectroscopy The structure of new synthesised molecules or isolated compounds from natural sources in the lab must

More information

STRUCTURAL STUDIES OF MULTIFERROIC THIN FILMS

STRUCTURAL STUDIES OF MULTIFERROIC THIN FILMS STRUCTURAL STUDIES OF MULTIFERROIC THIN FILMS Lisa Krayer (UCSD) Mentor: Daniel Pajerowski (NIST) Collaborating with: (University of Florida) Professor Amlan Biswas Daniel Grant NCNR

More information

The Fiber Laser Advantage

The Fiber Laser Advantage The Fiber Laser Advantage White Paper PN 200-0200-00 Revision 1.1 January 2009 Calmar Laser, Inc www.calmarlaser.com Overview With the fiber optics revolution for telecommunications in the 1980s, fiber

More information

Bruker AXS. D2 PHASER Diffraction Solutions XRD. think forward

Bruker AXS. D2 PHASER Diffraction Solutions XRD. think forward Bruker AXS D2 PHASER Diffraction Solutions think forward XRD Compact all-in-one desktop design Innovative high-end goniometer design Integrated PC / monitor DIFFRAC.SUITE software Leading detector technology

More information

Thin Film Stress and Curvature Mapping

Thin Film Stress and Curvature Mapping k-space Associates, Inc Thin Film Stress and Curvature Mapping Advanced Tools for Thin Film Characterization May 2005 Company Overview Founded in 1992 Headquartered in Ann Arbor, Michigan Advanced In-situ

More information

AN INNOVATED LABORATORY XAFS APPARATUS

AN INNOVATED LABORATORY XAFS APPARATUS Copyright (c)jcpds-international Centre for Diffraction Data 2002, Advances in X-ray Analysis, Volume 45. 397 AN INNOVATED LABORATORY XAFS APPARATUS TAGUCHI Takeyoshi XRD Division, Rigaku Corporation HARADA

More information

Refraction of Light at a Plane Surface. Object: To study the refraction of light from water into air, at a plane surface.

Refraction of Light at a Plane Surface. Object: To study the refraction of light from water into air, at a plane surface. Refraction of Light at a Plane Surface Object: To study the refraction of light from water into air, at a plane surface. Apparatus: Refraction tank, 6.3 V power supply. Theory: The travel of light waves

More information

G(θ) = max{g 1 (θ), G 2 (θ)}

G(θ) = max{g 1 (θ), G 2 (θ)} Rec. ITU-R F.1336 1 RECOMMENDATION ITU-R F.1336* Rec. ITU-R F.1336 REFERENCE RADIATION PATTERNS OF OMNIDIRECTIONAL AND OTHER ANTENNAS IN POINT-TO-MULTIPOINT SYSTEMS FOR USE IN SHARING STUDIES (Question

More information

Back to Basics Fundamentals of Polymer Analysis

Back to Basics Fundamentals of Polymer Analysis Back to Basics Fundamentals of Polymer Analysis Using Infrared & Raman Spectroscopy Molecular Spectroscopy in the Polymer Manufacturing Process Process NIR NIR Production Receiving Shipping QC R&D Routine

More information

Measure the Distance Between Tracks of CD and DVD

Measure the Distance Between Tracks of CD and DVD University of Technology Laser & Optoelectronics Engineering Department Laser Eng Branch Laser application Lab. The aim of work: Experiment (9) Measure the Distance Between Tracks of CD and DVD 1-measure

More information

CI-Navigator Presentation

CI-Navigator Presentation Color and Image Matching System for Metallic and Pearlescent Paint 13 th of July 2010 CI-Navigator Presentation 1 OFFICE COLOR SCIENCE developed new color matching system applied anisotropic color appearance

More information

Scanning Near Field Optical Microscopy: Principle, Instrumentation and Applications

Scanning Near Field Optical Microscopy: Principle, Instrumentation and Applications Scanning Near Field Optical Microscopy: Principle, Instrumentation and Applications Saulius Marcinkevičius Optics, ICT, KTH 1 Outline Optical near field. Principle of scanning near field optical microscope

More information

Optical Storage Technology. Optical Disc Storage

Optical Storage Technology. Optical Disc Storage Optical Storage Technology Optical Disc Storage Introduction Since the early 1940s, magnetic recording has been the mainstay of electronic information storage worldwide. Magnetic tape has been used extensively

More information