# MATHEMATICS FOR ENGINEERING BASIC ALGEBRA

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1 MATHEMATICS FOR ENGINEERING BASIC ALGEBRA TUTORIAL 4 AREAS AND VOLUMES This is the one of a series of basic tutorials in mathematics aimed at beginners or anyone wanting to refresh themselves on fundamentals. The tutorial contains the following. Calculate the areas of basic geometric shapes. Calculate the Volumes of basic geometric shapes. Calculate the surface areas of basic geometric shapes. D.J.Dunn 1

2 AREAS OF BASIC SHAPES Here without proof are the areas of some standard shapes. SELF ASSESSMENT EXERCISE No.1 1. Calculate the area of an annulus 75 mm outer diameter and 35 mm inner diameter. 2. Calculate the area of triangle shown (3456 mm 2 ) (5.25 m 2 ) 3. The area of the triangle shown is 7.5 m 2 What is the height h? (3 m) 4. A sector of a circle of diameter 120 mm has an area of 300 mm 2. What is the angle of the sector? (9.55 o ) D.J.Dunn 2

3 VOLUMES AND SURFACE AREAS PRISMS A prism is the result of extruding an area A for a length L so that a square becomes a cube, a circle becomes a cylinder and triangle becomes a wedge. A prism can have any cross sectional area. The cross sectional dimensions are the same at all points along the length. The volume is always V = A L The surface area can usually be deduced by adding all the separate surfaces together. The curved surface of a cylinder has an area which would be a rectangle when flattened out with length L and width πd so the area is πdl WORKED EXAMPLE No. 1 What is the volume and surface area of a hollow cylinder outer diameter 60 mm, inner diameter 40 mm and length 200 mm? SOLUTION The cross sectional area is A = π( )/4 = mm 2 V = A L = (1570.8)200 = mm 3 The surface area is the surface area of two cylinders and an annulus at each end. Outer Surface A = πdl = π x 60 x 200 = 12000π Inner Surface A = πdl = π x 40 x 200 = 8000π Two Annular areas A = 2 x π( )/4 = 1000π Total = 21000π = mm 2 D.J.Dunn 3

4 SPHERE Volume V = πd 3 /6 Surface Area A = πd 2 CONES AND PYRAMIDS The volume is always 1/3 of the volume of a prism. A pyramid can have as many sides but the apex must be on the centre line. The volume of a cone is V = A h/3 = πd 2 h/12 The surface area of the curved surface is A = π D L/2 where L is the length of the sloping side. In terms of the vertical height h The curved area becomes L = h D 4 πd 2 A = 4h + D 4 The volume and surface area of the pyramid must be deduced by working out the base area and working out the area of each flat side. 2 WORKED EXAMPLE No. 2 A shape as shown is made from a cylinder 50 mm diameter and 100 mm long with a hemisphere on one end. What is the volume and surface area? SOLUTION Volume of cylinder = πd 2 L/4 = π x 50 2 x 100/4 = mm 3 Volume of hemisphere = ½ x volume of sphere = ½ x πd 3 /6 Volume of hemisphere = ½ x π x 50 3 /6 = mm 3 Total Volume = mm 3 Surface area of cylinder curved surface = πdl = π x 50 x 100 = 5000π Circular area at end = πd 2 /4 = π x 50 2 /4 = 625π Surface area of hemisphere = ½ x π D 2 = ½ x π 50 2 = 1250π Total Surface Area = 6875π = mm 2 D.J.Dunn 4

5 SELF ASSESSMENT EXERCISE No Calculate the volume and surface area of a solid cylinder 1.2 m diameter and 1.5 m tall. (1.696 m 3 and m 2 ) 2. Calculate the volume of a cone with base circle 80 mm diameter and a height of 200mm. If the cone is cut in half to make a small cone 100 mm high and a frustum 100 mm high, what would be the volume of the two parts? ( mm 3, mm 3 and mm 3 ) 3. Calculate the surface area of a cone 120 mm base diameter and 200 mm vertical height. (50669 mm 2 ) 4. Calculate the volume and surface area of a prism with the cross section of a right angle triangle with both perpendicular sides 50 mm long and length 100 mm. ( mm 3 and mm 2 including the ends) 5. The diagram shows a flat thin rectangular plate Width W and Breadth B with a hole diameter D in the middle. Create a formula for the area of the metal A in terms of W, B and D. What is the area if D = 50 mm, B = 100 mm and W= 60 mm? 6. A hollow ball is made from plastic. The ball has an outside diameter D and inside diameter d. Write down the formula for the volume of plastic used to make it. If the outer diameter is 200 mm and the wall is 2 mm thick, determine the volume of plastic and the outer surface area. D.J.Dunn 5

6 7. A rectangular block has a length B, width W and thickness T as shown with a hole diameter D through it. Create a formula for the Write down the formula for the volume 'V' of the block in terms of B, W,T and D Calculate the volume when D = 50 mm, B = 100 mm and W= 60 mm and T = 20 mm. 8. A solid object is made in the shape of a cylinder diameter d and length L with a cone on the end base diameter d and height h. Write down the formula for the volume 'V' and surface area 'A' in terms of d, L and h. If the volume is mm 3 and cylinder is 60 mm diameter by 100 mm long, what is the height of the cone? D.J.Dunn 6

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