Swap the cations of the reactants to form the products, which are two new ionic compounds: The products will be sodium nitrate and silver carbonate.

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1 Predicting Products of Precipitation Reactions: Solubility Rules (Small-scale experiment adapted from Waterman's Chemistry lab manual, #23) Goals Observe and record precipitation reactions. Derive general solubility rules from the experimental data. Describe precipitation reactions by writing net ionic equations. Understand the relationship between solubility and precipitation reactions. Introduction Ionic compounds in solution consist of free ions surrounded by water. In the case of zinc chloride being dissolved in water to form an aqueous solution, the dissolution of the ionic compound can be depicted as follows: ZnCl 2(s) Zn 2+ (aq) + 2 Cl - (aq) What type of change is this? These free aqueous ions can react with other ions. Mixing of dissolved ionic compounds can lead to precipitation reactions, a double displacement reaction. The precipitate is a solid product, a new ionic compound that is different from the reactants in both composition and solubility. Solubility is defined as the amount of substance (solute) that dissolves in a given amount of solvent. Solubility is a physical property that can be useful in predicting whether the mixing of aqueous ionic compounds will lead to a precipitation reaction. The mixing of a variety of combinations leads to the formulation of general rules of solubility. Some examples of these rules include "All sodium salts are soluble in water" or "The mixing of two ionic compounds that contain a common ion will not lead to a precipitate". Let's look at an example to see how these solubility rules can help us. As part of the lab, aqueous solutions of silver nitrate and sodium carbonate are mixed. A foggy white precipitate is formed. To write the chemical equation: Identify the reactants and write their correct formulas: Silver nitrate + Sodium carbonate AgNO3(aq) + (aq) Identify the cations and anions: Ag + 2 Na + NO 3- CO3 2- Swap the cations of the reactants to form the products, which are two new ionic compounds: The products will be sodium nitrate and silver carbonate. Write the correct formulas for the products after the arrow. Use the names of the products as an aid to get the formulas correct. Each product must have a net charge of zero. In other words the sum of the positive charges must equal the sum of the negative charges within each product. Ag + 2 Na + Na + + NO3-1:1 ratio Ag + + CO3 2- Ag2CO3 2:1 ratio NO 3- CO3 2- AgNO3(aq) + (aq) Ag2CO3 + Silver nitrate Sodium carbonate Silver carbonate Sodium nitrate

2 Use solubility rules to determine which product is the precipitate: Here, "All sodium salts are soluble" and "All salts containing nitrate are soluble" apply; therefore, silver carbonate must be the foggy, white precipitate. AgNO3(aq) + (aq) Ag2CO3(s) + (aq) LAST but not least, balance the equation using whole number coefficients. DO NOT CHANGE SUBSCRIPTS at this point: 2 AgNO3(aq) + (aq) Ag2CO3(s) + 2 (aq) How do you convert a chemical equation into a correct net-ionic equation? Rewrite the correct chemical equation but this time write any aqueous (not solid) ionic compound as free cations and anions (with proper charge and aqueous symbols). This form is referred to as the total ionic equation. Remember that coefficients in front of a species apply to both cation and anion. Only subscripts on monatomic ions and subscripts outside of parenthesis surrounding polyatomic ions multiply with coefficients. Subscripts that are part of polyatomic ions do not multiply with coefficients. Below, which subscripts changed coefficients when the aqueous compounds were written as free ions? 2 Ag + (aq) + 2 NO3 - (aq) + 2 Na + (aq) + CO3 2- (aq) Ag2CO3(s) + 2 Na + (aq) + 2 NO3 - (aq) Once you are sure you have the correct total ionic equation, look at the equation again. It should be balanced and you will be able to see what ions actually underwent a change. Any species that is exactly the same on both sides of the arrow is considered to be a spectator ion. To write the net ionic equation, eliminate the spectators and only write the species that changed: 2 Ag + (aq) + CO3 2- (aq) Ag2CO3(s) Why so many types of equations? Each equation is useful for different reasons. The net ionic is preferred in double displacement reactions because it focuses solely on the product. In this lab you will mix a variety of solutions. By using sodium salts for at least one of the reactants you will be able to identify which product is the precipitate. To assist you in identifying the solid product, you will write chemical equations for all observable reactions. These chemical reactions will be translated into net ionic equations. After examining the chemical formulas of the precipitates, you will "conclude" by summarizing your results as a set of solubility rules. Check your results against the solubility rules given in the textbook

3 Safety Act in accordance with the laboratory safety rules of Cabrillo College. Wear safety glasses at all times. Avoid contact* with all chemical reagents and dispose of reactions using appropriate waste container. *Contact with silver nitrate (AgNO3) will stain the skin. Use microburets to dispense reagents in such a way that they do not make contact with other drops or the reaction surface. Return any contaminated microburets to your instructor. Materials: Reagent Central chemicals include aqueous solutions of the compounds listed on your experimental page. Equipment: Clean, dry transfer pipet for mixing. Labtop reaction surface Experimental Procedure 1. Insert your experimental page under your reaction surface. Place 1 drop of each solution in the squares on your experimental page. After stirring a mixture with the air from a clean, dry pipet, record your observations either in your lab notebook or on the worksheets as directed by your instructor. Ppt can be used for precipitate and"nvr" can indicate no visible reaction if the abbreviations are defined in your write-up. Please include adjectives that describe both color and texture. Be as specific as possible (not all white precipitates look the same). 2. After all the reactions are completed and all observations recorded, take one last look at your surface. Have any of the mixtures changed over time? Record any noticeable changes (there won't be many). Clean your surface by absorbing the contents onto a microtowel. Rinse the reaction surface with a damp paper towel and dry it. Dispose of paper towels in waste bin. Clean your area. Wash your hands thoroughly with soap and water. 3. Answer the analysis questions in your notebook or on the worksheets. Clearly write chemical, complete ionic, and net ionic equations as directed. 4. Draw general conclusions about the cations and anions in your experiment by formulating your own solubility rules. 5. Apply your rules to unknown combinations

