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1 Proc

2 RITCHIE: EXCAVATION

3 42 SOCIETY OF ANTIQUARIES OF SCOTLAND, 1983 separately in the catalogue, along with artefacts found before and after that excavation (nos E-I (pottery catalogue), ). None

4 RITCHIE: EXCAVATION OF NEOLITHIC FARMSTEAD, PAPA WESTRAY

5

6 RITCHIE: EXCAVATION OF NEOLITHIC FARMSTEAD, PAPA WESTRAY FIG 2 Site plan showing location of trenches and main sections; Period I structure in trench II (scale 1:400)

7 46 SOCIETY OF ANTIQUARIES OF SCOTLAND, 1983 Within the restricted areas explored, the only structural remains attributable to Period I were the fragmentary paving, upright stone and grooves left by the removal of two upright stones found at the base of the lower midden in trench II (fig 2). There were no traces within the interiors of houses 1 and 2 to suggest ti.at they had replaced earlier structures on the same spot, and it is likely that

8 "TS^v;:-;-;-;';/;-:-:-''-:-: J t^v^u'v' 1 [ ' "'.'. ' '' '.' :!. V' 1 '. '-' :--' ; -.'- : ''' ' { v'v':'-^-/-. ; '.'.' v 1 ': - : : ' '' '''-' \ ^^f"- ' ::? :: ' - ' ' Y^C^-M P^ [ :: -:: -..: f 2 o tn X

9 48

10 house 1. O.V+AV.'**,.*.^*-«*^^^VvA^XN^AM^r.*.X A.V'rl "*>«** *-«-*."-- *.V«"^«*.*.>«?g&hxXxj?fr^j'' 'Vj* ' '-»-''','«" *l * T jljajv\i' -" "** *' - -= - - "_" y*-yxp^»»^n -^---!!: Ro wall I face J buried soil 3 clay I midden I ',-'j sand 3 midden lash floor deposit

11

12 Entry into RITCHIE: EXCAVATION OF NEOLITHIC FARMSTEAD, PAPA WESTRAY 51

13 52 SOCIETY OF ANTIQUARIES OF SCOTLAND, 1983 innermost paving-slab partially filled

14 RITCHIE: EXCAVATION OF NEOLITHIC FARMSTEAD, PAPA WESTRAY

15 54

16 RITCHIE: EXCAVATION

17 56 SOCIETY OF ANTIQUARIES OF SCOTLAND, 1983 mation

18 WTCHDE: EXCAVATION OF NEOLITHIC FARMSTEAD, PAPA WESTRAY

19

20 RITCHIE: EXCAVATION OF NEOLITHIC FARMSTEAD, PAPA WESTRAY 59 recovered from tombs and even fewer have secure provenances within the sequences of construction, use and blocking of individual tombs. Differential and often poor preservation of bone in tombs

21 60 SOCIETY OF ANTIQUARIES OF SCOTLAND, 1983 FIG 6 Pottery nos 1-21, Period I (scale 1:3)

22 RITCHIE: EXCAVATION OF NEOLITHIC FARMSTEAD, PAPA WESTRAY 61 2 Rounded section, very hard black fabric, small dark grits. SF 324.

23

24 25 Tiny sherd, inner surface missing RITCHIE: EXCAVATION OF NEOLITHIC FARMSTEAD, PAPA WESTRAY 63

25 64

26 RITCHIE: EXCAVATION

27 66 j SOCIETY OF ANTIQUARIES OF SCOTLAND, FIG 9 Pottery nos 57-66, Period II (scale 1:3)

28 FIG RITCHIE: EXCAVATION OF NEOLITHIC FARMSTEAD, PAPA WESTRAY 67

29

30 RITCHIE: EXCAVATION OF NEOLITHIC FARMSTEAD, PAPA WESTRAY

31 70 SOCIETY OF ANTIQUARIES OF SCOTLAND, 1983 One small bowl, 57, is almost complete. In a few cases, such as 11,12A, 64, 66, C, a considerable amount of a vessel was found crushed but undisturbed. The majority of pots are represented by only one

32 RITCHIE: EXCAVATION

33 72 SOCIETY OF ANTIQUARIES OF SCOTLAND, 1983 bevelled and sometimes thickened rims which are typically Orcadian; even the two heaviest bowls represented at Knap of Howar are not as large or thick as many from the Orcadian tombs. Although there are now a number of radiocarbon dates from the tombs including a series from Isbister, the difficulty of relating them to grave-goods, which themselves, though seemingly found in association, may not really be so, means that the Unstan bowls are not closely dated. The difference between the small Knap of Howar assemblage

34 Rinyo (Childe RTTCHIE: EXCAVATION OF NEOLITHIC FARMSTEAD, PAPA WESTRAY 73

35

36 RITCHIE: EXCAVATION OF NEOLITHIC FARMSTEAD, PAPA WESTRAY 75 BONE Bone awls

37 76 SOCIETY OF ANTIQUARIES OF SCOTLAND, Split-pulley head,

38 148 Sliver, RITCHffi: EXCAVATION OF NEOLITHIC FARMSTEAD, PAPA WESTRAY 77

39

40 RITCHIE: EXCAVATION

41 80 SOCIETY OF ANTIQUARIES OF SCOTLAND, J FIG 15 Stone borers (scale 1:2) 201 Flagstone pebble,

