1 78 Chapter 6: Writing and Balancing Chemical Equations. It is convenient to classify chemical reactions into one of several general types. Some of the more common, important, reactions are shown below. Decomposition reactions. These reactions follow the pattern: AB A + B A and B are typically molecules, although sometimes they are individual atoms. One common decomposition reaction is that of calcium carbonate: CaCO3 CaO + CO2 Generally, decomposition reactions are readily identified, because they tend to have a single reactant, and two or more products. Combination reactions. Combination reactions are essentially the reverse of decomposition reactions: two materials unite to form a single molecule. Combination reactions follow the pattern: A + B C There are many examples of these reactions; one is the combination of ammonia with sulfuric acid to form ammonium sulfate: 2NH3 + H2SO4 (NH4)2SO4 Generally, combination reactions have fewer products than reactants. Single replacement reactions. In these reactions, one atom or complex ion is replaced with a second atom or complex ion. Single replacement reactions follow the pattern: AB + C AC + B (or AB + C CB + A) For example, iron replaces copper in copper sulfate, as shown in the reaction: 3CuSO4 + 2Fe Fe2(SO4)3 + 3Cu
2 79 Double replacement (metathesis) reactions. Double replacement or metathesis reactions follow the pattern: AB + CD AD + CB There are many examples of double replacement reactions, such as the reaction between lithium nitride and ammonium nitrate: Li3N + 3NH4NO3 3LiNO3 + (NH4)3N Precipitation reactions. If one or more of the products are insoluble, then we have a precipitation reaction. Most precipitation reactions are also single or double replacement reactions. One classic example is the reaction between sodium chloride and silver nitrate: NaCl(aq) + AgNO3(aq) AgCl(s) + NaNO3(aq) In this reaction, (aq) means that the substance is dissolved in water: the sodium chloride, silver nitrate, and sodium nitrate are in solution as anions and cations. The (s) means that the material is a solid: silver chloride is not in solution as silver cations and chloride anions. The material produced by the reaction and designated as (s) is a precipitate. In the laboratory, precipitation reactions can be quite impressive. Two solutions, each colorless and for all practical purposes identical to plain water, are poured together, and instantaneously, the solution becomes cloudy. Eventually, the cloudy material settles to the bottom of the container (Figure 6.1). Many precipitates are white, but some are highly colored. The liquid above the precipitate may be clear and colorless, like water, or it might be colored. This liquid is called the supernatant liquid the liquid left after a precipitate has settled.
3 80 Figure 6.1. Mixing sodium chloride and silver nitrate solutions produces a cloudy solution of silver chloride. The silver chloride eventually settles out of solution, leaving a clear, colorless liquid on top and a white solid on the bottom. Combustion reactions. Combustion reactions describe the combination of oxygen with a second reactant, typically producing carbon dioxide and water, and releasing large amounts of energy as heat and light. Any substance that burns is undergoing a combustion reaction: 2C2H6 + 7O2 4CO2 + 6H2O While the products of combustion reactions are often carbon dioxide and water, the products depend on the specific substance combining with oxygen. Sulfur burns in oxygen to produce sulfur dioxide: S + O2 SO2 Combustion reactions are one example of a more general type of reaction called oxidation- reduction (redox) reactions. All combustions reactions are redox reactions (but not all redox reactions are combustion reactions).
4 81 Balanced chemical equations. A balanced chemical equation is a representation of a chemical reaction using the chemical formulas of the reactants and products, and indicating the number of molecules or atoms of each substance. By convention, reactants are shown first, an arrow is drawn from left to right, and products are shown last. The pattern is illustrated below. Reactants Products The identities of the individual reactants and products are given by the specific chemical formulas of these substances. CH4 + O2 CO2 + H2O The specific compound methane (CH4) reacts with the specific element oxygen (O2) to produce the specific compounds, carbon dioxide (CO2) and water (H2O). Since each substance has one chemical formula any change in the chemical formula changes the specific compound(s) involved in the reaction! NEVER! NEVER!! NEVER CHANGE THE CHEMICAL FORMULAS OF THE COMPOUNDS!!!! To balance a chemical equation, two absolute requirements must be met. The first requirement is The same kinds of elements must be present in the reactants and the products. In our reaction, we have the elements carbon (C), hydrogen (H), and oxygen (O) in the reactants and these same elements appear in the products. We have no other elements appearing on either side of the equation. But what if we did? What if we had this situation? CH4 + O2 CO2 + H2O + Na This indicates that someone has made some sort of mistake. The mistake is probably something simple, either accidentally including sodium as a product, or omitting sodium as a reactant. But regardless of the cause of the mistake, it is definite that a mistake was made in writing the equation. As a consequence of this mistake, this chemical equation can never be balanced as it is written.
