# Crystal Structure Determination I

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1 Crystal Structure Determination I Dr. Falak Sher Pakistan Institute of Engineering and Applied Sciences National Workshop on Crystal Structure Determination using Powder XRD, organized by the Khwarzimic Science Society, August 2007 ( 09/10/2010

2 Crystal Structure Determination The determination of an unknown structure proceeds in three major steps: 1. The shape and size of the unit cell are deduced from the angular positions of the diffraction lines. 2. The number of atoms per unit cell is then computed from the shape and size of the unit cell, the chemical composition of the specimen, and its measured density. 3. Finally, the position of the atoms within the unit cell are deduced from the relative intensities of the diffraction lines. The third step is generally the most difficult and there are many structures which are known only incompletely, in the sense that this final step has not yet been made. Size and Shape of the Unit Cell This step is same as the indexing of power diffraction pattern. It involves: The accurate determination of peak positions. Determination of the unit cell parameters from the peak positions. Bragg s Law Interplanar d-spacing Systematic Absences

3 Bragg's Law When x-rays are scattered from a crystal lattice, peaks of scattered intensity are observed which correspond to the following conditions: 1. The angle of incidence = angle of scattering. 2. The pathlength difference is equal to an integer number of wavelengths. The condition for maximum intensity contained in Bragg's law above allow us to calculate details about the crystal structure, or if the crystal structure is known, to determine the wavelength of the x-rays incident upon the crystal.

4 Bravais lattices Crystals possess a regular, repetitive internal structure. The concept of symmetry describes the repetition of structural features. Symmetries are most frequently used to classify the different crystal structures. In general one can generate 14 basic crystal structures through symmetries. These are called Bravais lattices. Any crystal structures can be reduced to one of these 14 Bravias lattices.

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7 Q. The crystal structure of SrTiO 3 is cubic, space group Pm3m with a unit cell edge a = 3.90 Å. Calculate the expected 2θ positions of the first three peaks in the diffraction pattern, if the radiation is Cu K α (λ = 1.54 Å). A. 1. Recognize the hkl values for the first few peaks: 100, 110, 111, 200, 210, 211, 220, etc. 2. Calculate the interplanar spacing, d, for each peak: 1/d 2 = (h 2 + k 2 + l 2 )/a 2 3. Use Bragg s Law to determine the 2θ value: λ = 2d hkl sin θ hkl hkl = 100 1/d 2 = ( )/(3.90 Å) 2 d = 3.90 Å sin θ 100 = 1.54 Å/{2(3.90 Å)} θ = 11.4 (2θ = 22.8 ) hkl = 110 1/d 2 = ( )/(3.90 Å) 2 d = 2.76 Å sinθ 110 = 1.54 Å/{2(2.76 Å)} θ = 16.2 (2θ = 32.4 ) hkl = 111 1/d 2 = ( )/(3.90 Å) 2 d = 2.25 Å sin θ 111 = 1.54 Å/{2(2.25 Å)} θ = 20.0 (2θ = 40.0 )

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9 Powder Diffraction: Indexing Indexing is the process of determining the unit cell parameters from the peak positions. To index a powder diffraction pattern it is necessary to assign Miller indices, hkl, to each peak. A diffraction pattern cannot be analyzed until it has been indexed. It is always the first step in analysis. Unfortunately it is not just the simple reverse of calculating peak positions from the unit cell dimensions and wavelength. We will show how one can manually index diffraction patterns of high symmetry structures. For lower symmetry structures (monoclinic, triclinic) it is usually necessary to use a computer algorithm. This is called Autoindexing. The information in an XRD pattern is a direct result of two things: 1. The size and shape of the unit cells, which determine the relative positions of the diffraction peaks. 2. Atomic positions within the unit cell, which determine the relative intensities of the diffraction peaks

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11 Bragg s Law tells us the location of a peak with indices hkl. θ hkl is related to the interplanar spacing, d, as follows: λ = 2d hkl sin θ hkl 1/d = 2 sin θ/ λ 1/d 2 = 4 sin 2 θ/λ 2 We know that for a cubic phase the d-values can be calculated from the Miller indices (hkl): 1/d 2 = (h 2 + k 2 + l 2 )/a 2 Combining these two equations we get the following relationship or (h 2 + k 2 + l 2 ) / a 2 = 4sin 2 θ / λ 2 sin 2 θ = (λ 2 /4a 2 )(h 2 + k 2 + l 2 ) Where λ and a are constants, hence λ 2 /4a 2 is constant. Sin 2 θ is proportional to h 2 + k 2 + l 2 i.e., planes with higher Miller indices will diffract at higher values of θ.

