Building Electrochemical Cells

Size: px
Start display at page:

Download "Building Electrochemical Cells"

Transcription

1 Cautions Heavy metals, such as lead, and solutions of heavy metals may be toxic and an irritant. Purpose To determine the cell potential (E cell ) for various voltaic cells and compare the data with the calculated E cell values. Introduction An electrochemical cell is a device that may be used for converting chemical energy into electrical energy. An oxidation-reduction reaction may serve as the basis for designing an electrochemical cell. The tendencies of metals to be oxidized differently are often used to design an electrochemical cell based on their reaction differences. Oxidation-reduction or redox reactions involve the transfer of electrons from one reactant to another. Oxidation and reduction half-reactions each represent half of the overall reaction. When adding the halfequations to yield the overall equation, the electrons appearing in the two half cell reactions must cancel each other. In any oxidation-reduction reaction equation, the number of electrons released must be equal to the number of electrons consumed. For example, the oxidation of zinc metal and reduction of Cu 2+ for a spontaneous electrochemical reaction results in the transfer of 2 electrons. Zn (s) Zn 2+ (aq) + 2e - oxidation half-reaction Cu 2+ (aq) + 2e - Cu (s) reduction half-reaction Zn (s) + Cu 2+ (aq) Zn 2+ (aq) + Cu (s) Overall reaction This reaction can be observed by placing a strip of zinc metal into a solution of copper(ii) nitrate, one may observe metallic copper being deposited on the zinc surface. With time the blue color characteristic of Cu 2+ ions in solution will fade and the amount of metallic copper will visibly increase. The strip of zinc metal is gradually being consumed during this process, indicating zinc atoms are being oxidized to zinc (II) ions. This observation shows that zinc is more easily oxidized than copper. Alternatively, the Cu 2+ ion can be described as being more likely to accept electrons from Zn metal than Zn 2+ ion is to accept electrons from Cu metal; a Cu 2+ ion is easier to reduce than Zn 2+ and thus has a greater reduction potential. The standard reduction potentials, E o red, for metal ions Reduction Half E o red, V provide a quantitative measure of a metal ion s tendency to Al 3+ (aq) + 3 e- Al (s) accept electrons and a selective list is shown in Table 1. Zn 2+ (aq) + 2 e- Zn (s) These potentials are determined under standard conditions; Fe 2+ (aq) + 2 e- Fe (s) M concentrations, 25 C, and 1 atm. The reference point for Sn 2+ (aq) + 2 e- Sn (s) these potentials is the reduction potential of hydrogen ions Pb 2+ (aq) + 2 e- Pb (s) (H + ) in aqueous solution being converted to hydrogen gas (H 2 ). 2 H + (aq) + 2 e- H 2 (g) 0.00 The greater more positive the reduction potential, the greater Cu 2+ (aq) + 2 e- Cu (s) ease of reduction. Ag + (aq) + e- Ag (s) The oxidation half-reactions of these metals in the table are simply the reverse of the half-reactions. The Table 1: Standard Reduction Potentials standard oxidation potential, E 0 oxid, of an oxidation half-reaction has the same numerical value, but the opposite sign of the corresponding standard reduction potential. The larger positive voltage indicates that a metal is a more reactive (or active) metal, which will donate electrons easily in an oxidation-reduction reaction. Revision F10 IB Page 1 of 8

2 We can use tabulated reduction potentials to make predictions about the spontaneity for certain oxidationreduction reactions. Let s predict what will happen if we place a Zn strip in a solution of Cu(NO 3 ) 2 under standard conditions. We need to determine if the Zn atoms will donate electrons to thecu 2+ ion, as part of a spontaneous oxidation-reduction reaction. The reduction half-reaction for Cu 2+ ion is described by the standard reduction potential for Cu 2+ at +0.34V. The oxidation of Zn is described by the standard oxidation potential (or the negative of the standard reduction potential), +0.76V. To obtain the net equation and overall cell voltage, we add the equations of the two half-reactions and cancel out the electrons. Zn (s) Zn 2+ (aq) + 2e - E o ox = 0.76 V Cu 2+ (aq) + 2e - Cu (s) E o red = 0.34 V Zn (s) + Cu 2+ (aq) Zn 2+ (aq) + Cu (s) E o cell = 1.10 V Likewise, the sum of the standard reduction potential and the standard oxidation potential of the half-reactions equals the overall cell voltage. If the standard net potential, E 0 cell, or sum of the standard reduction and oxidation potentials, is positive then the reaction will occur spontaneously. E o ox + E o red = E o cell In writing a balanced net cell reaction, we may need to multiply the coefficients of the half-cell reactions to properly cancel the electrons. However, changing the coefficients of a half-cell reaction does not influence the reduction and oxidation potential. Reduction and oxidation potentials are intensive properties in that they are independent of the amount of substance. A voltaic cell, also known as a Galvanic cell, is an electrochemical cell where a spontaneous reaction generates an electrical current. A picture of a typical electrochemical cell is shown in Figure 1. A voltaic cell is comprised of two connected half-cells, one containing the anode and the other the cathode. The connection allows a path for electrons to flow from one metal electrode to another through an external circuit and an internal cell connection (or salt bridge). Oxidation, or loss of electrons, occurs at the anode, while reduction, or gain of electrons, occurs at the cathode. In this experiment you will build various electrochemical cells using Cu, Zn, and Pb and measure the voltages. Based upon your observed voltages, you will be able to rank the metals in order of their relative ease of oxidation and compare the measure cell voltages with those calculated from the standard reduction potentials. Figure 1: An Electrochemical Cell (http://cwx.prenhall.com/petrucci/medialib/media_portfolio/text_images/fg21_04.jpg) Revision F10 IB Page 2 of 8

