# Prehistoric Pottery Worksheet: Qualitative and Quantitative Analysis

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1 Your Name: Prehistoric Pottery Worksheet: Qualitative and Quantitative Analysis Vessel Part (circle one) Rim Base Body Handle Temper (circle one) Fiber Sand Grit Grog Shell Sponge Spicule 1 Key: Temper - Material added to wet clay to prevent shrinking and cracking during drying and firing. Grog- Crushed up pottery used as temper. Sponge Spicules Pieces of sea sponge skeletons that function as temper.

2 Surface Treatment (circle one) Plain Incised Punctated Brushed Cord-Marked Check Stamped Simple Stamped Complicated Stamped Using the Munsell Color Chart, write in the Name and Color Code of the sherd Exterior Surface Interior Surface Color Name: Color Name: Color Code: Color Code: 2

3 Quantitative Analysis Use the Triple Beam Balance to weigh the potsherd. How many grams is the sherd? g Use the calipers or a ruler to measure the following attributes. What is the maximum length of the sherd? cm_ What is the maximum width of the sherd? cm How thick is the sherd? cm 3

4 Follow the steps to calculate the circumference of a pot. STEP 1: Lay a rimsherd topside-down and trace the outline. 4

5 Key: C = chord length C 2 = midpoint M = distance from midpoint to the edge of the sherd π = 3.14 r = C 2 8M 2 π r = circumference STEP 2: Use the calipers or a ruler to measure the chord a straight line between two points on the curve. C = STEP 3: Calculate the midpoint of the line by dividing C in half. C 2 = STEP 4: Measure the distance from the midpoint to the curved edge of the sherd. M = STEP 5: Use the formula to calculate the radius (r) C 2 8M = = r Step 6: Use the formula to calculate the circumference. 2πr = 5

6 Prehistoric Pottery Analysis What is pottery? Pots, plates, bowls, jars, and other vessels made of baked clay. Why do archeologists study pottery? Pottery is one of the few prehistoric artifacts often preserved after being exposed to the elements, buried underground, or submerged underwater for long periods of time. Where do archeologists find pottery? Kilns and Firing Pits Houses and Other Structures Storage Pits and Hearths Graves and Other Ritual Contexts Middens and Trash Pits 6

7 What can we learn from studying pottery? How it was made? Where did it come from? How old is it? How was it used? How did prehistoric Native Americans make pottery? Today, pottery is often made using a potter s wheel. Prehistoric Native Americans made pottery by putting clay slabs together or stacking coils of clay on top of one another. What is Temper? To prevent shrinking and cracking during drying and firing, prehistoric Native Americans added different materials like sand or crushed shell to the wet clay. This material is called temper. 7

8 Stones, shell, and pieces of wood or bone were used to smooth the surface of the pots. Sometimes paddles with carved designs or wrapped in fabric or twine were used for stamping impressions into the wet clay. Decoration Prehistoric Native American potters sometimes decorated the outside of their pots. Archeologists use different terms to describe these surface treatments. Firing After drying in the sun, the pots are baked in a firing pit or kiln. The temperature of the kiln, the kind of fuel used, the amount of oxygen in the kiln, how long the pots are fired, and where the pots are located in the kiln influences the vessels color and durability. 8

10 Glossary: Pottery - Pots, plates, bowls, jars, and other vessels made of baked clay. Temper - Material added to wet clay to prevent shrinking and cracking during drying and firing. Grog - Crushed up pottery used as temper. Sponge Spicules - Pieces of sea sponge skeletons that are naturally part of some clays and function as temper. Stamping A technique for decorating pottery using paddles with carved designs or paddles wrapped in fabric or twine. Kiln A furnace or oven for baking pottery. Chord a straight line joining two ends of an arc. Radius A straight line from the center to the perimeter of a circle or sphere Circumference the perimeter of a circle. 10

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