# Surface Modeling. Polygon Surfaces. Types: Generating models: Polygon Tables. Set of surface polygons that enclose an object interior

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1 Surface Modeling Types: Polygon surfaces Curved surfaces Volumes Generating models: Interactive Procedural Polygon Surfaces Set of surface polygons that enclose an object interior Slide 1 Slide 2 Polygon Tables We specify a polygon surface with a set of vertex coordinates and associated attribute parameters Curved Surfaces Implicit Curve defined in terms of an implicit function: f (x, y, z) = 0 Parametric Parametrically defined curve in three dimensions is given by three univariate functions: Q(u) = (X(u), Y(u), Z(u)) Q(u) = (cos u, sin u) f(x, y) = x 2 + y 2 1 = 0 parametric implicit Slide 3 Slide 4

2 Implicit vs. Parametric Parametric Example: Beziér Curves Surface Display Parametric Surface Intersections Implicit Changing Topology Implicit f ( xyz,, ) f( xyz,, ) = A Beziér curve can be defined in terms of a set of control points denoted in red. Consider, for example, a cubic, or curve of degree 3: Qu ( ) = (1 u) p+ 3 u(1 u) p u (1 u) p + u p We can generate points on the curve by repeated linear interpolation. Starting with the control polygon (in red), the edges are subdivided (as noted in blue). These points are then connected in order and the resulting edges subdivided. The recursion stops when only one edge remains. This allows us to approximate the curve at multiple resolutions. Slide 5 Slide 6 Beziér Patches Example: The Utah Teapot Control polyhedron with 16 points and the resulting bicubic patch: 32 patches single shaded patch wireframe of the control points Patch edges Slide 7 Slide 8

3 Subdivision of Beziér Surfaces Deforming a Patch The net of control points forms a polyhedron in cartesian space, and the positions of the points in this space control the shape of the surface triangles per patch We can now apply the same basic idea to a surface, to yield increasingly accurate polygonal representations Slide 9 The effect of lifting one of the control points is shown on the right. Slide 10 Patch Representation vs. Polygon Mesh It s fair to say that a polygon is a simple and flexible building block. However, a parametric representation of an object has certain key advantages: Conciseness A parametric representation is exact and economic since it is analytical. With a polygonal object, exactness can only be approximated at the expense of extra processing and database costs. Deformation and shape change Deformations of parametric surfaces is no less well defined than its undeformed counterpart, so the deformations appear smooth. This is not generally the case with a polygonal object. Sweep Representations Solid modeling packages often provide a number of construction techniques. A good example is a sweep, which involves specifying a 2D shape and a sweep that moves the shape through a region of space. Slide 11 Slide 12

4 Constructive Solid-Geometry Methods (CSG) A CSG Tree Representation Another modeling technique is to combine the volumes occupied by overlapping 3D shapes using set operations. This creates a new volume by applying the union, intersection, or difference operation to two volumes. intersection difference union Slide 13 Slide 14 Example Modeling Package: Alias Studio Volume Modeling Slide 15 Slide 16

5 Marching Cubes Algorithm Marching Cube Cases Extracting a surface from voxel data: Select a cell Calculate the inside/outside state of each vertex of the cell Create an index Use the index to look up the state of the cell in the case table (see next slide) Calculate the contour location (via interpolation) for each edge in the case table Slide 17 Extracted Polygonal Mesh Slide 18 Procedural Techniques: Fractals Apply algorithmic rules to generate shapes Slide 19 Slide 20

6 Terrains Example: L-systems Midpoint Displacement Biologically-motivated approach to modeling botanical structures d Example: d = edge size random( 1,1) Slide 21 Slide 22 Example of a complex L-system model Next Time Slide 23 Slide 24

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