3 Procedure Note: Metal strips should appear bright and shiny before beginning. Look carefully for changes either in the appearance of the metal surfaces or the solutions to indicate a reaction. A. The Zn-Cu Redox System A1. Clean the Zn metal strip with sandpaper. A2. Place the clean metal in a small test tube. A3. Fill the test tube with 0.1M CuSO 4 solution is sure that the Zn metal strip is completely submerged. A4. After 2.5 minutes, record your observations. A5. After 5 minutes, record your observations. A6. Clean the Zn metal strip with sandpaper and dry using paper towels. A7. Retain the CuSO 4 solution for use in Part B. B. The Pb-Cu Redox System B1. Clean the Pb metal strip with sandpaper. B2. Place the clean metal in a small test tube. B3. Fill the test tube with 0.1M CuSO 4 solution be sure that the Pb metal strip is completely submerged. B4. After 2.5 minutes, record your observations. B5. After 5 minutes, record your observations. B6. Clean the Pb metal strip with sandpaper and dry using paper towels and return to the container B7. Pour the CuSO 4 solution into the container labeled Discarded CuSO 4 Solution. C. The Zn-Pb Redox System C1. Clean the Zn metal strip with sandpaper. C2. Place the clean metal in a small test tube. C3. Fill the test tube with 0.1M Pb(NO 3 ) 2 solution be sure that the Zn metal strip is completely submerged. C4. After 2.5 minutes, record your observations. C5. After 5 minutes, record your observations. C6. Clean the Zn metal strip with sandpaper and dry using paper towels and return to the container C7. Discard the Pb(NO 3 ) 2 solution into the container labeled Discarded Pb(NO 3 ) 2 Solution. D. Electrochemical Cells D1. Place about 5 ml of solutions 0.1 M Cu(NO 3 ) 2, 0.1 M Zn(NO 3 ) 2, 0.1 M Pb(NO 3 ) 2, and 0.1 M KNO 3 into small labeled beakers. D2. Clean the copper, zinc, and lead electrodes using steel wool or sandpaper and rinse with deionized water. D3. Place each metal electrode in its corresponding ionic solution; e.g. copper strip goes into the Cu(NO 3 ) 2 solution. It is important that the correct metal is in the correct solution or your cell will not work properly. Revision F10 IB Page 3 of 8

4 D4. Obtain small strips of filter paper to be used as salt bridges. Completely wet one strip in the beaker containing 0.1 M KNO 3. Carefully remove the completely wet strip and place one end in the Cu(NO 3 ) 2 solution and the other in the Zn(NO 3 ) 2 solution. The salt bridge should not touch the electrodes. D5. Attach one alligator clip from the voltmeter to the Cu electrode and the second clip to the Zn electrode. If the voltmeter has a negative voltage, reverse the hookup so that each clip is now attached to the other metal in the pair. D6. Record the voltage of the electrochemical cell. D7. Repeat for the remaining cells, recording the positive cell voltages and using a new wet piece of filter paper as a salt bridge for each. D8. Clean the metal strips with sandpaper or steel wool. Dry each strip using paper towels Disposal Dispose of all solutions into the appropriate waste container. Return all metal pieces to their original container clean and dry. Clean-Up Clean and dry your work area with water. Wash your hands before leaving the laboratory. Wash all glassware with soap then rinse 3 times with tap water, and once with deionized water. Calculations Oxidation Reduction Reactions 1. Consider the metals and ions involved to write the oxidation and reduction half-reactions. 2. Obtain the potentials from Table 1 to calculate E 0 cell. Electrochemical Cells 1. Calculate the net cell voltage by using the tabulated potentials. 2. Calculate the percent deviation between the experimental and calculated cell potentials by the following equation: % Deviation = E cell Measured E cell Calculated E cell Calculated x 100 Revision F10 IB Page 4 of 8

5 Data Sheet Name: Oxidation Reduction Reactions A. Zn-Cu System Experimental Observations Oxidation Half Reduction Half E o ox = E o red = Net E o cell = B. Pb-Cu System Experimental Observations Oxidation Half Reduction Half E o ox = E o red = Net E o cell = Revision F10 IB Page 5 of 8

6 C. Zn-Pb System Experimental Observations Oxidation Half Reduction Half E o ox = E o red = Net E o cell = D. Electrochemical Cells Metals Used E cell Measured E cell Calculated from tabulated potentials % Deviation Cu-Zn Cu-Pb Pb-Zn Revision F10 IB Page 6 of 8

7 Post-lab Assignment Name: 1. Complete the following table with the observed reactions for the electrochemical cells. Write the correct oxidation and reduction half-reaction in the appropriate column for each. Anode Cathode Zn-Cu Cu-Pb Pb-Zn 2. Compare the measured and calculated potentials or your electrochemical cells. Provide an explanation of your percent errors. 3. Based on your voltage measurements for the electrochemical cells, give the order of activity of the metals for the metals used in this experiment. List the most active (easiest to oxidize) metal first. Revision F10 IB Page 7 of 8

8 Pre-lab Assignment Name: 1. Define voltaic cell. 2. Consider the following two reduction reactions and their standard electrode potentials: Al +3 (aq) + 3e - Al(s) Cd +2 (aq) + 2e - Cd(s) E = V E = V a. Write the cell reaction for a voltaic cell based on these two electrodes and calculate the standard cell potential. b. Which species is easier to oxidize and why? c. Which species if easier to reduce and why? 3. A strip of tin is placed in a CuSO 4 solution. Do you expect a spontaneous chemical reaction to occur? If so, write the net cell reaction. Revision F10 IB Page 8 of 8

Figure 1. A voltaic cell Cu,Cu 2+ Ag +, Ag. gas is, by convention, assigned a reduction potential of 0.00 V.

Figure 1. A voltaic cell Cu,Cu 2+ Ag +, Ag. gas is, by convention, assigned a reduction potential of 0.00 V. Voltaic Cells Introduction In this lab you will first prepare a set of simple standard half-cells and then measure the voltage between the half-cells with a voltmeter. From this data you will be able to

More information

Electrochemistry Revised 04/29/15

Electrochemistry Revised 04/29/15 INTRODUCTION TO ELECTROCHEMISTRY: CURRENT, VOLTAGE, BATTERIES, & THE NERNST EQUATION Experiment partially adapted from J. Chem. Educ., 2008, 85 (8), p 1116 Introduction Electrochemical cell In this experiment,

More information

A Review of the Construction of Electrochemical Cells

A Review of the Construction of Electrochemical Cells CHEM331 Physical Chemistry Revision 2.0 A Review of the Construction of Electrochemical Cells Electrochemical cells provide us with our first real example of a system which performs non-pv work. The work

