DNA TM Review And EXAM Review. Ms. Martinez

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1 DNA TM Review And EXAM Review Ms. Martinez

2 1. Write out the full name for DNA molecule. Deoxyribonucleic acid

3 2. What are chromosomes? threadlike strands made of DNA and PROTEIN

4 3. What does DNA control in the cell? DNA controls the production of proteins within the cell.

5 4. What do proteins control? They control all chemical processes within the cell.

6 5. What are the repeating subunits called that make up DNA? Nucleotides

7 6. Name the 3 parts of a DNA nucleotide. Phosphate Sugar Nitrogen Base

8 7. Sketch and label a DNA nucleotide.

9 8. What makes up the sides of a DNA molecule? alternating phosphate and sugar (deoxyribose) molecules

10 9. What makes up the "steps/rungs" of a DNA molecule? 4 types of nitrogen bases (GCAT)

11 10. Name the 4 nitrogen bases on DNA. G (guanine) C (cytosine) A (adenine) T(thymine)

12 11. What are the base pairing rules for DNA? Guanine with cytosine Adenine with thymine (GCAT)

13 12. Name 2 purines. G and A GC-AT Pu/py*Pu/py

14 13. Name 2 pyrimidines. C and T GC-AT Pu/py*Pu/py

15 14. How many hydrogen bonds link cytosine & guanine? adenine & thymine? 3, 2

16 15. What is the sugar is found in DNA? Deoxyribose

17 16. List the two organelles that DNA is found in: Mitochondrion and Chloroplast

18 17. Where is DNA found in eukaryotic cells? Nucleus

19 18. Do all cells in your body contain the same DNA? YES!! (cells only transcribe those portions of genes that they need)

20 19. What is a gene? Is a segment of DNA that codes for a particular protein

21 20. What are Watson and Crick credited with discovering? Structure of DNA molecule

22 21. What did Rosalind Franklin contribute to this discovery? Her X-ray showed the helical structure of DNA!!

23 22. What is the shape of DNA? DNA has a Double Helix structure

24 23. What is an antiparallel configuration? DNA strands run in opposite directions (one side is upside down).

25 DNA Replication 24. What is the first step that must occur in DNA replication? DNA unwinds with the help of the enzyme DNA helicase.

26 25. What acts as the template in DNA replication? Parental DNA molecule

27 26. What is a replication fork? The area where the two parental DNA strands are pulled apart (unzipped area)

28 27. What enzymes help separate the 2 strands of nucleotides on DNA? What bonds do they break? DNA Helicase HYDROGEN Bonds

29 28. What is the function of DNA polymerases? They are enzymes responsible for adding nucleotides to the DNA template bases to make a new DNA molecule

30 29. If the sequence of nucleotides on the original DNA strand was ATG-ACT-A, what would be the nucleotide sequence on the complementary strand of DNA? TAC-TGA-T (Think GCAT)

31 30. Why is DNA replication considered to be semi-conservative? Because the two resulting copies of DNA, each is half original, parental DNA, and half new daughter DNA.

32 31. When replication is complete, how do the 2 new DNA molecules compare to each other? to the original DNA molecule? They are identical to each other and to the original parental molecule

33 32. When, during cell division, is DNA replicated (copied)? During the S phase of INTERPHASE

34 33. Which enzyme is responsible for adding nucleotides to the DNA template to produce new DNA strands? DNA polymerase

35 34. Which enzyme unwinds the DNA and breaks hydrogen bonds between bases during replication? DNA Helicase

36 35. What part of the cell does replication occur? Nucleus

37 36. Explain what has occurred in the figure below A-T C-G G-C C-G T-A A-T original DNA replication A-T G-C C-G T-A A-T A-T G-C C-G T-A A-T new DNA molecules Mutation a base pair was DELETED

38 RNA 37. Name the 4 nitrogen bases on RNA. G, C, A, and U

39 38. What sugar is found on RNA? Ribose

40 39. Uracil will pair with what other base on DNA? Adenine

41 40. Is RNA double or single stranded? Single stranded

42 41. Name the 3 types of RNA. mrna, rrna, trna

43 42. What parts of mrna molecules are left in and actually code for the production of proteins called? EXONS

44 Protein Synthesis/Transcription 43. What is transcription? A single strand of DNA is used as a template to generate a strand of mrna.

