Group Invariant Scattering


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1 Group Invariant Scattering STÉPHANE MALLAT Centre de Mathématiques Appliquées de l École Polytechnique (CMAP) Institut des Hautes Études Scientifiques (IHÉS) Abstract This paper constructs translationinvariant operators on L 2.R d /, which are Lipschitzcontinuous to the action of diffeomorphisms. A scattering propagator is a pathordered product of nonlinear and noncommuting operators, each of which computes the modulus of a wavelet transform. A local integration defines a windowed scattering transform, which is proved to be Lipschitzcontinuous to the action of C 2 diffeomorphisms. As the window size increases, it converges to a wavelet scattering transform that is translation invariant. Scattering coefficients also provide representations of stationary processes. Expected values depend upon highorder moments and can discriminate processes having the same power spectrum. Scattering operators are extended on L 2.G/, where G is a compact Lie group, and are invariant under the action of G. Combining a scattering on L 2.R d / and on L 2.SO.d// defines a translation and rotationinvariant scattering on L 2.R d /. 22 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Introduction Symmetry and invariants, which play a major role in physics [6], are making their way into signal information processing. The information content of sounds or images is typically not affected under the action of finite groups such as translations or rotations, and it is stable to the action of small diffeomorphisms that deform signals [2]. This motivates the study of translationinvariant representations of L 2.R d / functions, which are Lipschitzcontinuous to the action of diffeomorphisms and which keep highfrequency information to discriminate different types of signals. We then study invariance to the action of compact Lie groups and rotations. We first concentrate on translation invariance. Let L c f.x/ D f.x c/ denote the translation of f 2 L 2.R d / by c 2 R d. An operator ˆ from L 2.R d / to a Hilbert space H is translationinvariant if ˆ.L c f / D ˆ.f / for all f 2 L 2.R d / and c 2 R d. Canonical translationinvariant operators satisfy ˆ.f / D L a f for some a 2 R d that depends upon f [5]. The modulus of the Fourier transform of f is an example of a noncanonical translationinvariant operator. However, these translationinvariant operators are not Lipschitzcontinuous to the action of diffeomorphisms. Instabilities to deformations are wellknown to appear at high Communications on Pure and Applied Mathematics, Vol. LV, (22) 22 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
2 332 STÉPHANE MALLAT frequencies []. The major difficulty is to maintain the Lipschitz continuity over high frequencies. To preserve stability in L 2.R d / we want ˆ to be nonexpansive: 8.f; h/ 2 L 2.R d / 2 kˆ.f / ˆ.h/k H kf hk: It is then sufficient to verify its Lipschitz continuity relative to the action of small diffeomorphisms close to translations. Such a diffeomorphism transforms x 2 R d into x.x/, where.x/ 2 R d is the displacement field. Let L f.x/ D f.x.x// denote the action of the diffeomorphism on f. Lipschitz stability means that kˆ.f / ˆ.L f /k is bounded by the size of the diffeomorphism and hence by the distance between the and, up to a multiplicative constant multiplied by kf k. Let j.x/j denote the euclidean norm in R d, jr.x/j the sup norm of the matrix r.x/, and jh.x/j the sup norm of the Hessian tensor. The weak topology on C 2 diffeomorphisms defines a distance between and over any compact subset of R d by (.) d.; / D sup j.x/j C sup jr.x/j C sup jh.x/j: x2 x2 x2 A translationinvariant operator ˆ is said to be Lipschitzcontinuous to the action of C 2 diffeomorphisms if for any compact R d there exists C such that for all f 2 L 2.R d / supported in and all 2 C 2.R d / (.2) kˆ.f / ˆ.L f /k H C kf k sup x2r d jr.x/j C sup x2r d jh.x/j : Since ˆ is translation invariant, the Lipschitz upper bound does not depend upon the maximum translation amplitude sup x j.x/j of the diffeomorphism metric (.). The Lipschitz continuity (.2) implies that ˆ is invariant to global translations, but it is much stronger. ˆ is almost invariant to local translations by.x/, up to the first and secondorder deformation terms. Highfrequency instabilities to deformations can be avoided by grouping frequencies into dyadic packets in R d with a wavelet transform. However, a wavelet transform is not translation invariant. A translationinvariant operator is constructed with a scattering procedure along multiple paths, which preserves the Lipschitz stability of wavelets to the action of diffeomorphisms. A scattering propagator is first defined as a pathordered product of nonlinear and noncommuting operators, each of which computes the modulus of a wavelet transform [3]. This cascade of convolutions and modulus can also be interpreted as a convolutional neural network []. A windowed scattering transform is a nonexpansive operator that locally integrates the scattering propagator output. For appropriate wavelets, the main theorem in Section 2 proves that a windowed scattering preserves the norm: kˆ.f /k H D kf k for all f 2 L 2.R d /, and it is Lipschitzcontinuous to C 2 diffeomorphisms. When the window size increases, windowed scattering transforms converge to a translationinvariant scattering transform defined on a path set xp that is not
3 GROUP INVARIANT SCATTERING 333 countable. Section 3 introduces a measure and a metric on xp and proves that scattering transforms of functions in L 2.R d / belong to L 2. xp ; d/. A scattering transform has striking similarities with a Fourier transform modulus but a different behavior relative to the action of diffeomorphisms. Numerical examples are shown. An open conjecture remains on conditions for strong convergence in L 2.R d /. The representation of stationary processes with the Fourier power spectrum results from the translation invariance of the Fourier modulus. Similarly, Section 4 defines an expected scattering transform that maps stationary processes to an l 2 space. Scattering coefficients depend upon highorder moments of stationary processes and thus can discriminate processes having the same secondorder moments. As opposed to the Fourier spectrum, a scattering representation is Lipschitzcontinuous to random deformations up to a log term. For large classes of ergodic processes, it is numerically observed that the scattering transform of a single realization provides a meansquare consistent estimator of the expected scattering transform. Section 5 extends scattering operators to build invariants to actions of compact Lie groups G. The left action of g 2 G on f 2 L 2.G/ is denoted L g f.r/ D f.g r/. An operator ˆ on L 2.G/ is invariant to the action of G if ˆ.L g f / D ˆ.f / for all f 2 L 2.G/ and all g 2 G. Invariant scattering operators are constructed on L 2.G/ with a scattering propagator that iterates on a wavelet transform defined on L 2.G/, and a modulus operator that removes complex phases. A translation and rotationinvariant scattering on L 2.R d / is obtained by combining a scattering on L 2.R d / and a scattering on L 2.SO.d//. Available at is a package of software to reproduce numerical experiments. Applications to audio and image classification can be found in [, 3, 4, 8]. NOTATION. kk WD sup x2r d j.x/j, k k WD sup.x;u/2r 2d j.x/.u/j, krk WD sup x2r d jr.x/j, and khk WD sup x2r d jh.x/j where jh.x/j is the norm of the Hessian tensor. The inner product of.x; y/ 2 R 2d is x y. The norm of f in a Hilbert space is kf k and in L 2.R d / kf k 2 D R jf.x/j 2 dx. The norm in L.R d / is kf k D R jf.x/jdx. We denote the Fourier transform of f by f y.!/ WD R f.x/e ix! d!. We denote by g ı f.x/ D f.gx/ the action of a group element g 2 G. An operator R parametrized by p is denoted by RŒp and RŒ D frœp g p2. The sup norm of a linear operator A in L 2.R d / is denoted by kak, and the commutator of two operators is ŒA; B D AB BA. 2 Finite Path Scattering To avoid highfrequency instabilities under the action of diffeomorphisms, Section 2.2 introduces scattering operators that iteratively apply wavelet transforms and remove complex phases with a modulus. Section 2.3 proves that a scattering is nonexpansive and preserves L 2.R d / norms. Translation invariance and Lipschitz continuity to deformations are proved in Sections 2.4 and 2.5.