More information

5.111 Principles of Chemical Science

5.111 Principles of Chemical Science MIT OpenCourseWare http://ocw.mit.edu 5.111 Principles of Chemical Science Fall 2008 For information about citing these materials or our Terms of Use, visit: http://ocw.mit.edu/terms. 26.1 5.111 Lecture

More information

Useful charge on one mole of electrons: 9.64 x 10 4 coulombs/mol e - = F F is the Faraday constant

Useful charge on one mole of electrons: 9.64 x 10 4 coulombs/mol e - = F F is the Faraday constant Electrochemistry II: Cell voltage and Gibbs Free energy Reading: Moore chapter 19, sections 15.6-15.12 Questions for Review and Thought: 36, 40, 42, 44, 50, 54, 60, 64, 70 Key Concepts and Skills: definition

More information

Sugar or Salt? Ionic and Covalent Bonds

Sugar or Salt? Ionic and Covalent Bonds Lab 11 Sugar or Salt? Ionic and Covalent Bonds TN Standard 2.1: The student will investigate chemical bonding. Have you ever accidentally used salt instead of sugar? D rinking tea that has been sweetened

More information

(b) As the mass of the Sn electrode decreases, where does the mass go?

(b) As the mass of the Sn electrode decreases, where does the mass go? A student is given a standard galvanic cell, represented above, that has a Cu electrode and a Sn electrode. As current flows through the cell, the student determines that the Cu electrode increases in

More information

Remember the best arguments are based on the strongest evidence and can explain why opposing arguments are incorrect.

Remember the best arguments are based on the strongest evidence and can explain why opposing arguments are incorrect. Magnesium and carbon dioxide Student sheet Burning magnesium in carbon dioxide what will happen? Either the magnesium will go out or it will continue to burn. Which will it be? You will use the evidence

More information

CHM 130LL: ph, Buffers, and Indicators

CHM 130LL: ph, Buffers, and Indicators CHM 130LL: ph, Buffers, and Indicators Many substances can be classified as acidic or basic. Acidic substances contain hydrogen ions, H +, while basic substances contain hydroxide ions, OH. The relative

More information

Colorimetric Determination of Iron in Vitamin Tablets

Colorimetric Determination of Iron in Vitamin Tablets Cautions: 6 M hydrochloric acid is corrosive. Purpose: To colorimetrically determine the mass of iron present in commercial vitamin tablets using a prepared calibration curve. Introduction: Iron is considered

More information

Georgia Performance Standards Framework for Physical Science 8 th Grade. Powering Satellites

Georgia Performance Standards Framework for Physical Science 8 th Grade. Powering Satellites The following instructional plan is part of a GaDOE collection of Unit Frameworks, Performance Tasks, examples of Student Work, and Teacher Commentary. Many more GaDOE approved instructional plans are

More information

Experiment 18: ph Measurements of Common Substances. Experiment 17: Reactions of Acids with Common Substances

Experiment 18: ph Measurements of Common Substances. Experiment 17: Reactions of Acids with Common Substances Experiment 18: ph Measurements of Common Substances and Experiment 17: Reactions of Acids with Common Substances What is this lab about? You mean what ARE THESE labs about? Ok, so what are THESE labs about?

More information

Understanding Analytical Chemistry (Weighing, Mixing, Measuring and Evaluating)

Understanding Analytical Chemistry (Weighing, Mixing, Measuring and Evaluating) Name: Date: Understanding Analytical Chemistry (Weighing, Mixing, Measuring and Evaluating) High School Environmental Science AP Module 1 Environmental Lab NGSSS Big Ideas: This module is a laboratory-based

More information

ph Measurements of Common Substances

ph Measurements of Common Substances Chem 100 Section Experiment 10 Name Partner s Name Introduction ph Measurements of Common Substances The concentration of an acid or base is frequently expressed as ph. Historically, ph stands for the

More information

Experiment 7: Titration of an Antacid

Experiment 7: Titration of an Antacid 1 Experiment 7: Titration of an Antacid Objective: In this experiment, you will standardize a solution of base using the analytical technique known as titration. Using this standardized solution, you will

More information

Chapter 6. Oxidation- Review Skills

Chapter 6. Oxidation- Review Skills Chapter 6 Oxidation-Reduction Reactions n many important chemical reactions, electrons are transferred from atom to atom. We are surrounded by these reactions, commonly called oxidation reduction (or redox)

More information

ATOMIC ABSORTION SPECTROSCOPY: rev. 4/2011 ANALYSIS OF COPPER IN FOOD AND VITAMINS

ATOMIC ABSORTION SPECTROSCOPY: rev. 4/2011 ANALYSIS OF COPPER IN FOOD AND VITAMINS 1 ATOMIC ABSORTION SPECTROSCOPY: rev. 4/2011 ANALYSIS OF COPPER IN FOOD AND VITAMINS Buck Scientific Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometer, Model 200 Atomic absorption spectroscopy (AAS) has for many years

More information

Moles. Moles. Moles. Moles. Balancing Eqns. Balancing. Balancing Eqns. Symbols Yields or Produces. Like a recipe:

Moles. Moles. Moles. Moles. Balancing Eqns. Balancing. Balancing Eqns. Symbols Yields or Produces. Like a recipe: Like a recipe: Balancing Eqns Reactants Products 2H 2 (g) + O 2 (g) 2H 2 O(l) coefficients subscripts Balancing Eqns Balancing Symbols (s) (l) (aq) (g) or Yields or Produces solid liquid (pure liquid)

More information

Luminol Test PROCESS SKILLS SCIENCE TOPICS VOCABULARY

Luminol Test PROCESS SKILLS SCIENCE TOPICS VOCABULARY EXPERIMENT: LUMINOL TEST Luminol Test Visitors mix a solution of luminol with fake blood (hydrogen peroxide) to produce a reaction that gives off blue light. OBJECTIVES: Visitors learn that some chemical

More information

Chapter 3: Stoichiometry

Chapter 3: Stoichiometry Chapter 3: Stoichiometry Key Skills: Balance chemical equations Predict the products of simple combination, decomposition, and combustion reactions. Calculate formula weights Convert grams to moles and