5 82 Returning to our earlier, mistake free equation: CH4 + O2 CO2 + H2O We are ready for the second absolute requirement: The number of atoms of each element must be the same on both sides of the equation. In our equation, we have one atom of carbon on both sides that is good. We have four atoms of hydrogen as reactants, and only two atoms of hydrogen as products that is not good. We have two atoms of oxygen as reactants and three atoms of oxygen as products that is also not good. Element Reactant Product C 1 1 H 4 2 O 2 3 So, what we must now do is clear: we must equalize the number of hydrogen and oxygen atoms. How to do this? Well, there are two ways. The wrong way is to change the compounds. We could erase the 4 beside the hydrogen in methane and write in a 2. Then we could erase the 2 beside the oxygen in carbon dioxide and we would have the following (changes in red): CH2 + O2 CO + H2O There are only two things wrong with this. Methane is NOT CH2: it is CH4. Carbon dioxide is NOT CO: it is CO2. Any change in the chemical formula changes the specific compound(s) involved in the reaction! NEVER! NEVER!! NEVER CHANGE THE CHEMICAL FORMULAS OF THE COMPOUNDS!!!! So, if we can t change the subscript numbers to balance the reaction, what can we do? The right way is to put numbers in front of the chemical formulas. If we write 2O2, we haven t changed the identity of the compound; instead we are saying there are 2 molecules of O2. This is our method for balancing a chemical equation we manipulate the coefficients (the numbers in front of the formulas) changing the number of molecules or atoms that react or are produced.
6 83 There is no single, definitive order in which to change these coefficients to get the final balanced equation. It is a trial and error procedure. It does not matter which material you choose to balance first. Generally, the easiest way is to balance those elements that are in only one reactant and one product first. Here is our equation: CH4 + O2 CO2 + H2O We have one carbon atom in methane and one carbon atom in carbon dioxide, so there is nothing for us to do with carbon. Hydrogen is present in one reactant (methane) and one product (water), so let s balance hydrogen next. With 4 hydrogen atoms in methane and 2 hydrogen atoms in water, if we multiply water by 2 (put 2 in front of water), we end up with 4 hydrogen atoms on both sides of the equation. CH4 + O2 CO2 + 2H2O All that s left is oxygen. We have two oxygen atoms on the left, and 4 oxygen atoms on the right (2 from carbon dioxide, and 2 more from 2 molecules of water). Putting a 2 in front of oxygen gives us 4 oxygen atoms on each side of the equation. CH4 + 2O2 CO2 + 2H2O Are we done? To answer this question, we simply compare the number of atoms of each element on the reactant and product sides. We have 1 carbon atom on each side. We have 4 hydrogen atoms on each side. Both sides have 4 oxygen atoms. Since the kinds of atoms are the same, and the numbers of atoms of each kind are the same, the equation is balanced. What is that you say? Too much fooling around, isn t there an easier way? No, there isn t. But with practice, the process becomes easier. Another exercise that may help is to draw some pictures of the atoms or molecules involved in the reaction. Figure 6.1 shows the initial equation and the balanced equation using pictures of the atoms and molecules. If you have trouble balancing equations, try drawing some pictures to help you visualize what is happening. Eventually, you ll be able to balance the equations without the pictures.
7 84 Figure 6.1. Picture method of balancing chemical equations. The initial, unbalanced equation is at the top, while the balanced equation is at the bottom. Carbon atoms are black balls, hydrogen atoms are white, and oxygen atoms are red. Sometimes, we run into little problems while balancing the equation. Let s look at a reaction similar to our first. C2H6 + O2 CO2 + H2O There are 2 carbon atoms as reactants, but only 1 carbon atom as products, so multiplying the carbon product by 2 balances the carbon atoms. C2H6 + O2 2CO2 + H2O There are 6 hydrogen atoms as reactants and 2 hydrogen atoms as products, so multiplying the hydrogen product by 3 balances the hydrogen atoms. C2H6 + O2 2CO2 + 3H2O There are 2 oxygen atoms as reactants, and a total of 7 oxygen atoms as products, so multiplying the oxygen reactant by 3.5 balances the oxygen atoms. C2H O2 2CO2 + 3H2O We see there are 2 carbon atoms on each side, 6 hydrogen atoms on each side, and 7 oxygen atoms (2 x 3.5 = 7) on each side. The kinds of atoms are the same, the numbers of each kind of atom are the same, the reaction is balanced and we are done, yes? No.