4 334 STÉPHANE MALLAT 2. From Fourier to LittlewoodPaley Wavelets The Fourier transform modulus ˆ.f / D jf y j is translation invariant. Indeed, for c 2 R d, the translation L c f.x/ D f.x c/ satisfies Lc bf.!/ D e ic! f y.!/ and hence j Lc bf j D jf y j. However, deformations lead to wellknown instabilities at high frequencies []. This is illustrated with a small scaling operator, L f.x/ D f.x.x// D f.. s/x/ for.x/ D sx and krk D jsj <. If f.x/ D e ix.x/, then scaling by s translates the central frequency to. s/. If is regular with a fast decay, then (2.) kj b L f j j b f jk jsj jj kk D krk jj kf k: Since jj can be arbitrarily large, ˆ.f / D jf y j does not satisfy the Lipschitz continuity condition (.2) when scaling high frequencies. The frequency displacement from to. s/ has a small impact if sinusoidal waves are replaced by localized functions having a Fourier support that is wider at high frequencies. This is achieved by a wavelet transform [7, 4] whose properties are briefly reviewed in this section. A wavelet transform is constructed by dilating a wavelet 2 L 2.R d / with a scale sequence fa j g j 2 for a >. For image processing, usually a D 2 [3, 4]. Audio processing requires a better frequency resolution with typically a 2 =8 []. To simplify notation, we normalize a D 2, with no loss of generality. Dilated wavelets are also rotated with elements of a finite rotation group G, which also includes the reflection with respect to : x D x. If d is even, then G is a subgroup of SO.d/; if d is odd, then G is a finite subgroup of O.d/. A mother wavelet is dilated by 2 j and rotated by r 2 G, (2.2) 2 j r.x/ D 2dj.2 j r x/: Its Fourier transform is y 2 j r.!/ D y.2 j r!/. A scattering transform is computed with wavelets that can be written (2.3).x/ D e ix.x/ and hence y.!/ D y.! /; where.!/ y is a real function concentrated in a lowfrequency ball centered at! D whose radius is of the order of. As a result, y.!/ is real and concentrated in a frequency ball of the same radius but centered at! D. To simplify notation, we denote D 2 j r 2 2 G, with jj D 2 j. After dilation and rotation, y.!/ D. y! / covers a ball centered at with a radius proportional to jj D 2 j. The index thus specifies the frequency localization and spread of y. As opposed to wavelet bases, a LittlewoodPaley wavelet transform [7, 4] is a redundant representation that computes convolution values at all x 2 R d without subsampling: (2.4) 8x 2 R d W Œ f.x/ D f?.x/ D f.u/.x u/du:
5 Its Fourier transform is GROUP INVARIANT SCATTERING 335 2W Œ f.!/ D y f.!/ y.!/ D y f.!/ y.!/: If f is real then f y.!/ D f y.!/, and if y.!/ is real then W Œ f D W Œ f. Let G C denote the quotient of G with f ; g, where two rotations r and r are equivalent. It is sufficient to compute W Œ2 j r f for positive rotations r 2 G C. If f is complex, then W Œ2 j r f must be computed for all r 2 G D G C f ; g. A wavelet transform at a scale 2 only keeps wavelets of frequencies 2 j > 2. The low frequencies that are not covered by these wavelets are provided by an averaging over a spatial domain proportional to 2 : (2.5) A f D f? 2 with 2.x/ D 2 d.2 x/: If f is real, then the wavelet transform W f D fa f;.w Œ f / 2ƒ g is indexed by ƒ D f D 2 j r W r 2 G C ; 2 j > 2 g. Its norm is (2.6) kw f k 2 D ka f k 2 C 2ƒ kw Œ f k 2 : If D then W f D fw Œ f g 2ƒ with ƒ D 2 G C. Its norm is kw f k 2 D P 2ƒ kw Œ f k 2. For complexvalued functions f, all rotations in G are included by defining W f D fa f;.w Œ f / ; 2ƒ g and W f D fw Œ f g ; 2ƒ.The following proposition gives a standard LittlewoodPaley condition [7] so that W is unitary. PROPOSITION 2.. For any 2 or D, W is unitary in the spaces of realvalued or complexvalued functions in L 2.R d / if and only if for almost all! 2 R d (2.7) ˇ j D r2g j y.2 j r!/j 2 D and jy.!/j 2 D ˇ j D r2g where ˇ D for complex functions and ˇ D 2 for real functions. j y.2 j r!/j 2 ; PROOF. If f is complex, ˇ D, and one can verify that (2.7) is equivalent to (2.8) 8 2 jy.2!/j 2 C j y.2 j r!/j 2 D : j > ;r2g Since W 3 Œ2 j r f.!/ D f y.!/ y 2 j r.!/, multiplying (2.8) by jf y.!/j 2 and applying the Plancherel formula proves that kw f k 2 D kf k 2. For D the same result is obtained by letting go to.