More information

1. When the following equation is balanced, the coefficient of Al is. Al (s) + H 2 O (l)? Al(OH) 3 (s) + H 2 (g)

1. When the following equation is balanced, the coefficient of Al is. Al (s) + H 2 O (l)? Al(OH) 3 (s) + H 2 (g) 1. When the following equation is balanced, the coefficient of Al is. Al (s) + H 2 O (l)? Al(OH) (s) + H 2 (g) A) 1 B) 2 C) 4 D) 5 E) Al (s) + H 2 O (l)? Al(OH) (s) + H 2 (g) Al (s) + H 2 O (l)? Al(OH)

More information

Chapter 4. Chemical Composition. Chapter 4 Topics H 2 S. 4.1 Mole Quantities. The Mole Scale. Molar Mass The Mass of 1 Mole

Chapter 4. Chemical Composition. Chapter 4 Topics H 2 S. 4.1 Mole Quantities. The Mole Scale. Molar Mass The Mass of 1 Mole Chapter 4 Chemical Composition Chapter 4 Topics 1. Mole Quantities 2. Moles, Masses, and Particles 3. Determining Empirical Formulas 4. Chemical Composition of Solutions Copyright The McGraw-Hill Companies,

More information

PART 1 - INTRODUCTION...

PART 1 - INTRODUCTION... Table of Contents PART 1 - INTRODUCTION... 3 1.1 General... 3 1.2 Sensor Features... 3 1.3 Sensor Specifications (CDE-45P)... 4 Figure 1-1 CDE-45P Sensor Dimensions (standard, convertible style)... 4 PART

More information

Target Mole Lab. Mole Relationships and the Balanced Equation. For each student group Hydrochloric acid solution, HCl, 3 M, 30 ml

Target Mole Lab. Mole Relationships and the Balanced Equation. For each student group Hydrochloric acid solution, HCl, 3 M, 30 ml elearning 2009 Introduction Target Mole Lab Mole Relationships and the Balanced Equation Publication No. A common chemical reaction used in chemistry class is zinc and hydrochloric In this lab, students

More information

Electrochemical Kinetics ( Ref. :Bard and Faulkner, Oldham and Myland, Liebhafsky and Cairns) R f = k f * C A (2) R b = k b * C B (3)

Electrochemical Kinetics ( Ref. :Bard and Faulkner, Oldham and Myland, Liebhafsky and Cairns) R f = k f * C A (2) R b = k b * C B (3) Electrochemical Kinetics ( Ref. :Bard and Faulkner, Oldham and Myland, Liebhafsky and Cairns) 1. Background Consider the reaction given below: A B (1) If k f and k b are the rate constants of the forward

More information

Tuesday, November 27, 2012 Expectations:

Tuesday, November 27, 2012 Expectations: Tuesday, November 27, 2012 Expectations: Sit in assigned seat Get out Folder, Notebook, Periodic Table Have out: Spiral (notes), Learning Target Log (new) No Backpacks on tables Listen/Pay Attention Learning

More information

SCH 4C1 Unit 2 Problem Set Questions taken from Frank Mustoe et all, "Chemistry 11", McGraw-Hill Ryerson, 2001

SCH 4C1 Unit 2 Problem Set Questions taken from Frank Mustoe et all, Chemistry 11, McGraw-Hill Ryerson, 2001 SCH 4C1 Unit 2 Problem Set Questions taken from Frank Mustoe et all, "Chemistry 11", McGraw-Hill Ryerson, 2001 1. A small pin contains 0.0178 mol of iron. How many atoms of iron are in the pin? 2. A sample

More information

THE MOLE / COUNTING IN CHEMISTRY

THE MOLE / COUNTING IN CHEMISTRY 1 THE MOLE / COUNTING IN CHEMISTRY ***A mole is 6.0 x 10 items.*** 1 mole = 6.0 x 10 items 1 mole = 60, 00, 000, 000, 000, 000, 000, 000 items Analogy #1 1 dozen = 1 items 18 eggs = 1.5 dz. - to convert

More information

UNIT (4) CALCULATIONS AND CHEMICAL REACTIONS

UNIT (4) CALCULATIONS AND CHEMICAL REACTIONS UNIT (4) CALCULATIONS AND CHEMICAL REACTIONS 4.1 Formula Masses Recall that the decimal number written under the symbol of the element in the periodic table is the atomic mass of the element. 1 7 8 12

More information

Inside the Nickel Metal Hydride Battery

Inside the Nickel Metal Hydride Battery Inside the Nickel Metal Hydride Battery John J.C. Kopera Cobasys 5 June 004 Inside the NiMH Battery Introduction The Nickel Metal Hydride (NiMH) battery has become pervasive in today s technology climate,

More information

Making Biodiesel from Virgin Vegetable Oil: Teacher Manual

Making Biodiesel from Virgin Vegetable Oil: Teacher Manual Making Biodiesel from Virgin Vegetable Oil: Teacher Manual Learning Goals: Students will understand how to produce biodiesel from virgin vegetable oil. Students will understand the effect of an exothermic

More information

ATOMS. Multiple Choice Questions

ATOMS. Multiple Choice Questions Chapter 3 ATOMS AND MOLECULES Multiple Choice Questions 1. Which of the following correctly represents 360 g of water? (i) 2 moles of H 2 0 (ii) 20 moles of water (iii) 6.022 10 23 molecules of water (iv)

More information

Calculations and Chemical Equations. Example: Hydrogen atomic weight = 1.008 amu Carbon atomic weight = 12.001 amu

Calculations and Chemical Equations. Example: Hydrogen atomic weight = 1.008 amu Carbon atomic weight = 12.001 amu Calculations and Chemical Equations Atomic mass: Mass of an atom of an element, expressed in atomic mass units Atomic mass unit (amu): 1.661 x 10-24 g Atomic weight: Average mass of all isotopes of a given

More information

PART I: MULTIPLE CHOICE (30 multiple choice questions. Each multiple choice question is worth 2 points)

PART I: MULTIPLE CHOICE (30 multiple choice questions. Each multiple choice question is worth 2 points) CHEMISTRY 123-07 Midterm #1 Answer key October 14, 2010 Statistics: Average: 74 p (74%); Highest: 97 p (95%); Lowest: 33 p (33%) Number of students performing at or above average: 67 (57%) Number of students

More information

(1) Hydrochloric acid reacts with sodium hypochlorite to form hypochlorous acid: NaOCl(aq) + HCl(aq) HOCl(aq) + NaCl(aq) hypochlorous acid

(1) Hydrochloric acid reacts with sodium hypochlorite to form hypochlorous acid: NaOCl(aq) + HCl(aq) HOCl(aq) + NaCl(aq) hypochlorous acid The Determination of Hypochlorite in Bleach Reading assignment: Chang, Chemistry 10 th edition, pages 156-159. We will study an example of a redox titration in order to determine the concentration of sodium

More information

RCA CLEANING FOR 2 WAFERS

RCA CLEANING FOR 2 WAFERS Allowed Chemicals: NH4OH(Ammonium Hydroxide), H2O2(Hydrogen Peroxide) HCl(Hydrochloric acid) HF(Hydrofluoric acid) Recipe: RCA CLEANING FOR 2 WAFERS Preparation of 2% HF:192 ml DI water+8 ml of(49%) HF.

