Eastern Regional High School. F 2. Like nutrients and water, energy also recycles through an ecosystem.

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1 Eastern Regional High School Honors Biology Name: Period: Date: Unit 14 Introduction to Ecology Worksheet The Science of Ecology Part 1 - True or False Write true if the statement is true or false if the statement is false. Abiotic F 1. Biotic factors include sunlight, soil, temperature, and water. Unlike F 2. Like nutrients and water, energy also recycles through an ecosystem. T 3. An ecosystem consists of all the biotic and abiotic factors in an area and their interactions. T 4. Herbivores are a necessary link between producers and other consumers. habitat F 5. A niche refers to the place an organism lives within its ecosystem. T 6. Dung beetles eat animal feces. T 7. Autotrophs make their own food. T 8. Organisms use 90% of the available energy at each trophic level. F 9. Carnivores include lions, polar bears, hawks, frogs, salmon, and deer. F 10. Biomass increases at the upper levels of a food chain. T 11. Producers occupy the first trophic level. T 12. Scavengers include vultures and raccoons. F 13. In a complex ecosystem, it is likely that two different species will occupy the same niche. niche decreases unlikely F 14. The habitat is the role of a species in its ecosystem. T 15. A food web shows how energy flows through an ecosystem.

2 Part 2 - Critical Reading Read these passages from the text and answer the questions that follow. Trophic Levels The feeding positions in a food chain or web are called trophic levels. The different trophic levels are defined in Table below. All food chains and webs have at least two or three trophic levels. Generally, there are a maximum of four trophic levels. Examples are also given in the table. Trophic Levels Trophic Level Where It Gets Food Example 1st Trophic Level: Producer Makes its own food Plants make food 2nd Trophic Level: Primary Consumer Consumes producers Mice eat plant seeds 3rd Trophic Level: Secondary Consumer Consumes primary consumers Snakes eat mice 4th Trophic Level: Tertiary Consumer Consumes secondary consumers Hawks eat snakes Many consumers feed at more than one trophic level. Humans, for example, are primary consumers when they eat plants such as vegetables. They are secondary consumers when they eat cows. They are tertiary consumers when they eat salmon. Trophic Levels and Energy Energy is passed up a food chain or web from lower to higher trophic levels. However, only about 10 percent of the energy at one level is available to the next level. This is represented by the pyramid below. What happens to the other 90 percent of energy? It is used for metabolic processes or given off to the environment as heat. This loss of energy explains why there are rarely more than four trophic levels in a food chain or web. Sometimes there may be a fifth trophic level, but usually there s not enough energy left to support any additional levels. Ecological Pyramid. This pyramid shows how energy and biomass decrease from lower to higher trophic levels. Assume that producers in this pyramid have 1,000,000 kilocalories of energy. How much energy is available to primary consumers?

3 Trophic Levels and Biomass With less energy at higher trophic levels, there are usually fewer organisms as well. Organisms tend to be larger in size at higher trophic levels, but their smaller numbers result in less biomass. Biomass is the total mass of organisms at a trophic level. The decrease in biomass from lower to higher levels is also represented by the figure above. Questions 1. What is a trophic level? 2. Which trophic level includes humans? Any of 2 nd 3 rd or 4 th levels 3. What types of organisms are in the first trophic level? Give an example. Producers 4. Assume that producers in an ecosystem have 1,000,000 kilocalories of energy. How much energy is available to primary consumers? 10% 100,000 Kcal 5. Which trophic level has the greatest biomass? Producers Part 3 - Vocabulary II Fill in the blank with the appropriate term. 1. Abiotic factors are the nonliving aspects of the environment. 2. Autotrophs are organisms that produce food for themselves and other organisms. 3. Scavengers consume the soft tissues of dead/decaying animals. 4. Trophic levels are the positions in a food chain or food web 5. Ecosystems require constant inputs of energy from sunlight or chemicals. 6. Omnivores consume both plants and animals. 7. The competitive exclusion principle states that two different species cannot occupy the same niche. 8. Producers are also called autotrophs.

4 9. _Decomposers feed on dead leaves and animal feces, among other debris. 10. Examples of Canirvores are lions, polar bears, and hawks. 11. Heterotrophs are organisms that depend on other organisms for food. 12. An ecosystem consists of all the biotic and abiotic factors in an area and their interactions. Part 5 - Critical Writing Thoroughly answer the question below. Use appropriate academic vocabulary and clear and complete sentences. Compare and contrast how energy and matter move through ecosystems. Part 6 - Critical Reading Read these passages from the text and answer the questions that follow. Introduction Where does the water that is needed by your cells come from? Or the carbon and nitrogen that is needed to make your organic molecules? Unlike energy, matter is not lost as it passes through an ecosystem. Instead, matter is recycled. This recycling involves specific interactions between the biotic and abiotic factors in an ecosystem. Biogeochemical Cycles The chemical elements and water that are needed by organisms continuously recycle in ecosystems. They pass through biotic and abiotic components of the biosphere. That s why their cycles are called biogeochemical cycles. For example, a chemical might move from organisms ( bio ) to the atmosphere or ocean ( geo ) and back to organisms again. Elements or water may be held for various periods of time in different parts of a cycle. Part of a cycle that holds an element or water for a short period of time is called an exchange pool. For example, the atmosphere is an exchange pool for water. It usually holds water (in the form of water vapor) for just a few days. Part of a cycle that holds an element or water for a long period of time is called a reservoir. The ocean is a reservoir for water. The deep ocean may hold water for thousands of years.

5 Questions 1. Why is matter not lost as it passes through an ecosystem? It will be realeased and stored in an abiotic resevoir 2. What is a biogeochemical cycle? 3. What is an exchange pool? Give an example. Short Term Abiotic Resevoir Atmosphere, Oceans 4. What is a reservoir? Give an example. Long Term Shortage of a nutrient

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