6 336 STÉPHANE MALLAT Conversely, if kw f k 2 D kf k 2, then (2.8) is satisfied for almost all!. Otherwise, one can construct a function f where f y has a support in the domain of! where (2.8) is not valid. With the Plancherel formula we verify that kw f k 2 kf k 2, which contradicts the hypothesis. If f is real then jf y.!/j D jf y.!/j so kw Œ2 j r f k D kw Œ 2 j r f k. Hence kw f k remains the same if r is restricted to G C and is multiplied by p 2, which yields condition (2.7) with ˇ D 2. In all the following, y is a real function that satisfies the unitary condition (2.7). It implies that y./ D R.x/dx D and jy.r!/j D jy.!/j for all r 2 G. We choose y.!/ to be real and symmetric so that is also real and symmetric and.rx/ D.x/ for all r 2 G. We also suppose that and are twice differentiable and that their decay as well as the decay of their partial derivatives of order and 2 is O.. C jxj/ d 2 /. A change of variable in the wavelet transform integral shows that if f is scaled and rotated, 2 l g ı f D f.2 l gx/ with 2 l g 2 2 G, then the wavelet transform is scaled and rotated according to (2.9) W Œ.2 l g ı f / D 2 l g ı W Œ2 l g f: Since is invariant to rotations in G, we verify that A commutes with rotations in G: A.g ı f / D g ı A f for all g 2 G. In dimension d D, G D f ; g. To build a complex wavelet concentrated on a single frequency band according to (2.3), we set y.!/ D for! <. Following (2.7), W is unitary if and only if (2.) ˇ j y.2 j j!j/j 2 D and jy.!/j 2 D ˇ j 2 j D j y.2 j j!j/j 2 : If z is a real wavelet that generates a dyadic orthonormal basis of L 2.R/ [4], then y D 2 y z!> satisfies (2.7). Numerical examples in the paper are computed with a complex wavelet calculated from a cubicspline orthogonal BattleLemarié wavelet z [4]. In any dimension d 2, y 2 L 2.R d / can be defined as a separable product in frequency polar coordinates! D j!j, with in the unit sphere S d of R d : 8.j!j; / 2 R C S d y.j!j/ D y.j!j/./: The onedimensional function y.j!j/ is chosen to satisfy (2.). The Littlewood Paley condition (2.7) is then equivalent to 8 2 S d j.r /j 2 D : r2g
7 2.2 PathOrdered Scattering GROUP INVARIANT SCATTERING 337 Convolutions with wavelets define operators that are Lipschitzcontinuous under the action of diffeomorphisms, because wavelets are regular and localized functions. However, a wavelet transform is not invariant to translations, and W Œ f D f? translates when f is translated. The main difficulty is to compute translationinvariant coefficients, which remain stable under the action of diffeomorphisms and retain highfrequency information provided by wavelets. A scattering operator computes such a translationinvariant representation. We first explain how to build translationinvariant coefficients from a wavelet transform, while maintaining stability under the action of diffeomorphisms. Scattering operators are then defined, and their main properties are summarized. If U Œ is an operator defined on L 2.R d /, not necessarily linear but which commutes with translations, then R U Œ f.x/dx is translation invariant if finite. W Œ f D f? commutes with translations but R R W Œ f.x/dx D because.x/dx D. More generally, one can verify that any linear transformation of W Œ f, which is translation invariant, is necessarily. To get a nonzero invariant, we set U Œ f D M Œ W Œ f where M Œ is a nonlinear demodulation that maps W Œ f to a lowerfrequency function having a nonzero integral. The choice of M Œ must also preserve the Lipschitz continuity to diffeomorphism actions. If.x/ D e ix.x/, then.x/ D e ix.x/, and hence (2.) W Œ f.x/ D e ix.f?.x// with f.x/ D e ix f.x/: The convolution f? is a lowfrequency filtering because y.!