More information

Solutions and Dilutions

Solutions and Dilutions Learning Objectives Students should be able to: Content Design a procedure for making a particular solution and assess the advantages of different approaches. Choose the appropriate glassware to ensure

More information

CHAPTER 3 Calculations with Chemical Formulas and Equations. atoms in a FORMULA UNIT

CHAPTER 3 Calculations with Chemical Formulas and Equations. atoms in a FORMULA UNIT CHAPTER 3 Calculations with Chemical Formulas and Equations MOLECULAR WEIGHT (M. W.) Sum of the Atomic Weights of all atoms in a MOLECULE of a substance. FORMULA WEIGHT (F. W.) Sum of the atomic Weights

More information

Lead Testing and On Site Calibration for Water Testing Detection Range: 2 100ppb

Lead Testing and On Site Calibration for Water Testing Detection Range: 2 100ppb Document: AND Lead 100 7 2013 Lead Testing and On Site Calibration for Water Testing Detection Range: 2 100ppb July, 2013 Edition 1 ANDalyze, Inc., 2012. All rights reserved. Printed in USA. Table of Contents

More information

Chem 31 Fall 2002. Chapter 3. Stoichiometry: Calculations with Chemical Formulas and Equations. Writing and Balancing Chemical Equations

Chem 31 Fall 2002. Chapter 3. Stoichiometry: Calculations with Chemical Formulas and Equations. Writing and Balancing Chemical Equations Chem 31 Fall 2002 Chapter 3 Stoichiometry: Calculations with Chemical Formulas and Equations Writing and Balancing Chemical Equations 1. Write Equation in Words -you cannot write an equation unless you

More information

EDXRF of Used Automotive Catalytic Converters

EDXRF of Used Automotive Catalytic Converters EDXRF of Used Automotive Catalytic Converters Energy Dispersive X-Ray Fluorescence (EDXRF) is a very powerful technique for measuring the concentration of elements in a sample. It is fast, nondestructive,

More information

Household Acids and Bases

Household Acids and Bases Household Acids and Bases GRADE LEVEL INDICATORS Experiment Demonstrate that the ph scale (0-14) is used to measure acidity and classify substances or solutions as acidic, basic, or neutral. 21 Develop

More information

A Volumetric Analysis (Redox Titration) of Hypochlorite in Bleach

A Volumetric Analysis (Redox Titration) of Hypochlorite in Bleach CHEM 311L Quantitative Analysis Laboratory Revision 2.3 A Volumetric Analysis (Redox Titration) of Hypochlorite in Bleach In this laboratory exercise, we will determine the concentration of the active

More information

Moles Lab mole. 1 mole = 6.02 x 1023. This is also known as Avagadro's number Demo amu amu amu

Moles Lab mole. 1 mole = 6.02 x 1023. This is also known as Avagadro's number Demo amu amu amu Moles I. Lab: Rice Counting II. Counting atoms and molecules I. When doing reactions chemists need to count atoms and molecules. The problem of actually counting individual atoms and molecules comes from

More information

OSMOSIS AND DIALYSIS 2003 BY Wendy Weeks-Galindo with modifications by David A. Katz

OSMOSIS AND DIALYSIS 2003 BY Wendy Weeks-Galindo with modifications by David A. Katz OSMOSIS AND DIALYSIS 2003 BY Wendy Weeks-Galindo with modifications by David A. Katz OSMOSIS Osmosis is the reason that a fresh water fish placed in the ocean desiccates and dies. Osmosis is the reason

More information

Atomic mass is the mass of an atom in atomic mass units (amu)

Atomic mass is the mass of an atom in atomic mass units (amu) Micro World atoms & molecules Laboratory scale measurements Atomic mass is the mass of an atom in atomic mass units (amu) By definition: 1 atom 12 C weighs 12 amu On this scale 1 H = 1.008 amu 16 O = 16.00

More information

This example of a completed sampling plan worksheet has been included to illustrate the information

This example of a completed sampling plan worksheet has been included to illustrate the information APPENDIX B EXAMPLE OF A COMPLETED SAMPLING PLAN WORKSHEET This example of a completed sampling plan worksheet has been included to illustrate the information necessary to document a sampling program for

More information

MOLES AND MOLE CALCULATIONS

MOLES AND MOLE CALCULATIONS 35 MOLES ND MOLE CLCULTIONS INTRODUCTION The purpose of this section is to present some methods for calculating both how much of each reactant is used in a chemical reaction, and how much of each product

More information

The Mole Concept. The Mole. Masses of molecules

The Mole Concept. The Mole. Masses of molecules The Mole Concept Ron Robertson r2 c:\files\courses\1110-20\2010 final slides for web\mole concept.docx The Mole The mole is a unit of measurement equal to 6.022 x 10 23 things (to 4 sf) just like there

More information

Chemical Reactions & Electricity

Chemical Reactions & Electricity THE TEAK PROJECT: TRAVELING ENGINEERING ACTIVITY KITS Chemical Reactions & Electricity Partial support for this project was provided by the National Science Foundation's Course, Curriculum, and Laboratory

More information

Objectives/Introduction Extraction of zinc Physical properties of zinc Zinc casting alloys Wrought zinc alloys Engineering design with zinc alloys

