Specific Heat (Temperature Sensor)

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1 43 Specific Heat (Temperature Sensor) Thermodynamics: Calorimetry; specific heat Equipment List DataStudio file: 43 Specific Heat.ds Qty Items Part Numbers 1 PASCO Interface (for one sensor) 1 Temperature Sensor CI Mass and Hanger Set ME Balance SE Foam cup with lid 1 Graduated cylinder, 100 ml 1 Beaker 300 ml Water 100 ml Ice 20 cm String SE set Protective gear (goggles, gloves, lab coat) Introduction The purpose of this activity is to determine the specific heat of the metal object and identity the metal. Use a Temperature Sensor to measure the change in temperature of a known quantity of water at room temperature when a metal object of known mass and known initial temperature of 0 Celsius is put into the water. Use DataStudio to record and display the data. Background The amount of thermal energy that an object must absorb to change its temperature by one degree is called its heat capacity. The amount of thermal energy that a single gram of a specific material must absorb in order to change its temperature by one degree is the material's specific heat capacity, or specific heat. The specific heat of water is a standard to which specific heats of other substances are compared. When heat flows into an object, its thermal energy increases, and so does its temperature. The amount of increase depends on the size of the object. It also depends on the material from which the object is made. The specific heat of a material is the amount of energy that must be added to the material to raise the temperature of a unit mass one-temperature unit. You will use a calorimeter to find the specific heat of the material. Since the calorimeter is relatively well insulated, the air outside will have little to do with the experiment. Inside the calorimeter, thermal energy is conserved. What this means is whatever heat is gained by the mass from the water is exactly equal to the heat lost by the water to the mass. The expressions for heat gained or lost are shown. The first equation is for an unknown metal and the second equation is for water. Q m = m m C m T m Q w = m w C w T w PASCO of 8

2 43 Specific Heat Physics Experiment Manual Since thermal energy is conserved: Q m = -Q w The only unknown quantity in the bottom equation is the specific heat of the metal. The specific heat of water is known. Note: The negative sign in front of the right hand equation will be canceled because the m m C m T m = (m w C w T w ) m m = mass of metal C m = specific heat of metal T m = change of temperature of metal m w = mass of water C w = specific heat of water T w = change of temperature of water temperature change of the water will be negative. SAFETY REMINDER Follow directions for using the equipment. Wear protective gear (goggles, gloves, apron or coat). Setup 1. Set up the PASCO Interface and computer and start DataStudio. 2. Connect the Temperature Sensor to the interface. 3. Open the DataStudio file: 43 Specific Heat.ds. The DataStudio file has a graph display of Temperature versus Time and digits displays of temperature. Data recording is set at 1 Hz. 4. Use a 100-g mass from the Mass and Hanger Set. Measure and record the mass of your object in grams. 5. Fill a 500 ml beaker with ice and water. 6. Tie a string to the object. Place the unknown metal in the ice-water bath for 10 minutes to cool down. Add more ice as the ice begins to melt. 7. Prepare a known quantity of water at about 25 C. Measure the weight of the foam cup (calorimeter). Use a graduated cylinder to measure 100 ml of water that is at room temperature and put this water into the foam cup (the calorimeter). Measure the weight of the cup with the water. Subtract the weight of the cup to determine the mass of the water. Record the mass below in the Lab Report section. 8. Put the Temperature Sensor into the ice-water bath with the object. Let the sensor equalize with the ice-water bath while the metal object is cooling. Procedure 43-2 of PASCO

3 Physics Experiment Manual 43 Specific Heat (Hint: Read this all the way through before you begin to take data.) Measure Initial Temperature of the Ice-Water Bath 1. After the object has cooled for ten minutes, begin to record data. Stir the ice-water bath while you record data. 2. Select Monitor Data from the Experiment menu. Note: It is very important to stir the water so the temperature is uniform throughout the beaker. 3. When the temperature equalizes, record the value in the text box provided. 4. Click Stop. Measure Initial Temperature of the Calorimeter Water 5. Move the Temperature Sensor to the calorimeter water. 6. Wait two minutes to allow the Temperature Sensor to equalize with the calorimeter water. Select Monitor Data from the Experiment menu. Note: Stir the water so the temperature is even throughout the calorimeter. 7. When the temperature value in the Digits display stops changing, record the value in the text box provided. 8. Click Stop. Record Temperature 9. Lift the metal object out of the ice water and dry any droplets of water still on the object. 10. Click Start. Put the cold metal object into the calorimeter. Remember to stir the water! Data recording stops automatically at 2 minutes. Analyze 1. Use the graph to find the equilibrium temperature of the water after the metal object warms up and the water cools down. 2. Click Scale to Fit to rescale the graph if needed. Highlight the flat part of the graph. The mean temperature appears in the legend. Record this value as your final temperature of metal and water. Use your results to answer the questions in the Lab Report section. PASCO of 8

4 43 Specific Heat Physics Experiment Manual of PASCO

5 Physics Experiment Manual 43 Specific Heat Lab Report: Specific Heat Name: Data Sketch your graph of temperature versus time: Data Table Mass of object Mass of water Item Initial Temperature of Metal Initial Temperature of Water Final Temperature of Water Value Calculations Calculate the specific heat of the unknown metal. Remember that the specific heat of water is 4186 J/kg C. Item Specific Heat of Metal Value kg kg C C C J/kg C PASCO of 8

6 43 Specific Heat Physics Experiment Manual The table shows some specific heats of common metals: Metal Specific Heat (J/kg C) Metal Specific Heat (J/kg C) aluminum 901 iron 449 brass 380 lead 128 copper 386 silver 234 gold 129 steel 450 Questions 1. Describe, in words, what happened to the temperature on the graph. 2. What kind of metal is the object? 3. Compare the value you obtained with your data (measured) to the value in the list (theoretical). What is the percent difference between your measured value and the theoretical value (from the table)? 4. What are some possible sources of error? 43-6 of PASCO

7 Physics Experiment Manual 43 Specific Heat Teacher Notes Time Estimates Preparation: 15 min Activity: 30 min Objectives Students will be able to use the Temperature Sensor to measure the change in temperature of water as it transfers energy to a metal object (initial temperature 0 C). use the graph display determine the equilibrium temperature of the water and metal object. calculate the specific heat of the metal object. compare the measured specific heat to values for metals and determine the metal of the object. Data Sketch your graph of temperature versus time: (See sample data.) Data Table Item Value Mass of object kg Mass of water kg Initial Temperature of Metal -0.2 C Initial Temperature of Water Final Temperature of Water 22.0 C 20.3 C Calculations Calculate the specific heat of the unknown metal. Remember that the specific heat of water is 4186 J/kg C. Item Specific Heat of Metal The table shows some specific heats of common metals: Value 345 J/kg C Metal Specific Heat (J/kg C) Metal Specific Heat (J/kg C) aluminum 901 iron 449 brass 380 lead 128 copper 386 silver 234 gold 129 steel 450 Questions 1. Describe, in words, what happened to the temperature on the graph. The temperature dropped when the metal object was first placed in the water. Eventually the temperature stopped changing. 2. What kind of metal is the object? Brass. PASCO of 8

8 43 Specific Heat Physics Experiment Manual Compare the value you obtained with your data (measured) to the value in the list (theoretical). What is the percent difference between your measured value and the theoretical value (from the table)? The percent difference is 9% 4. What are some possible sources of error? Possible sources of error were the uncertainties in measuring temperature, thermal energy lost or gained, and inaccuracy in measuring the mass of the object and the water. Sample Data 43-8 of PASCO

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