8 85 Look at what has been done to oxygen (O2) in our reaction. What are we describing? Three oxygen molecules (O2) are: O=O O=O O=O. Three and a half oxygen molecules would be: O=O O=O O=O O. We do not have any isolated oxygen atoms (O) in our reactants!!!! All of the oxygen came in the form of oxygen molecules!!!! By writing 3.5 O2, we have changed the chemical equation to say 3 molecules of oxygen and 1 oxygen atom. We have changed the specific chemical compounds in the reaction by changing the formulas of the compounds. NEVER! NEVER!! NEVER CHANGE THE CHEMICAL FORMULAS OF THE COMPOUNDS!!!! What to do, what to do? Well, how about this since we are changing the coefficients of the individual compounds, why not change the coefficients again to get rid of 1/2 of an oxygen molecule? The simplest way is to multiply the entire equation by 2 to get: 2C2H6 + 7O2 4CO2 + 6H2O We see there are 4 carbon atoms on each side, 12 hydrogen atoms on each side, and 14 oxygen atoms on each side. None of the formulas have been changed. This is a correctly balanced chemical equation. In a properly balanced chemical equation the coefficients are the smallest possible whole number values. There is another way of handling this problem. Let s pretend we were balancing this equation, and got to the step where we saw that we had 2 oxygen atoms on the left and 7 on the right. We could stop balancing the reaction right here, take a step backwards, and use the following method. First, start over using the original equation: C2H6 + O2 CO2 + H2O Next, multiply every substance in the equation by 2: 2C2H6 + 2O2 2CO2 + 2H2O
9 86 Now balance the equation as normal. We have 4 carbon atoms on the left and 2 on the right, so we need to increase the coefficient in front of carbon dioxide to balance the carbon atoms: 2C2H6 + 2O2 4CO2 + 2H2O We have 12 hydrogen atoms on the left and 4 on the right, so we need to increase the coefficient in front of water to balance hydrogen atoms: 2C2H6 + 2O2 4CO2 + 6H2O Finally, we have 4 oxygen atoms on the left and 14 on the right (8 from four molecules of carbon dioxide and 6 from water molecules), so we need to increase the coefficient in front of oxygen to balance oxygen atoms: 2C2H6 + 7O2 4CO2 + 6H2O As a final check, we can compare number of atoms of each element on the left and right sides. We have 4 carbon, 12 hydrogen, and 14 oxygen atoms on each side, so the reaction is balanced. Sometimes, when we balance one element in a reaction, another element that was already balanced becomes unbalanced. The final check allows us to catch these kinds of errors. Balancing equations with reactants and products containing polyatomic ions is very easy if you recognize the ions in the chemical formulas. Let s balance an equation between aluminum chlorate and magnesium chromate: Al(ClO3)3 + MgCrO4 Al2(CrO4)3 + Mg(ClO3)2 It would be easy to panic and flounder around, worrying about all the different elements that have to balance, but instead look at the equation calmly. We have chlorate ( ClO 3! ) in the reactant and in the product, just as we have chromate ( CrO 4!2 ) on both sides. Chlorate and chromate can be treated as if they were single atoms, because they aren t being converted into new substances. Once we recognize that the polyatomic ions aren t being converted into anything different, balancing the equation is relatively simple. First, we increase the coefficient in front of aluminum chlorate to balance the aluminum atoms (one atom on the left, 2 on the right): 2Al(ClO3)3 + MgCrO4 Al2(CrO4)3 + Mg(ClO3)2
10 87 Next, we balance the chlorate. We have 6 chlorate ions on the left, and 2 on the right, so the coefficient in front of magnesium chlorate needs to be increased: 2Al(ClO3)3 + MgCrO4 Al2(CrO4)3 + 3Mg(ClO3)2 Balancing the magnesium requires that we increase the coefficient in front of magnesium chromate to 3: 2Al(ClO3)3 + 3MgCrO4 Al2(CrO4)3 + 3Mg(ClO3)2 All that is left is to balance chromate. We have 3 chromate ions on the left, and 3 on the right, so there is nothing more to do except a final check: Element Left side Right side Al 2 2 Cl 6 6 O Mg 3 3 Cr 3 3 We have the same number and kinds of atoms on both sides of the equation it is balanced. Optional symbols. Sometimes, additional information is included in a balanced chemical equation by using additional optional symbols. These symbols aren t needed for balancing the reactions, but provide additional information that might be useful for other calculations or applications. These symbols and their meanings are shown in Table 6.2.