Objectives/Introduction Extraction of zinc Physical properties of zinc Zinc casting alloys Wrought zinc alloys Engineering design with zinc alloys Lecture 7 Zinc and its alloys Subjects of interest Objectives/Introduction Extraction of zinc Physical properties of zinc Zinc casting alloys Wrought zinc alloys Engineering design with zinc alloys Objectives

More information

Environmental Water Testing: Surface Water, Groundwater, Hard Water, Wastewater, & Seawater

Environmental Water Testing: Surface Water, Groundwater, Hard Water, Wastewater, & Seawater Document: AND Sol Env 08 2013 Environmental Water Testing: Surface Water, Groundwater, Hard Water, Wastewater, & Seawater Matrix specific sample preparation and testing methods for environmental waters

More information

Physical Science 1 Progression

Physical Science 1 Progression Physical Science 1 Progression This progression is the about the structure and properties of matter. Matter is composed of material that is too small to be seen, but is understood in terms of the types

More information

Moles. Balanced chemical equations Molar ratios Mass Composition Empirical and Molecular Mass Predicting Quantities Equations

Moles. Balanced chemical equations Molar ratios Mass Composition Empirical and Molecular Mass Predicting Quantities Equations Moles Balanced chemical equations Molar ratios Mass Composition Empirical and Molecular Mass Predicting Quantities Equations Micro World atoms & molecules Macro World grams Atomic mass is the mass of an

More information

Physical and Chemical Changes

Physical and Chemical Changes Physical and Chemical Changes Jana Barrow West Point Jr. High 2775 W 550 N 801-402-8100 West Point, UT 84015 jbarrow@dsdmail.net Eighth Grade Integrated Science Standard I: Students will understand the

More information

Particularly Hazardous Substances (PHS) Standard Operating Procedure (SOP)

Particularly Hazardous Substances (PHS) Standard Operating Procedure (SOP) Particularly Hazardous Substances (PHS) Standard Operating Procedure (SOP) Formaldehyde, formalin, paraformaldehyde solutions, and paraformaldehyde solids Principal Investigator: Room & Building #: Department:

More information

Determination of the Amount of Acid Neutralized by an Antacid Tablet Using Back Titration

Determination of the Amount of Acid Neutralized by an Antacid Tablet Using Back Titration Determination of the Amount of Acid Neutralized by an Antacid Tablet Using Back Titration GOAL AND OVERVIEW Antacids are bases that react stoichiometrically with acid. The number of moles of acid that

More information

Chapter 1: Moles and equations. Learning outcomes. you should be able to:

Chapter 1: Moles and equations. Learning outcomes. you should be able to: Chapter 1: Moles and equations 1 Learning outcomes you should be able to: define and use the terms: relative atomic mass, isotopic mass and formula mass based on the 12 C scale perform calculations, including

More information

Concept 1. The meaning and usefulness of the mole. The mole (or mol) represents a certain number of objects.

Concept 1. The meaning and usefulness of the mole. The mole (or mol) represents a certain number of objects. Chapter 3. Stoichiometry: Mole-Mass Relationships in Chemical Reactions Concept 1. The meaning and usefulness of the mole The mole (or mol) represents a certain number of objects. SI def.: the amount of

More information

Amount of Substance. http://www.avogadro.co.uk/definitions/elemcompmix.htm

Amount of Substance. http://www.avogadro.co.uk/definitions/elemcompmix.htm Page 1 of 14 Amount of Substance Key terms in this chapter are: Element Compound Mixture Atom Molecule Ion Relative Atomic Mass Avogadro constant Mole Isotope Relative Isotopic Mass Relative Molecular

More information

Sample Exercise 3.1 Interpreting and Balancing Chemical Equations

Sample Exercise 3.1 Interpreting and Balancing Chemical Equations Sample Exercise 3.1 Interpreting and Balancing Chemical Equations The following diagram represents a chemical reaction in which the red spheres are oxygen atoms and the blue spheres are nitrogen atoms.

More information

Experiment 5 Empirical Formula of Zinc Iodide

Experiment 5 Empirical Formula of Zinc Iodide Experiment 5 Empirical Formula of Zinc Iodide Purpose: The purpose of this experiment is to react elemental zinc and iodine to form the binary compound zinc iodide (Zn x I y ) and to use the amounts of

More information

6 H2O + 6 CO 2 (g) + energy

6 H2O + 6 CO 2 (g) + energy AEROBIC RESPIRATION LAB DO 2.CALC From Biology with Calculators, Vernier Software & Technology, 2000. INTRODUCTION Aerobic cellular respiration is the process of converting the chemical energy of organic

More information

5.0 EXPERIMENT ON DETERMINATION OF TOTAL HARDNESS

5.0 EXPERIMENT ON DETERMINATION OF TOTAL HARDNESS 5.0 EXPERIMENT ON DETERMINATION OF TOTAL HARDNESS Sl. No. Contents Preamble 5.1 Aim 5.2 Introduction 5.2.1 Environmental Significance 5.3 Principle 5.4 Materials Required 5.4.1 Apparatus Required 5.4.2

More information

Evaluation copy. Case File 9. A Killer Cup of Coffee? GlobalTech manager dies

Evaluation copy. Case File 9. A Killer Cup of Coffee? GlobalTech manager dies Case File 9 Killer Cup of Coffee: Using colorimetry to determine concentration of a poison Determine the concentration of cyanide in the solution. A Killer Cup of Coffee? SOUTH PAINTER, Tuesday: It was

More information

Chemistry 2014 Scoring Guidelines

Chemistry 2014 Scoring Guidelines AP Chemistry 2014 Scoring Guidelines 2014 The College Board. College Board, Advanced Placement Program, AP, AP Central, and the acorn logo are registered trademarks of the College Board. Visit the College

More information

Protocol for Disinfection of Cell Culture and Tissue Culture in Media:

Protocol for Disinfection of Cell Culture and Tissue Culture in Media: Protocol for Disinfection of Cell Culture and Tissue Culture in Media: Location: Hickory Hall 001 Director: Dr. Guido Verbeck DECONTAMINATION OF CELL CULTURE WASTE Cell culture has become a common laboratory

More information

Printed Circuit Board Recycling Methods

Printed Circuit Board Recycling Methods Printed Circuit Board Recycling Methods 1. Introduction to Printed Circuit Boards The Printed Circuit Board (PCB 1 ) manufacturing process is very complicated, involving many special chemicals and valuable

More information

English already has many collective nouns for fixed, given numbers of objects. Some of the more common collective nouns are shown in Table 7.1.

