# Vector storage and access; algorithms in GIS. This is lecture 6

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1 Vector storage and access; algorithms in GIS This is lecture 6

2 Vector data storage and access Vectors are built from points, line and areas. (x,y) Surface: (x,y,z)

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4 Vector data access Access to vector data requires some ingenuity. In the past, pointers to a sequential list were used to indicate the relationships between basic vector units (points, lines and areas). Problems with access time especially when points out of sequence.

5 Database indexing Database indexing introduced to speed up data access. Indexing speeds up queries by keeping track of information. It organizes the data in sequential order.. Search time shifts from linear to logarithmic time.

6 note that. means etc.

7 Indexes Index field: contains the value of the indexing field (in sorted order). Pointer field: contains the addresses of disk blocks that have the index value Speed up performance of other fields too but at the expense of the extra space required for the index itself.

8 Problem with indices They can get really big, and take up almost as much space as the information they point to. Search time can be further decreased by allowing the index to be indexed (recursive index). This is the principle behind the multi-level index. The B Tree is a multi-level index.

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10 B-tree as a multi-level index Example: We have a set of data records that are indexed using integers. Each index field has a pointer to a record that is indexed. Each node of the B-tree contains a list of index fields (with pointers to the data) interleaved. The value of the index field for all descendants is within the range set by the index fields of the ancestor node. Here, we have a range of 3 for each pointer. The fan-order of our B-tree is 4. (see previous slide)

11 A search begins at the root node and a route is traced to one of the descendants or the bottom of the tree, whichever comes first. If the bottom is reached, a message to that effect is returned. If a node runs of spaces for pointers (3 per node in this case), the B-tree is restructured.

12 Properties of B-trees 1. They are balanced because branches remain equal length as the tree grows. 2. Insertion and deletion can be calculated in terms of time complexity using a logarithmic function. 3. Each node is guaranteed to be roughly half-full at all stages of the tree s evolution.

13 R-tree index R-trees group objects using a rectangular approximation of their location (minimum bounding rectangle). Indexes points, lines or areas. Can be used for vector and true object data models. The MBR is assigned a parameter for maximum expansion.

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15 R-tree index. Note applicability to GIS from a spatial perspective.

16 Other uses for MBR.

17 Object storage Every object in a GIS is not defined individually. That would be a painstaking task. Groups of like objects are organized into classes. Each class and sub-classes have attributes which apply to the entire group. In addition, operations or methods that describe possible pertinent actions, can be be defined with reference to the class. Attributes and procedures are bequethed through a hierarchical system of inheritance.

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19 What is an algorithm? The specification of the computational processes used to perform an operation (in GIS). We write algorithms in text initially or using flowcharts and later encode them. They are encoded in high-level languages and later translated into machine instructions by a compiler.

20 What is a flowchart/cartographic model? A flowchart is a graphic representation of the algorithm. It shows the flow of processing from the beginning to the end of the solution.

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22 Rules for flowcharting 1. All boxes in the chart are connected with arrows (not plain lines) 2. Each flowchart symbol has a data entry point on top of its symbol with no other entry points. 3. The exit point for data is always on the bottom except for decisions symbols. Decision symbols have two exit points - on either side or on the bottom and one side. 4. The flow of data is generally from top to bottom.

23 5. Connectors are used to connect breaks in the flowchart, like from one page to another or from the bottom of one page to the top of another. They generally look like this: O 6. Subroutines have their own flowcharts, independent of the main one. All flowcharts start with a Terminal symbol. They also end with one.

24 Algorithms in IDRISI Algorithms are expressed as cartographic models in IDRISI. IDRISI cartographic modelling is designed to help plan and structure analysis, but also serves the purpose of documentation. Documentation is an important, but underexecuted step in programming.

25 Squares are used for file names; triangles for vector files; raster files by rectangles; values files are ovals; and tabular data (like excel data) is represented by a page with the corner turned down.

26 Geometric algorithms Used for many operations in GIS. They often have to deal with special cases What looks like a trivial problem is often more complex Classic case of point in polygon procedure. Easy for humans to see the solution.

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28 Polygon painting Scan conversion is used to display lines on a CRT or LCD monitor. Electron beam scans the lines of the screen, and is turned off when it encounters the edge of lines. Parity is used to keep track of inside/outside of polygon position in current beam. Every time the beam crosses the boundary of a polygon, its on-off switch toggles (binary system)

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30 Representational algorithms GIS is conducted primarily in Euclidean space, but fails to fulfill assumptions of continuity associated with Real numbers that populate Euclidean space. Problem of discretization. There are algorithms that circumvent problems of discretization. Example: intersection not at a point on the grid. What do we do?

31 Can t add the point to the poin tset because it is not a domain grid point.

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36 Simple vector algorithms for analysis Distance from a point to a line. In GIS, we always mean the minimum distance between two entities when we talk about distance.

37 Suppose that the point p is given by the coordinate pair (X,Y); the line l is described as {(x,y) ax + by + c = 0} (this is a formal definition and peripheral to this explanation) then the distance from p to l is given by the formula: distance (p,l) = ax + by + c / a 2 + b 2 the distance is, in effect, the distance from p to l measured by the length of the line segment through p and orthogonal to l.

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40 Polygon to polygon distance Distance between polygons can be calculated as the distance between their closest points. But usually, the distance between polygons is determined by distance from their centroids. Need to know how to calculate a centroid.

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42 The centroid is easily calculated: Just add all the X values of vertices and then all the Y vertices in the coverage and divide each by the number of (x,y) points. Often centroids are weighted or moved to the center of gravity of the variable rather than the area.

43 Distance between centroids. What we are actually concerned with is how to calculate the distance between centroids. The distance between centroids then becomes the distance between the two centroid points.

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