42 FIG 16 Grinding stones (scale 1:2) RITCHIE: EXCAVATION OF NEOLITHIC FARMSTEAD, PAPA WESTRAY 81

43 82

44 FIG RITCHIE: EXCAVATION OF NEOLITHIC FARMSTEAD, PAPA WESTRAY 83

45

46 RITCHIE: EXCAVATION OF NEOLITHIC FARMSTEAD, PAPA WESTRAY 85 2 Buff leached chert, some cortex on back, steep retouch on three sides, finer and shallower retouch on fourth side forming working edge. Topsoil, trench II,? Period II. 3 Ginger-brown flint. Secondary midden, trench V, Period II. 4 Similar, cortex on back, broken down one side. Primary midden, trench II, Period II. 5 Flint scorched red-grey. Secondary midden, trench

47 86 SOCIETY OF ANTIQUARIES OF SCOTLAND, , 31 Microlith 31 Pink quartzite; steep retouch down

48 Floor deposit, house RITCHIE: EXCAVATION OF NEOLITHIC FARMSTEAD, PAPA WESTRAY 87

49 88 SOCIETY OF ANTIQUARIES OF SCOTLAND, Point,

50 RITCHIE: EXCAVATION OF NEOLITHIC FARMSTEAD, PAPA WESTRAY

51 90

52 RITCHIE: EXCAVATION OF NEOLITHIC FARMSTEAD, PAPA WESTRAY 91 (rubbing stones, rubbers, saucer querns, saddle querns, etc) with,

53 92

54 RITCHIE: EXCAVATION OF NEOLITHIC FARMSTEAD, PAPA WESTRAY 93 be identified, which was 56% by weight on that proportion of the material which could be weighed, which was about two-thirds. Since there was a distinct possibility that the upper two layers of the excavation might be contaminated by modern material (we were informed that eight Clydesdale stallions were buried

55 94 SOCIETY OF ANTIQUARIES OF SCOTLAND, 1983 TABLE 1 Proportions of species: numbers of fragments Cattle Sheep Pig Deer Seal Otter Whale Dog Cat Horse Topsoil

56 RITCHIE: EXCAVATION

57 96 SOCIETY OF ANTIQUARIES OF SCOTLAND, 1983 elusion that

58 RITCHIE: EXCAVATION

59 98 SOCIETY OF ANTIQUARIES OF SCOTLAND, 1983 midshaft, whereas in North Ronaldsay and mouflon it is almost invariably proximal anterior. The only modern breed exhibiting

60 RITCHIE: EXCAVATION OF NEOLITHIC FARMSTEAD, PAPA WESTRAY 99 18

61 100 I SOCIETY OF ANTIQUARIES OF SCOTLAND, 1983 Wages,

62 organisms. Twenty-three species belong RITCHIE: EXCAVATION OF NEOLITHIC FARMSTEAD, PAPA WESTRAY 101

63 102 SOCIETY OF ANTIQUARIES OF SCOTLAND, 1983 breeding in Orkney until about Perhaps guillemot, razorbill, puffin and great auk supplied most of

64 RITCHIE: EXCAVATION OF NEOLITHIC FARMSTEAD, PAPA WESTRAY 103

65 104 SOCIETY OF ANTIQUARIES OF SCOTLAND, 1983 Trench II layer 11,? Trisopterus sp; turbot (5 kg). Trench

66 RITCHIE: EXCAVATION OF NEOLITHIC FARMSTEAD, PAPA WESTRAY

67 106 SOCIETY OF ANTIQUARIES OF SCOTLAND, 1983 APPENDIX 8:

68 TABLE

69 108

70 RITCHIE: EXCAVATION

71 110 I SOCIETY OF ANTIQUARIES OF SCOTLAND, Sands of Evie HY As for Site 6, but more sandy. About 20 m towards the coast from Site 6. 8 Skaill Bay HY A coastward extension of Site 4. An area of marram grass immediately above high-water mark. Much bare loose sand.

72 RITCHIE: EXCAVATION OF NEOLITHIC FARMSTEAD, PAPA WESTRAY 111 proportion of measurable (ie complete) values of Mytilus and Ensis of the total counts gives an indication

73 112

74 RITCHIE: EXCAVATION OF NEOLITHIC FARMSTEAD, PAPA WESTRAY 113 as a by-product of the collection of seaweed. Horizons of Littorina littoralis are frequent in the sandy loams

75 114 SOCIETY OF ANTIQUARIES OF SCOTLAND, 1983 Comparison with other Orcadian sites, Skara Brae (Evans, unpublished) and Buckquoy (Evans & Spencer

76 RITCHffi: EXCAVATION

77 116

78 RITCHIE: EXCAVATION

79 118

80 RITCHIE: EXCAVATION OF NEOLITHIC FARMSTEAD, PAPA WESTRAY

81 120

82 RITCHIE: EXCAVATION OF NEOLITHIC FARMSTEAD, PAPA WESTRAY

83

84

85

86

87

88

89

130 SOCIETY OF ANTIQUARIES OF SCOTLAND, 1994

130 SOCIETY OF ANTIQUARIES OF SCOTLAND, 1994 Proc Soc Antiq Scot, 130 SOCIETY OF ANTIQUARIES OF SCOTLAND, 1994 ILLUS HANLEY 132 SOCIETY HANLEY & SHERIDAN: A BEAKER CIST FROM BALBLAIR I 133 ILLUS 4 The Beakers (National Museums of Scotland) concave

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