English already has many collective nouns for fixed, given numbers of objects. Some of the more common collective nouns are shown in Table 7.1. 96 Chapter 7: Calculations with Chemical Formulas and Chemical Reactions Chemical reactions are written showing a few individual atoms or molecules reacting to form a few atoms or molecules of products.

More information

Number of moles of solute = Concentration (mol. L ) x Volume of solution (litres) or n = C x V

Number of moles of solute = Concentration (mol. L ) x Volume of solution (litres) or n = C x V 44 CALCULATIONS INVOLVING SOLUTIONS INTRODUCTION AND DEFINITIONS Many chemical reactions take place in aqueous (water) solution. Quantities of such solutions are measured as volumes, while the amounts

More information

W1 WORKSHOP ON STOICHIOMETRY

W1 WORKSHOP ON STOICHIOMETRY INTRODUCTION W1 WORKSHOP ON STOICHIOMETRY These notes and exercises are designed to introduce you to the basic concepts required to understand a chemical formula or equation. Relative atomic masses of

More information

Lab 10: Bacterial Transformation, part 2, DNA plasmid preps, Determining DNA Concentration and Purity

Lab 10: Bacterial Transformation, part 2, DNA plasmid preps, Determining DNA Concentration and Purity Lab 10: Bacterial Transformation, part 2, DNA plasmid preps, Determining DNA Concentration and Purity Today you analyze the results of your bacterial transformation from last week and determine the efficiency

More information

Lab 2 Biochemistry. Learning Objectives. Introduction. Lipid Structure and Role in Food. The lab has the following learning objectives.

Lab 2 Biochemistry. Learning Objectives. Introduction. Lipid Structure and Role in Food. The lab has the following learning objectives. 1 Lab 2 Biochemistry Learning Objectives The lab has the following learning objectives. Investigate the role of double bonding in fatty acids, through models. Developing a calibration curve for a Benedict

More information

Determining the Quantity of Iron in a Vitamin Tablet. Evaluation copy

Determining the Quantity of Iron in a Vitamin Tablet. Evaluation copy Determining the Quantity of Iron in a Vitamin Tablet Computer 34 As biochemical research becomes more sophisticated, we are learning more about the role of metallic elements in the human body. For example,

More information

CH3 Stoichiometry. The violent chemical reaction of bromine and phosphorus. P.76

CH3 Stoichiometry. The violent chemical reaction of bromine and phosphorus. P.76 CH3 Stoichiometry The violent chemical reaction of bromine and phosphorus. P.76 Contents 3.1 Counting by Weighing 3.2 Atomic Masses 3.3 The Mole 3.4 Molar Mass 3.5 Percent Composition of Compounds 3.6

More information

Mass of thoroughly dried filter paper. Mass of filter paper + precipitate after third drying. Mass of filter paper + precipitate after second drying

Mass of thoroughly dried filter paper. Mass of filter paper + precipitate after third drying. Mass of filter paper + precipitate after second drying Mass of KI tablet Mass of thoroughly dried filter paper Mass of filter paper + precipitate after first drying Mass of filter paper + precipitate after second drying Mass of filter paper + precipitate after

More information

The electrical field produces a force that acts

The electrical field produces a force that acts Physics Equipotential Lines and Electric Fields Plotting the Electric Field MATERIALS AND RESOURCES ABOUT THIS LESSON EACH GROUP 5 alligator clip leads 2 batteries, 9 V 2 binder clips, large computer LabQuest

More information

LAB 5 - PLANT NUTRITION. Chemical Ionic forms Approximate dry Element symbol Atomic weight Absorbed by plants tissue concentration

LAB 5 - PLANT NUTRITION. Chemical Ionic forms Approximate dry Element symbol Atomic weight Absorbed by plants tissue concentration LAB 5 PLANT NUTRITION I. General Introduction All living organisms require certain elements for their survival. Plants are known to require carbon (C), hydrogen (H), oxygen (O), nitrogen (N), phosphorus

More information

Approval of this procedure is provided by signatory indicated in the approval block at the footer of Page #1, for and on behalf of Jabiru Pty. Ltd.

Approval of this procedure is provided by signatory indicated in the approval block at the footer of Page #1, for and on behalf of Jabiru Pty. Ltd. Jabiru Service Bulletin Number A3 Fuel System Cleaning Note on Revision 2. Revision 2 of this Service Bulletin updates the cleaning procedure using knowledge that has been gained by Jabiru. This revision

More information

ION EXCHANGE FOR DUMMIES. An introduction

ION EXCHANGE FOR DUMMIES. An introduction ION EXCHANGE FOR DUMMIES An introduction Water Water is a liquid. Water is made of water molecules (formula H 2 O). All natural waters contain some foreign substances, usually in small amounts. The water

More information

The Limitations of Hand-held XRF Analyzers as a Quantitative Tool for Measuring Heavy Metal Pesticides on Art Objects. By Özge Gençay Üstün

The Limitations of Hand-held XRF Analyzers as a Quantitative Tool for Measuring Heavy Metal Pesticides on Art Objects. By Özge Gençay Üstün N.B. A shorter version of this article was published in the ICOM-CC Ethnographic Conservation Newsletter, Number 30, January 2009, pp. 5-8. The Limitations of Hand-held XRF Analyzers as a Quantitative

More information

The Gibbs Free Energy and Cell Voltage

The Gibbs Free Energy and Cell Voltage The Gibbs Free Energy and Cell Vltage When an amunt f charge, Q, mves thrugh a ptential difference, E w = - Q E b/c wrk dne by the system E > 0 fr galvanic (vltaic) cells Recall, G = H TS = E + PV TS Fr

More information

Home Care for Your Wound Drain

Home Care for Your Wound Drain PATIENT EDUCATION patienteducation.osumc.edu When you go home after surgery, you may have one or more drains in place to help your wounds heal. Hemovac, Jackson Pratt (JP) and Blake are common drains used

More information

SOLAR CELLS From light to electricity

SOLAR CELLS From light to electricity SOLAR CELLS From light to electricity Solar Impulse uses nothing but light to power its motors. The effect of light on the material in solar panels allows them to produce the electricity that is needed

More information

Chemistry Final Study Guide

Chemistry Final Study Guide Name: Class: Date: Chemistry Final Study Guide Multiple Choice Identify the choice that best completes the statement or answers the question. 1. The electrons involved in the formation of a covalent bond

More information

Q1. A student studied the reaction between dilute hydrochloric acid and an excess of calcium carbonate.