4 Reaction Guide: Insert this page into the labtop. Mix one drop of each, using a long stem pipet to blow air past the droplet to complete the mixing. Sol'ns AlCl3 NH4Cl CaCl2 CuSO4 FeCl3 Pb(NO3)2 KI AgNO3-59 -

5 Data Organization Suggestions in a Lab Notebook There are a number of important facets to this experiment. Learning how to predict the products of precipitation reactions, learning to write proper balanced chemical equations and net ionic equations, and observing solubility trends. To make all of these goals easier use the reaction guide on the previous page as a template for a data table. Use an entire page of your notebook for the table. Use the ruler provided in your chemistry kit to make clean lines. When a precipitation reaction is observed, indicate the color and use one or two adjectives to describe the product (milky, cloudy, marbled, granular.). Where no visible reaction is observed you can simply write NVR for no visible reaction (remember to define abbreviations somewhere on the page). One way to organize results might be in a tabular format. Before Mixing: Solution AlCl3 Observations Clear, colorless solution And so on After Mixing: Reaction FeCl3 + Observations Fast reaction yielding cloudy red-brown precipitate. Upon stirring precipitate divides more finely and remains in suspension. And so on

6 Precipitation Reactions and Solubility Rules Worksheet Data Name Identifying the cations and anions in the reactants is an important step in writing correct doubledisplacement reactions. Record your initial observations of the solutions in use (before mixing). Write the formula for the cation and anion, including charge. Before Mixing Solution Cation formula Anion formula Observations AlCl3 Al 3+ 3 Cl - NH4Cl CaCl2 CuSO4 FeCl3 Pb(NO3)2 KI AgNO3-61 -

7 Solution Cation formula Anion formula Observations There are a number of important facets to this experiment, including learning how to predict the products of precipitation reactions, learning to write proper balanced chemical equations and net ionic equations, and observing solubility trends. After mixing aqueous solution of ionic compounds, look closely for precipitates. When a precipitation reaction is observed, record color and other pertinent information to describe the product (milky, cloudy, marbled, granular.). Where no visible reaction is observed you can simply write NVR for no visible reaction

8 Observations: Record your data in the following table or in your lab manual. If a precipitate forms, indicate this with ppt. Also write a one-word description of the color and a one-word description of the texture (e.g., chunky blue ppt ). This will help you see patterns in your data. What columns and rows are generally no ppt? Which columns and rows show ppt often (if not always)? Sol'ns AlCl3 NH4Cl CaCl2 CuSO4 FeCl3 Pb(NO3)2 KI AgNO3 The following pages are designed for more detailed descriptions of your results. Complete these only if your instructor requires you to do so

9 After Mixing Solution 1 Solution 2 Observations AlCl3 NH4Cl CaCl2-64 -

10 CaCl2 CuSO4-65 -

11 FeCl3 Pb(NO3)2-66 -

12 KI AgNO3-67 -

13 Data Analysis Answer the following questions clearly and completely in your lab notebook or on these sheets. 1. Were any of the mixtures more difficult to remove from the surface during the cleaning process? Is your surface clean? Explain. 2. Write out the complete chemical formula, the complete ionic formula, and the net ionic formula for the following precipitation reactions. Write in final answers in your notebook or in the space provided. AlCl3 + Chemical: 2 AlCl3 + 3 Al2(CO3)3 + 6 Complete ionic: 2 Al Cl Na CO3 2- Al2(CO3)3 + 6 Na Cl - Net 2 Al CO3 2- Al2(CO3)3 AlCl3 + Chemical: AlCl3 + Chemical: CuSO4 + Chemical: CuSO4 + Chemical: CuSO4 + Chemical:

14 CaCl2 + Chemical: CaCl2 + Chemical: CaCl2 + Chemical: CaCl2 + Chemical: FeCl3 + Chemical: FeCl3 + Chemical: FeCl3 + Chemical:

15 3. Work out the complete chemical, complete ionic, and net ionic equations for the following on separate sheets of paper. Write in balanced net ionic reactions. Pb(NO3)2 + Pb(NO3)2 + Pb 2+ + CO3 2- PbCO3 Pb(NO3)2 + Pb(NO3)2 + MgSO4 + MgSO4 + MgSO4 + AgNO3 + AgNO3 + AgNO3 + AgNO3 + ZnCl2 + ZnCl2 + ZnCl Look at your data table and your equations. What cations regularly formed precipitates? Give the correct names and formulas for the cations

16 5. What cations never formed precipitates (NVR)? Give both the correct names and formulas. 6. What anions regularly formed precipitates? Give both the correct names and formulas. 7. What anions never formed precipitates (NVR)? Give both the correct names and formulas. Review your answers thus far. Complete the following set of solubility rules: Salts containing the following ions tend to be soluble: Salts containing the following ions tend to be insoluble: 8. According to your solubility rules from your data, predict whether the following combinations with produce a precipitate. Write "ppt." in the squares where a reaction will occur. Solutions potassium phosphate ammonium hydroxide magnesium chloride sodium chloride

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