11 88 Symbol (s) (l) (g) ( ) ( ) (aq) Δ (above or below reaction arrow) hυ (above or below reaction arrow) cat. or Pt Meaning Solid Liquid Gas Gas is produced Precipitate (solid substance) comes out of solution Aqueous substance dissolved in water Heat required Light required Catalyst required Table 6.2. Additional symbols seen in chemical reactions.
12 89 Chapter 6 Homework: Vocabulary. The following terms are defined and explained in the text. Make sure that you are familiar with the meanings of the terms as used in chemistry. Understand that you may have been given incomplete or mistaken meanings for these terms in earlier courses. The meanings given in the text are correct and proper. Decomposition reaction Combination reaction Single replacement reaction Double replacement (metathesis) reaction Precipitation reaction Supernatant liquid Precipitate Combustion reaction Balanced chemical equation Reactant(s) Product(s) Coefficients Optional symbols Homework: A. Balance the following chemical equations. 1. Fe + O2 Fe2O3 2. C2H4 + O2 CO2 + H2O 3. P2O5 + H2O H3PO4 4. Al4C3 + H2O Al(OH)3 + CH4 5. NH4NO3 N2 + O2 + H2O 6. Na2O + H2O NaOH 7. Na2SiO3 + HF H2SiO3 + NaF 8. C3H5N3O9 CO2 + N2 + O2 + H2O 9. NaHCO3 + H3C6H5O7 CO2 + H2O + Na3C6H5O7 10. KClO3 KCl + O2
13 90 B. For the ten chemical equations given in part A, identify which are decomposition, combination, single replacement, double replacement, or combustion reactions. (It is possible for one chemical reaction to fit into two categories).
14 91 Answers: A. Balance the following chemical equations. 1. Fe + O2 Fe2O3 Balance Fe: Final: 2Fe + O2 Fe2O3 2Fe + 1.5O2 Fe2O3 4Fe + 3O2 2Fe2O3 4 Fe, 6 O vs. 4 Fe, 6 O 2. C2H4 + O2 CO2 + H2O Balance C: Balance H: C2H4 + O2 2CO2 + H2O C2H4 + O2 2CO2 + 2H2O C2H4 + 3O2 2CO2 + 2H2O 2 C, 4 H, 6 O vs. 2 C, 4 H, 6 O 3. P2O5 + H2O H3PO4 Balance P: Balance H: P2O5 + H2O 2H3PO4 P2O5 + 3H2O 2H3PO4 P2O5 + 3H2O 2H3PO4 2 P, 8 O, 6 H vs. 2 P, 8 O, 6 H
15 92 4. Al4C3 + H2O Al(OH)3 + CH4 Balance Al: Balance C: Balance H: Al4C3 + H2O 4Al(OH)3 + CH4 Al4C3 + H2O 4Al(OH)3 + 3CH4 Al4C3 + 12H2O 4Al(OH)3 + 3CH4 Al4C3 + 12H2O 4Al(OH)3 + 3CH4 4 Al, 3 C, 12 O, 24 H vs. 4 Al, 3 C, 12 O, 24 H 5. NH4NO3 N2 + O2 + H2O Balance N: Balance H: Final: NH4NO3 N2 + O2 + H2O NH4NO3 N2 + O2 + H2O NH4NO3 N2 + O2 + 2H2O NH4NO3 N2 + 1/2O2 + 2H2O 2NH4NO3 2N2 + O2 + 4H2O 4 N, 6 O, 8 H vs. 4 N, 6 O, 8 H 6. Na2O + H2O NaOH Balance Na: Balance H: Na2O + H2O 2NaOH Na2O + H2O 2NaOH Na2O + H2O 2NaOH 2 Na, 2 O, 2 H vs. 2 Na, 2 O, 2 H
16 93 7. Na2SiO3 + HF H2SiO3 + NaF Notice: SiO3-2 present on both sides. Treat as a single unit. Balance SiO3: Balance Na: Balance F: Balance H: Na2SiO3 + HF H2SiO3 + NaF Na2SiO3 + HF H2SiO3 + 2NaF Na2SiO3 + 2HF H2SiO3 + 2NaF Na2SiO3 + 2HF H2SiO3 + 2NaF 2 Na, 1 Si, 3 O, 2 H, 2 F vs. 2 Na, 1 Si, 3 O, 2 H, 2 F 8. C3H5N3O9 CO2 + N2 + O2 + H2O Balance C: Balance N: Balance H: Final: C3H5N3O9 3CO2 + N2 + O2 + H2O C3H5N3O9 3CO N2 + O2 + H2O C3H5N3O9 3CO N2 + O2 + H2O C3H5N3O9 3CO N2 + O H2O C3H5N3O9 3CO N O H2O 4C3H5N3O9 12CO2 + 6N2 + O2 + 10H2O 12 C, 20 H, 12 N, 36 O vs. 12 C, 20 H, 12 N, 36 O