/ D y.!/ covers a frequency ball centered at! D, of radius proportional to jj. A nonzero invariant can thus be obtained by canceling the modulation term e ix with M Œ. A simple example is (2.2) M Œ h.x/ D e ix e iˆ.y h.// h.x/ where ˆ. h.// y is the complex phase of h./. y This nonlinear phase registration guarantees that M Œ commutes with translations. From (2.) we have that R M Œ W Œ f.x/dx D jf y./j j./j. y It recovers the Fourier modulus representation, which is translation invariant but not Lipschitzcontinuous to diffeomorphisms as shown in (2.). Indeed, the demodulation operator M Œ in (2.2) commutes with translations but does not commute with the action of diffeomorphisms and in particular with dilations. The commutator norm of M Œ with a dilation is equal to 2, even for arbitrarily small dilations, which explains the resulting instabilities. Lipschitz continuity under the action of diffeomorphisms is preserved if M Œ commutes with the action of diffeomorphisms. For L 2.R d / stability, we also impose that M Œ is nonexpansive. One can prove [4] that M Œ is then necessarily a pointwise operator, which means that M Œ h.x/ depends only on the value of h at x. We further impose that km Œ hk D khk for all h 2 L 2.R d /, which
8 338 STÉPHANE MALLAT then implies that jm Œ hj D jhj. The most regular functions are obtained with M Œ h D jhj, which eliminates all phase variations. We derive from (2.) that this modulus maps W Œ f into a lowerfrequency envelope: M Œ W Œ f D jw Œ f j D jf? j: Lower frequencies created by a modulus result from interferences. For example, if f.x/ D cos. x/ C a cos. 2 x/ where and 2 are in the frequency band covered by y, then jf?.x/j D 2 j y. / C a y. 2 /e i. 2 /x j oscillates at the interference frequency j 2 j, which is smaller than j j and j 2 j. The integration R U Œ f.x/dx D R jf?.x/jdx is translation invariant but it removes all the high frequencies of jf?.x/j. To recover these high frequencies, a scattering also computes the wavelet coefficients of each U Œ f : fu Œ f? g. Translationinvariant coefficients are again obtained with a modulus U Œ U Œ f D ju Œ f? j and an integration R U Œ U Œ f.x/dx. If f.x/ D cos. x/ca cos. 2 x/ with a <, and if j 2 j jj with j 2 j in the support of y, then U Œ U Œ f is proportional to aj. /j j.j 2 j/j. The second wavelet y captures the interferences created by the modulus, between the frequency components of f in the support of y. We now introduce the scattering propagator, which extends these decompositions. DEFINITION 2.2. An ordered sequence p D. ; 2 ; : : : ; m / with k 2 ƒ D 2 G C is called a path. The empty path is denoted p D. Let U Œ f D jf? j for f 2 L 2.R d /. A scattering propagator is a pathordered product of noncommutative operators defined by (2.3) U Œp D U Œ m U Œ 2 U Œ ; with U Œ D Id. The operator U Œp is welldefined on L 2.R d / because ku Œ f k k k kf k for all 2 ƒ. The scattering propagator is a cascade of convolutions and modulus: (2.4) U Œp f D ˇˇjf? j? 2ˇˇ j? m j: Each U Œ filters the frequency component in the band covered by y and maps it to lower frequencies with the modulus. The index sequence p D. ; 2 ; : : : ; m / is thus a frequency path variable. The scaling and rotation by 2 l g 2 2 G of a path p is written 2 l gp D.2 l g ; 2 l g 2 ; : : : ; 2 l g m /. The concatenation of two paths is denoted p C p D. ; 2 ; : : : ; m ; ; 2 ; : : : ; m /; in particular, p C D. ; 2 ; : : : ; m ; /. It results from (2.3) that (2.5) U Œp C p D U Œp U Œp : Section 2. explains that if f is complex valued then its wavelet transform is W f D fw Œ f g ; 2ƒ, whereas if f is real then W f D fw Œ f g 2ƒ. If f is complex then at the next iteration U Œ f D jw Œ f j is real, so nextstage