12 In cubic systems, the first XRD peak in the diffraction pattern will be due to diffraction from planes with the lowest Miller indices simple cubic, (100), h 2 + k 2 + l 2 = 1 body-centered cubic, (110), h 2 + k 2 + l 2 = 2 face-centered, (111), h 2 + k 2 + l 2 = 3 If the lattice is not primitive certain classes of hkl peaks will be missing. These are called systematic absences and we can use them to determine the space group (or at least narrow down the possibilities). Conditions for allowed reflection for cubic lattices: Primitive: All possible h, k and l values Body-centered: reflection is allowed when (h + k + l) is even reflection is not allowed when (h + k + l) is odd Face-centered: reflection is allowed when h, k and l are either all even or all odd no reflection when h, k and l are mixed i.e., even and odd

13 Hence, Primitive h 2 + k 2 + l 2 = 1,2,3,4,5,6,8,9,10,11,12,13,14,16 Body-centered h 2 + k 2 + l 2 = 2,4,6,8,10,12,14,16 Face-centered h 2 + k 2 + l 2 = 3,4,8,11,12,16,19,20,24,27,32

14 Systematic Absences Screws & Glides Screw axes and glide planes also have elements of translation and they will give systematic absences as well. Some examples are given below. Centering Allowed peaks 2 1 screw axis to a h00 peaks are only allowed when h is an even # 2 1 screw axis to b 0k0 peaks are only allowed when k is an even # 2 1 screw axis to c 00l peaks are only allowed when l is an even # 3 1 screw axis to c 00l peaks are only allowed when l = 3n (n = integer) 4 1 screw axis to c 00l peaks are only allowed when l = 4n (n = integer) a glide plane c hk0 peaks are only allowed when h is an even # b glide plane c hk0 peaks are only allowed when k is an even # n glide plane c hk0 peaks are only allowed when h+k is an even # a glide plane b h0l peaks are only allowed when h is an even # c glide plane b h0l peaks are only allowed when l is an even # n glide plane b h0l peaks are only allowed when h+l is an even #

15 Selection Rules for Reflections in Cubic Crystals (hkl) h 2 + k 2 + l 2 SC BCC FCC , , ,

16 Two Methods of Indexing 1. Mathematical 2. Analytical

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36 Tetragonal System In this system, the sin 2 θ values obey the following relation: sin 2 θ = A (h 2 + k 2 ) + Cl 2 where A ( = λ 2 /4a 2 ) and C (= λ 2 /4c 2 ) are constants for any pattern. First of all these constants (A and C) are found which will then disclose the cell parameters a and c and enable the line indices to be calculated. The value of A is obtained from the hk0 lines. When l = 0 the above equation becomes: sin 2 θ = A (h 2 + k 2 ) The permissible values of (h 2 + k 2 ) are 1, 2, 4, 5, 8, etc. Therefore the hk0 lines must have sin 2 θ values in the ratio of these integers and A will be some number which is 1, 1/2, 1/4, 1/5, 1/8, etc., times the sin 2 θ values of these lines. C is obtained from the other lines on the pattern and by the use of the following equation. sin 2 θ A (h 2 + k 2 ) = Cl 2 Differences represented by the left-hand side of the equation are set up, for various assumed values of h and k, in an attempt to find a consistent set of Cl 2 values, which must be in the ratio of 1, 4, 9, 16, etc. Once these values are found, C can be calculated.

37 Autoindexing Manual indexing of cubic unit cells is a reasonably straightforward process. Tetragonal, trigonal and hexagonal cells can also be indexed manually with some experience, but it is not a trivial exercise. Generally indexing is done using a computer program. This process is called autoindexing. The input for an autoindexing program is typically: The peak positions (ideally lines) The wavelength The uncertainty in the peak positions The maximum allowable unit cell volume

38 Autoindexing Software A number of the most useful autoindexing programs have been gathered together by Robin Shirley into a single package called Crysfire. You can download Crysfire from the web and find tutorials on its use at To index a powder diffraction pattern try the following steps: Fit the peaks using a program such as X-Fit ( Take the X-fit output file and convert to a Crysfire input file, as described on the web. Run Crysfire to look for the best solutions. Evaluate the systematic absences and refine the cell parameters. This can be done using the material in the front of the international tables for crystallography or using a program like Chekcell (

39 Autoindexing - Pitfalls Inaccurate data Impurities Try different programs Drop out various weak peaks Try different sample preps Complimentary analysis Psuedosymmetry Unit cell dimensions are close to a more symmetric crystal system Inadequate number of peaks You really need peaks, particularly if the symmetry is low How do I know when I m finished? Evaluate output based on figure of merit, when the following conditions are met the solution warrants close consideration M 20 > 10 All of the peaks are indexed Solutions with figures of merit above 20 or so almost always have some degree of the truth in them, but closely related solutions and partially correct solutions are common. Favor high symmetry solutions over low symmetry ones.

40 Determination of Number of Atoms in a Unit Cell In structure determination process, the next step after establishing the shape and size of the unit cell is to find the number of atoms in the unit cell, because the number of atoms must be known before their positions can be determined. When the unit cell volume, calculated from the lattice parameters, is multiplied by the measured density of the substance it gives the weight of all the atoms in the cell. V A = ρ Where A is the sum of the atomic weights of the atoms in the unit cell, ρ is the density (g/cm 3 ) and V is the volume of the unit cell (Å 3 ). If the substance is an element of atomic weight A, then A = n 1 A Where n1 is the number of atoms per unit cell. If the substance is a chemical compound then A = n 2 M

41 Where n2 is the number of molecules per unit cell and M the molecular weight. The number of atoms per unit cell can then be calculated from n2 and the composition of the phase. Volume of the Unit Cell The following equations are used to calculate the volume V of the unit cell: Cubic: V = a 3 Tetragonal: Orthorhombic: Monoclinic: Hexagonal: V = a 2 c V = abc V = abc sinβ V = 0.866a 2 c

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