LAYING BLOCK AND BRICK

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1 LAYING BLOCK AND BRICK Products highlighted in this section: SAKRETE Type N Mortar Mix SAKRETE Type S Mortar Mix Brick And Block Laying Basics The first step in building a brick or block wall is to construct a solid footing or foundation wall. (Refer to Chapter II on Slab Construction.) Be sure to allow the footing or foundation at least two full days to cure before beginning to lay the block or brick. Keep the block or brick moist to reduce the absorption of too much moisture from the mortar. Good brick and block work starts on a good level foundation. Spacers, plumb lines and levels are used to keep successive courses straight and plumb. The figure below shows how to start building up the corners first, setting the level string lines and filling in toward the center of the wall. The next figures show how to lay the block or brick in the mortar bed. SAKRETE Surface Bonding Cement SAKRETE Glass Block Mortar With corners built up a line is drawn taut to establish a level for each course of brick or block. Building with brick and block offers the homeowner and contractor great flexibility. The projects are limitless. For purposes of this Training Manual, we will cover the basics of laying a brick or block wall. Rarely does a do-it-yourselfer tackle a wall more than 3 or 4 feet high. Any wall higher than this may need steel reinforcement, more in-depth training and a review by an architect or engineer. From this review, you will see the products and tools needed and be able to guide a consumer through a simple project. Steps in placing block brick without disturbing the line. 1

2 Mixing The Mortar SAKRETE Mortar Mix Type N or S is prepackaged and only needs the addition of water. The amount of water needed is printed on the bag and will produce a nice "fat" plastic mortar. For best results, use a mechanical mortar mixer and mix thoroughly until all material is wet and of a smooth, plastic consistency. A mortar box and hoe can also be used for smaller projects. Use a mortarboard and a pointed mason's trowel. When the air temperature is between 70 and 80 F, the mixed mortar should be used within 1 hour. When used at temperatures above 80, mortar will set faster. Adding extra water to the mortar after the initial mixing (this is called retempering) is not recommended as this will reduce strength and can cause shrinkage. Laying Brick or Block Apply a full mortar bed on the clean foundation, footing or ledge and carefully place the block or brick into the setting bed. Tapping the block or brick into alignment. Trimming off the excess mortar. The consistency and thickness of the mortar must be such that the brick or block does not move out of place or compress the mortar. Lightly tap the block or brick in place using the handle of the trowel. This assures good contact between the block or brick and the mortar. Build up the corners first, then use the building line to aid in leveling each course. A running bond pattern is most common. Placing the first block or brick on the wall and leveling it. Placing the next layer of brick or block. "Buttering" the end of a block or brick. 2

3 When placing consecutive courses, remove the excess mortar with a quick striking motion of the trowel. Excess mortar is saved and applied to the next head joint of the brick. A jointing tool (curved faced tool) may be used to press the mortar into joints of brick after the excess has been struck off. The best way to proceed is to place the mortar for the horizontal joints first, then butter each brick or block on one end only to form the vertical or head joint on one side only. Laying the closure block or brick. Place the brick or block in the setting bed, tap in place. Butter the end of the next brick and set against the previous one. lintel A lintel supports the brick or block over an opening. Many brick or block patterns, require cutting. Block walls that are used to support a roof, floor joists, etc., are finished with a sill plate to provide a means to set and anchor the roof or floor joists. The sill plate is also anchored with bolts into the block cells filled with portland cement grout. The support over windows or other openings is created by a "lintel," a horizontal piece of steel, cast or precast concrete serving to support the masonry above. Reinforcement And Expansion Joints Large masonry walls need reinforcement and expansion joints to allow for movement due to shrinkage and expansion. The type of beveled chisel used to score brick for cutting. Tap in place and so on, being careful to make each block or brick follow the building line as close as possible. All work starts with the corners. The last brick placed to complete a course is called a "closer." Most often the closer is a full stretcher somewhere in the middle of the course. 3

4 Temporary bracing for block wall. Bracing For Safety When building masonry walls you must temporarily brace the wall until permanent supports, columns or roof supports are in place. Bracing is done with wood or metal and must be designed to meet safety standards. Fresh mortared walls are weak in strength and wind storms can collapse the walls. Also, protect the top of concrete masonry walls from rain or snow, which fill up the hollow cells of the blocks and bricks. Below Grade Masonry Use SAKRETE Type S Mortar Mix below grade. Below grade masonry construction needs special water protection and drainage considerations. Drainage is provided at the footing or foundation by placing drain pipe in a gravel bed. The rest of the walls below grade are usually waterproofed with a polyethylene film and a black tar compound. SAKRETE Mortar Mix Approximate Coverage/per bag with 3/8 joints 40 lb. 33 brick 13 block (8 ) 60 lb. 50 brick 20 block (8 ) 80 lb. 66 brick 26 block (8 ) Grouted Masonry When you hear the term "grout" in masonry construction it means that the empty cells of the block are filled with cement grout: a flowable mixture of Portland cement, sand and water. SAKRETE Sand Mix can be used for this purpose. Grouting of concrete masonry provides higher strength and is required to embed steel reinforcing bars. 4