9 GROUP INVARIANT SCATTERING 339 wavelet transforms are computed only for k 2 ƒ. The scattering propagator of a complex function is thus defined over positive paths p D. ; 2 ; : : : ; m / 2 ƒ m and negative paths denoted p D. ; 2 ; : : : ; m /. This is analogous to the positive and negative frequencies of a Fourier transform. If f is real, then W Œ f D W Œ f so U Œ f D U Œ f and hence U Œ p f D U Œp f. To simplify explanations, all results are proved on real functions with scattering propagators restricted to positive paths. These results apply to complex functions by including negative paths. DEFINITION 2.3. Let P be the set of all finite paths. The scattering transform of f 2 L.R d / is defined for any p 2 P by (2.6) xsf.p/ D U Œp f.x/dx with p D U Œp ı.x/dx: p A scattering is a translationinvariant operator that transforms f 2 L.R d / into a function of the frequency path variable p. The normalization factor p results from a path measure introduced in Section 3. Conditions are given so that p does not vanish. This transform is then welldefined for any f 2 L.R d / and any p of finite length m. Indeed, k k D k k so (2.4) implies that ku Œp f k kf k k k m. We shall see that a scattering transform shares similarities with the Fourier transform modulus, where the path p plays the role of a frequency variable. However, as opposed to a Fourier modulus, a scattering transform is stable under the action of diffeomorphisms, because it is computed by iterating on wavelet transforms and modulus operators, which are stable. For complexvalued functions, xsf is also defined on negative paths, and xsf. p/ D xsf.p/ if f is real. If p then xsf.p/ is nonlinear but it preserves amplitude factors: (2.7) 8 2 R xs.f /.p/ D jj xsf.p/: A scattering has similar scaling and rotation covariance properties as a Fourier transform. If f is scaled and rotated, 2 l g ı f.x/ D f.2 l gx/, then (2.9) implies that U Œ.2 l g ı f / D 2 l g ı U Œ2 l g f, and cascading this result shows that (2.8) 8p 2 P U Œp.2 l g ı f / D 2 l g ı U Œ2 l gp f: Inserting this result in the definition (2.6) proves that (2.9) xs.2 l g ı f /.p/ D 2 dl xsf.2 l gp/: Rotating f thus rotates identically its scattering, whereas if f is scaled by 2 l, then the frequency paths p are scaled by 2 l. The extension of the scattering transform in L 2.R d / is done as a limit of windowed scattering transforms, which we now introduce. DEFINITION 2.4. Let 2 and P be a set of finite paths p D. ; 2 ; : : : ; m / with k 2 ƒ and hence j k j D 2 j k > 2. A windowed scattering transform is
10 34 STÉPHANE MALLAT defined for all p 2 P by (2.2) S Œp f.x/ D U Œp f? 2.x/ D U Œp f.u/ 2.x u/du: The convolution with 2.x/ D 2 d.2 x/ localizes the scattering transform over spatial domains of size proportional to 2 : S Œp f.x/ D ˇˇjf? j? 2ˇˇ j? m j? 2.x/: It defines an infinite family of functions indexed by P, denoted by S ŒP f WD fs Œp f g p2p : For complexvalued functions, negative paths are also included in P, and if f is real, S Œ p f D S Œp f. Section 2.3 proves that for appropriate wavelets, kf k 2 D P p2p ks Œp f k 2. However, the signal energy is mostly concentrated on a much smaller set of frequencydecreasing paths p D. k / km for which j kc j j k j. Indeed, the propagator U Œ progressively pushes the energy towards lower frequencies. The main theorem of Section 2.5 proves that a windowed scattering is Lipschitzcontinuous under the action of diffeomorphisms. Since.x/ is continuous at, if f 