Q1. A student studied the reaction between dilute hydrochloric acid and an excess of calcium carbonate. Q. A student studied the reaction between dilute hydrochloric acid and an excess of calcium carbonate. calcium carbonate + hydrochloric acid calcium chloride + water + carbon dioxide The student measured

More information

The atomic packing factor is defined as the ratio of sphere volume to the total unit cell volume, or APF = V S V C. = 2(sphere volume) = 2 = V C = 4R

The atomic packing factor is defined as the ratio of sphere volume to the total unit cell volume, or APF = V S V C. = 2(sphere volume) = 2 = V C = 4R 3.5 Show that the atomic packing factor for BCC is 0.68. The atomic packing factor is defined as the ratio of sphere volume to the total unit cell volume, or APF = V S V C Since there are two spheres associated

More information

Part One: Mass and Moles of Substance. Molecular Mass = sum of the Atomic Masses in a molecule

Part One: Mass and Moles of Substance. Molecular Mass = sum of the Atomic Masses in a molecule CHAPTER THREE: CALCULATIONS WITH CHEMICAL FORMULAS AND EQUATIONS Part One: Mass and Moles of Substance A. Molecular Mass and Formula Mass. (Section 3.1) 1. Just as we can talk about mass of one atom of

More information

Wipe Analysis to Determine Metal Contamination on Critical Surfaces

Wipe Analysis to Determine Metal Contamination on Critical Surfaces By Albert Dato, Ph.D., Warren York, Jennifer Jew, Laarni Huerta, Brice Norton, and Michael Coste On-wafer metallic contamination is detrimental to the fabrication and performance of semiconductor devices.

More information

4.0 EXPERIMENT ON DETERMINATION OF CHLORIDES

4.0 EXPERIMENT ON DETERMINATION OF CHLORIDES 4.0 EXPERIMENT ON DETERMINATION OF CHLORIDES Sl. No. Contents Preamble 4.1 Aim 4.2 Introduction 4.2.1 Environmental Significance 4.3 Principle 4.4 Materials Required 4.4.1 Apparatus Required 4.4.2 Chemicals

More information

What Forensics Information Does Blood Typing Provide?

What Forensics Information Does Blood Typing Provide? The Biotechnology Education Company EDVO-Kit 191 What Forensics Information Does Blood Typing Provide? See Page 3 for storage instructions. EXPERIMENT OBJECTIVE: The objective of this experiment is to

More information

PRODUCT SAFETY DATA SHEET

PRODUCT SAFETY DATA SHEET Page 1/5 Date of Submitted: January 21, 2014 This product is a consumer product which is used in a hermetically sealed state. So, it is not an object of the SDS system. This document is provided to customers

More information

7. 1.00 atm = 760 torr = 760 mm Hg = 101.325 kpa = 14.70 psi. = 0.446 atm. = 0.993 atm. = 107 kpa 760 torr 1 atm 760 mm Hg = 790.

7. 1.00 atm = 760 torr = 760 mm Hg = 101.325 kpa = 14.70 psi. = 0.446 atm. = 0.993 atm. = 107 kpa 760 torr 1 atm 760 mm Hg = 790. CHATER 3. The atmosphere is a homogeneous mixture (a solution) of gases.. Solids and liquids have essentially fixed volumes and are not able to be compressed easily. have volumes that depend on their conditions,

More information

UNITS OF CONCENTRATION

UNITS OF CONCENTRATION UNITS OF CONCENTRATION There are a number of different ways of expressing solute concentration that are commonly used. Some of these are listed below. Molarity, M = moles solute/liter of solution Normality,

More information

Part B 2. Allow a total of 15 credits for this part. The student must answer all questions in this part.

Part B 2. Allow a total of 15 credits for this part. The student must answer all questions in this part. Part B 2 Allow a total of 15 credits for this part. The student must answer all questions in this part. 51 [1] Allow 1 credit for 3 Mg(s) N 2 (g) Mg 3 N 2 (s). Allow credit even if the coefficient 1 is

More information

A Low Cost Chemical Remediation Technology for Heavy Metals in Shipyard Stormwater. SBIR Topic N06 133

A Low Cost Chemical Remediation Technology for Heavy Metals in Shipyard Stormwater. SBIR Topic N06 133 A Low Cost Chemical Remediation Technology for Heavy Metals in Shipyard Stormwater SBIR Topic N06 133 1 Normal Ave, CSAM RI 121A Montclair, NJ 07043 973 655 7385 SIROM TECHNOLOGY SIROM has developed a

More information

Nauki ścisłe priorytetem społeczeństwa opartego na wiedzy Artykuły na platformę CMS

Nauki ścisłe priorytetem społeczeństwa opartego na wiedzy Artykuły na platformę CMS S t r o n a 1 Author: Marta Miedźwiedziew METAL CORROSION AND PROTECTION AGAINST CORROSION Introduction The article is intended for high school students having courses in chemistry at both the basic and

More information

Chapter 6 Chemical Calculations

Chapter 6 Chemical Calculations Chapter 6 Chemical Calculations 1 Submicroscopic Macroscopic 2 Chapter Outline 1. Formula Masses (Ch 6.1) 2. Percent Composition (supplemental material) 3. The Mole & Avogadro s Number (Ch 6.2) 4. Molar

More information

EXPERIMENT 12: Empirical Formula of a Compound

EXPERIMENT 12: Empirical Formula of a Compound EXPERIMENT 12: Empirical Formula of a Compound INTRODUCTION Chemical formulas indicate the composition of compounds. A formula that gives only the simplest ratio of the relative number of atoms in a compound

More information

Chapter 1 The Atomic Nature of Matter

Chapter 1 The Atomic Nature of Matter Chapter 1 The Atomic Nature of Matter 6. Substances that cannot be decomposed into two or more simpler substances by chemical means are called a. pure substances. b. compounds. c. molecules. d. elements.

More information