5 To figure the mortar needed, first determine the number of brick or blocks needed to complete the project. Below is a chart for 100 sq. ft. (9.0 sq m) or a wall 10 x 10 feet (0.9 x 0.9m): Mortar And Concrete Masonry Requirements For 100 Square Feet (9.0 sq m) Of Wall Area (Wall is assumed to be one masonry unit in thickness.) Nominal Height and Length of Number of Units Per Units in Inches (millimeters) 100 Sq. Ft. (9.0 sq m) 8 x 16 (200 mm x 400 mm) x 12 (200 mm x 300 mm) x 12 (125 mm x 300 mm) x 16 (100 mm x 400 mm) /4 x 8* (56 mm x 200 mm) x 8** (100 mm x 200 mm) X 8*** (125 mm x 200 mm) x 12**** (50 mm x 300 mm) x 16**** (50 mm x 400 mm) *Modular Concrete Brick **Jumbo Concrete Brick ***Double Concrete Brick ****Roman Concrete Brick (2 1/4 x 3 5/8 x 7 5/8 ) (56 mm x 90 mm x 190 mm) (3 5/8 x 3 5/8 x 7 5/8 ) (90 mm x 90 mm x 190 mm) (4 7/8 x 3 5/8 x 7 5/8 ) (121 mm x 90 mm x 190 mm) (1 5/8 x 3 5/8 x 11 5/8 ) (40 mm x 90 mm x 290 mm) (1 5/8 x 3 5/8 x 15 5/8 ) (40 mm x 90 mm x 390 mm) How Much SAKRETE Mortar Mix? Number of Blocks Number of SAKRETE Mortar Mix 60 lb. (27.2 kg) Bags Needed Number of Bricks Number of SAKRETE Mortar Mix 60 lb. (27.2 kg) Bags Needed Number of Blocks Number of SAKRETE Mortar Mix 80 lb. (36.2 kg) Bags Needed Number of Bricks Number of SAKRETE Mortar Mix 80 lb. (36.2 kg) Bags Needed

6 Building Mortarless Block Walls With SAKRETE Typical SAKRETE Surface Bonding Cement projects include: Surface Bonding Cement: SAKRETE provides a unique product in SAKRETE Surface Bonding Cement, allowing concrete masonry units, often referred to as CMU's, to be laid without the use of mortar. Utility Shed The SAKRETE Surface Bonding Cement is a white or grey Portland cement stucco-like material to which glass fibers have been added giving it exceptional tensile and flexural strength. The product is packaged in a 50 lb. bag requiring only the addition of water. The resulting "mortar" is applied with a rectangular plasterer's trowel to both the interior and exterior sides of the stacked concrete blocks, sandwiching the block between a layer of glass fiber reinforced SAKRETE Surface Bonding Cement. This innovative method of concrete block construction is called "SAKRETE Surface Bonding." The wall may not require additional damp proof or painting because the SAKRETE Surface Bonding Cement dries to a stucco-like finish having good weather resistance. Service Screen Basement Wall Partition Outside Stoop 6

7 Begin with a sound level slab or footing. Lay a full bed of SAKRETE Surface Bonding Cement as you would mortar. Lay the first course in a leveling bed, butting the block firmly together without mortaring the head joints. Consecutive courses are dry stacked in a running bond pattern to a safe height usually about 6 ft. for 6 inch block and about 8 ft. for other block sizes. Brace to be safe. Build the corners, using building lines to make sure each course is level and plumb. Use lintels over windows and doors as in regular masonry work. Lay the last or top coarse in a full bed of mortar to level the wall. Cap blocks can be used at the top of the wall or sills can be set with bolts in grouted cells. After the project has been completely stacked, without mortar, the SAKRETE Surface Bonding Cement is applied on both sides to cover all the blocks. Use a plasterer's trowel and hawk and apply an even coat 1/8 to 1/4 inch thick to both sides of the exposed block wall. Dampen the block prior to and keep damp during the application. Dampening the block will reduce the water absorption of the block and improves the spreadability of the SAKRETE Surface Bonding Cement. Texture with a light second coat to get the desired stucco effect before the first coat sets. Other Uses SAKRETE Surface Bonding Cement also has dampproofing properties so that it is effective as a water resistant coating for concrete block walls, ie., basement walls, foundations, above or below grade. When used this way, only one side of the wall may be accessible for coating. Depending on the severity of conditions, other measures may be necessary. SAKRETE Surface Bonding Cement WATER REQUIREMENTS: Add approximately 5-6 quarts ( L) of water per 50 lb. (22.7 kg) COVERAGE: One 50 lb. (22.7 kg) bag will cover sq. ft. ( sq. m) 1/8 inch (3.2 mm) thick The SAKRETE Surface Bonding Cement dries and cures fast, so do not mix more than can be applied within 30 minutes. The next day the project can be put into service under normal weather conditions. Some limitations on the Surface Bonding Cement: Blocks must be clean Blocks must be at least 6 inches wide. Protect installation from rain for at least 24 hours. Do not build foundations, basements or retaining walls above 4 feet without engineered designs. (Check local building codes.) 7

8 Laying Glass Block Mortar Glass block is a popular decorative alternative to conventional type walls. A special mortar, SAKRETE Glass Block Mortar, is designed to lay a glass block. Follow package directions and lay glass block similar to laying conventional brick or block. SAKRETE Glass Block Mortar is white and many also be used to lay brick, concrete block or stone. SAKRETE Glass Block Mortar WATER REQUIREMENTS: Add approximately 3 1/2 quarts (3.3 L) of water per 50 lb. (22.7 kg) bag SAKRETE Glass Block Mortar 50 lb. 6 in block 8 in block 12 in block

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