2 L.R d / then its windowed scattering transform converges pointwise to its scattering transform when the scale 2 goes to : 8x 2 R d lim! 2d S Œp f.x/ D./ U Œp f.u/du (2.2) D./ p xs.p/: However, when increases, the path set P also increases. Section 3 shows that fp g 2 defines a multiresolution path approximation of a much larger set xp including paths of infinite length. This path set is not countable as opposed to each P, and Section 3 introduces a measure and a metric on xp. Section 3.2 extends the scattering transform xsf.p/ to all f 2 L 2.R d / and to all p 2 xp, and proves that xsf 2 L 2. xp ; d/. A sufficient condition is given to guarantee a strong convergence of S f to xsf, and it is conjectured that it is valid on L 2.R d /. Numerical examples illustrate this convergence and show that a scattering transform has strong similarities to a Fourier transforms modulus when mapping the path p to a frequency variable! 2 R d. 2.3 Scattering Propagation and Norm Preservation We prove that a windowed scattering S is nonexpansive and preserves the L 2.R d / norm. We denote by S Œ WD fs Œp g p2 and U Œ WD fu Œp g p2 a family of operators indexed by a path set. A windowed scattering can be computed by iterating on the onestep propagator defined by U f D fa f;.u Œ f / 2ƒ g;
11 GROUP INVARIANT SCATTERING 34 FIGURE 2.. A scattering propagator U applied to f computes each U Œ f D jf? j and outputs S Œ f D f? 2. Applying U to each U Œ f computes all U Œ ; 2 f and outputs S Œ D U Œ? 2. Applying iteratively U to each U Œp f outputs S Œp f D U Œp f? 2 and computes the next path layer. with A f D f? 2 and U Œ f D jf? j. After calculating U f, applying again U to each U Œ f yields a larger infinite family of functions. The decomposition is further iterated by recursively applying U to each U Œp f. Since U Œ U Œp D U Œp C and A U Œp D S Œp, it holds that (2.22) U U Œp f D fs Œp f;.u Œp C f / 2ƒ g: Let ƒ m be the set of paths of length m with ƒ D f g. It is propagated into (2.23) U U Œƒ m f D fs Œƒ m f; U ŒƒmC f g: Since P D S m2n ƒm, one can compute S ŒP f from f D U Œ f by iteratively computing U U Œƒ m f for m going from to, as illustrated in Figure 2.. Scattering calculations follow the general architecture of convolution neural networks introduced by LeCun []. Convolution networks cascade convolutions and a pooling nonlinearity, which is here the modulus of a complex number. Convolution networks typically use kernels that are not predefined functions such as wavelets but which are learned with backpropagation algorithms. Convolution network architectures have been successfully applied to a number of recognition tasks [] and are studied as models for visual perception [2, 7]. Relations between scattering operators and path formulations of quantum field physics are also studied in [9]. The propagator U f D fa f;.jw Œ f j/ 2ƒ g is nonexpansive because the wavelet transform W is unitary and a modulus is nonexpansive in the sense that jjaj jbjj ja bj for any.a; b/ 2 C 2. This is valid whether f is real or complex.
12 342 STÉPHANE MALLAT As a consequence, (2.24) ku f U hk 2 D ka f A hk 2 C kw f W hk 2 kf hk 2 : 2ƒ kjw Œ f j jw Œ hjk 2 Since W is unitary, setting h D also proves that ku f k D kf k, so U preserves the norm. For any path set the norms of S Œ f and U Œ f are ks Œ f k 2 D p2 ks Œp f k 2 and ku Œ f k 2 D p2 ku Œp f k 2 : Since S ŒP iterates on U, which is nonexpansive, the following proposition proves that S ŒP is also nonexpansive [2]. PROPOSITION 2.5. The scattering transform is nonexpansive: (2.25) 8.f; h/ 2 L 2.R d / 2 ks ŒP f S ŒP hk kf hk: PROOF. Since U is