17 94 9. NaHCO3 + H3C6H5O7 CO2 + H2O + Na3C6H5O7 Notice: C6H5O7-3 present on both sides. Treat as a single unit. Balance C6H5O7: NaHCO3 + H3C6H5O7 CO2 + H2O + Na3C6H5O7 Balance Na: Balance C: Balance H: 3NaHCO3 + H3C6H5O7 CO2 + H2O + Na3C6H5O7 3NaHCO3 + H3C6H5O7 3CO2 + H2O + Na3C6H5O7 3NaHCO3 + H3C6H5O7 3CO2 + 3H2O + Na3C6H5O7 3NaHCO3 + H3C6H5O7 3CO2 + 3H2O + Na3C6H5O7 3 Na, 11 H, 9 C, 16 O vs. 3 Na, 11 H, 9 C, 16 O 10. KClO3 KCl + O2 Balance K: Balance Cl: Final: KClO3 KCl + O2 KClO3 KCl + O2 KClO3 KCl + 1.5O2 2KClO3 2KCl + 3O2 2 K, 2 Cl, 6 O vs. 2 K, 2 Cl, 6 O B. For the ten chemical equations given in part A, identify which are decomposition, combination, single replacement, double replacement, or combustion reactions. (It is possible for one chemical reaction to fit into two categories). 1. Fe + O2 Fe2O3 Combination and combustion reaction 2. C2H4 + O2 CO2 + H2O Combustion reaction 3. P2O5 + H2O H3PO4 Combination reaction 4. Al4C3 + H2O Al(OH)3 + CH4 Double replacement reaction 5. NH4NO3 N2 + O2 + H2O Decomposition reaction 6. Na2O + H2O NaOH Combination reaction
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Types of Reactions Consider for a moment the number of possible chemical reactions. Because there are millions of chemical compounds, it is logical to expect that there are millions of possible chemical
CHEMICAL REACTIONS OBJECTIVES 1. To study reactions between ions in aqueous solutions 2. To observe exothermic and endothermic reactions 3. To study oxidation-reduction reactions 4. To practice balancing
Physical Changes and Chemical Reactions Gezahegn Chaka, Ph.D., and Sudha Madhugiri, Ph.D., Collin College Department of Chemistry Objectives Introduction To observe physical and chemical changes. To identify
Chemical Equations 17.2 Chemical symbols provide us with a shorth method of writing the name of an element. Chemical formulas do the same for compounds. But what about chemical reactions? To write out,
21 st Century Chemistry Multiple Choice Question in Topic 3 Metals Unit 11 1. Consider the equation: 2Ca(s) + O 2 (g) 2CaO(s) Which of the following statements are correct? (1) Calcium and oxygen are reactants.
Chemical Reactions 2 The Chemical Equation INFORMATION Chemical equations are symbolic devices used to represent actual chemical reactions. The left side of the equation, called the reactants, is separated
www.ck12.org 275 CHAPTER 13 Chemical Reactions CHAPTER OUTLINE 13.1 CHEMICAL REACTIONS AND EQUATIONS 13.2 BALANCING CHEMICAL EQUATIONS 13.3 TYPES OF REACTIONS CHAPTER 13. CHEMICAL REACTIONS 276 www.ck12.org
Oxidation-Reduction Reactions Chapter 11 Electrochemistry Oxidation and Reduction Reactions An oxidation and reduction reaction occurs in both aqueous solutions and in reactions where substances are burned
Chemistry Ch 9 Chemical Reactions Glencoe Section 9.1 Reactions and Equations Chemical Reaction -is the process by which one or more substances are rearranged to form different substances. Five Evidences
NET IONIC REACTIONS in AQUEOUS SOLUTIONS Double replacements are among the most common of the simple chemical reactions. Consider the hypothetical reaction: AB + CD AD + CB where AB exists as A + and B
6 Reactions in Aqueous Solutions Water is by far the most common medium in which chemical reactions occur naturally. It is not hard to see this: 70% of our body mass is water and about 70% of the surface
Solubility Rules and Net Ionic Equations Why? Solubility of a salt depends upon the type of ions in the salt. Some salts are soluble in water and others are not. When two soluble salts are mixed together