nonexpansive, it results from (2.23) that ku Œƒ m f U Œƒm hk2 ku U Œƒ m f D ks Œƒ m f U U Œƒ m hk2 S Œƒ m hk2 C ku Œƒ mc f U Œƒ mc hk 2 : Summing these equations for m going from to proves that (2.26) ks ŒP f S ŒP hk 2 D ks Œƒ m f S Œƒ m hk2 md kf hk 2 : Section 2.2 explains that each U Œ f D jf? j captures the frequency energy of f over a frequency band covered by y and propagates this energy towards lower frequencies. The following theorem proves this result by showing that the whole scattering energy ultimately reaches the minimum frequency 2 and is trapped by the lowpass filter 2. The propagated scattering energy thus goes to as the path length increases, and the theorem implies that ks ŒP f k D kf k. This result also applies to complexvalued functions by incorporating negative paths. ; 2 ; : : : ; m / in P. THEOREM 2.6. A scattering wavelet is said to be admissible if there exists 2 R d and, with jy.!/j jy.2!/j and y./ D, such that the function C (2.27) y.!/ D jy.! /j 2 k. jy.2 k.! //j 2 / kd
13 satisfies (2.28) D inf GROUP INVARIANT SCATTERING 343 C j!j2 j D r2g y.2 j r!/j y.2 j r!/j 2 > : If the wavelet is admissible, then for all f 2 L 2.R d / (2.29) lim ku m! Œƒm f k2 D lim ks Œƒ n m! f k2 D and ndm (2.3) ks ŒP f k D kf k: PROOF. We first prove that lim m! ku Œƒ m f k D is equivalent to having P lim m! ndm ks Œƒ n f k2 D and to ks ŒP f k D kf k. Since ku hk D khk for any h 2 L 2.R d / and U U Œƒ n f D fs Œƒ n f; U ŒƒnC g, (2.3) ku Œƒ n f k2 D ku U Œƒ n f k2 D ks Œƒ n f k2 C ku Œƒ nc f k 2 : Summing for m n < proves that lim m! ku Œƒ m f k D is equivalent P to lim m! ndm ks Œƒ n f k2 D. Since f D U Œƒ f, summing (2.3) for n < m also proves that (2.32) kf k 2 D so m nd ks ŒP f k 2 D ks Œƒ n f k2 C ku Œƒ m f k2 ; ks Œƒ n f k2 D kf k 2 nd if and only if lim m! ku Œƒ m k D. We now prove that condition (2.27) implies that lim m! ku Œƒ m f k2 D. It relies on the following lemma, which gives a lower bound of jf? j convolved with a positive function. LEMMA 2.7. If h then for any f 2 L 2.R d / (2.33) jf? j? h sup 2R d jf?? h j with h.x/ D h.x/e ix : The lemma is proved by computing ˇˇˇˇ jf? j? h.x/ D f.v/.u v/dvˇ ˇh.x u/du ˇˇˇˇ D f.v/.u v/e i.x u/ h.x u/dvˇ ˇdu ˇ f.v/.u v/h.x u/e i.x u/ dv du ˇ D
14 344 STÉPHANE MALLAT D ˇ D ˇ f.v/.x v u /h.u /e iu du dv ˇ f.v/? h.x v/dv ˇ D jf?? h j; which finishes the lemma s proof. Appendix A uses this lemma to show that the scattering energy propagates progressively towards lower frequencies and proves the following lemma: LEMMA 2.8. If (2.28) is satisfied and (2.34) kf k 2 w D then (2.35) j D r2g C j kw Œ2 j r f k 2 < 2 ku ŒP f k 2 max. C ; /kf k 2 C kf k 2 w : PROOF. The class of functions for which kf k w < is a logarithmic Sobolev class corresponding to functions that have an average modulus of continuity in L 2.R d /. Since ku ŒP f k 2 D C md ku Œƒ m f k2 ; if kf k w < then (2.35) implies that lim m! ku Œƒ m f k D. This result is extended in L 2.R d / by density. Since 2 L.R d / and y./ D, any f 2 L 2.R d / satisfies lim n! kf f n k D, where f n D f? 2 n and 2 n.x/ D 2 nd.2 n x/. We prove that lim m! ku Œƒ m f nk 2 D by showing that kf n k w <. Indeed, kw Œ2 j r f n k 2 D jf y.!/j 2 jy.2 n!/j 2 j y.2 j r!/j 2 d! C 2 2n 2j jf y.!/j 2 d!; because has a vanishing moment so j y.!/j D O.j!j/, and the derivatives of are in L.R d / so j!j jy.!/j is bounded. Thus we have that kf n k w <. Since U Œƒ m is nonexpansive, ku Œƒ m f U Œƒm f nk kf f n k, so ku Œƒ m f k kf f nk C ku Œƒ m f nk: Since lim n! kf f n k D and lim m! ku Œƒ m f nk D, we have lim ku m! Œƒm f k2 D for any f 2 L 2.R d /.
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