45 44. In which part of the cell does transcription occur? Nucleus

46 45. What is the role of the enzyme RNA polymerase? The enzyme RNA polymerase helps build mrna.

47 46. What are promoters? Certain sections of DNA code that tell the RNA polymerase where to attach to DNA and start making mrna.

48 47. Where does RNA polymerase bind to the DNA it is transcribing? On the Promoter

49 48. When a promoter binds to DNA, What happens to the double helix? It will be used to create mrna

50 49. Are both strands of DNA copied during transcription? No! Just the active strand

51 50. As RNA polymerase moves along the DNA template strand, what is being added? Free Nucleotides (GCA and U)

52 51. What bases pair with each other during transcription? DNA: G-C-A-T mrna: C-G-U-A

53 52. What is the product of transcription called? mrna molecule

54 Protein Synthesis/Translation 53. What is translation? Where trna anticodons match with mrna codons. The mrna is read and the code is used to build a protein.

55 54. In which part of the cell does translation occur? Nucleus Cytoplasm cytoplasm

56 55. What does the information coded in a DNA molecule determines the formation of? Protein

57 56. What is a long chain of amino acids connected by peptide bonds is also known as? Protein

58 57. How many different kinds of amino acids make up proteins? 20

59 58. What is the genetic code? A chart that uses a series of codons found in mrna are used to determine the correct amino acid sequence.

60 59. What is a codon? 3 nucleotides on the mrna molecule

61 60. How many codons exist? 64 =(4)3 GCAU codon

62 61. What codon sequence starts protein synthesis? AUG only if it is at the beginning of a protein.

63 62. What codons stop protein synthesis? UAA UAG UGA

64 63. Proteins are synthesized (made) at what organelle in the cytoplasm? RIBOSOME Protein RNA Ribosome

65 64. What is an anticodon? The three bases on trna

66 65. Put the following steps of protein synthesis in order. A. Polypeptides (proteins) are formed as ribosomes move along the messenger RNA strand. B. DNA molecules serve as templates for making messenger RNA molecules C. Transfer RNA molecules bring amino acids to ribosome. D. Messenger RNA molecules move to the ribosome. B, D, C, A

67 66. In what 2 places can ribosomes be found in a cell? Cytoplasm and RER

68 67. What type of bonds are the ones that attach amino acids to each other in a growing polypeptide? Peptide Bonds Polypeptide/Protein

69 68. What proteins would the translation of these mrna transcripts produce? a. AUG CAA GGA GCA UCC UAA b. AUG CCC GAU AUG AGC UGA a. START-Gln-Gly-Ala-Ser-STOP b. START-Pro-Asp-Met-Ser-STOP

70 MUTATIONS 69. What is a mutation? A natural process that produces genetic diversity. Most mutation are harmless.

71 70. List two types of mutations. Deletion, Inversion, Translocation, Duplication, Addition,

72 71. What are some possible results of a mutation? Over exposure to UV light, smoking, drinking, x-rays

73 We did it!!!

74 Exam Review

75 REVIEW What process does the diagram below show?

76 What process does the diagram below show? Protein Synthesis

77 What is the structure below?

78 What is the structure below? DNA

79 What is process X?

80 What is process X? TRANSCRIPTION

81 Where does transcription occur in the cell?

82 Where does transcription occur in the cell? Nucleus

83 What is structure D?

84 What is structure D? mrna

85 What is process Y?

86 What is process Y? TRANSLATION

87 What is the structure below?

88 What is the structure below? Polypeptide

89 ~Practice Questions~

90 Q: In eukaryotes, where is DNA found?

91 Q: In eukaryotes, where is DNA found? Nucleus

92 What are chromosomes made up of?

93 What are chromosomes made up of? DNA and Proteins

94 What is a gene?

95 What is a gene? Is a segment of DNA that codes for a particular protein

96 Q: What are Watson and Crick credited with discovering?

97 Q: What are Watson and Crick credited with discovering? Structure of the Double Helix, DNA molecule

98 Q: What did Rosalind Franklin s Photo 51 contribute to the discovery of DNA?

99 Q: What did Rosalind Franklin s Photo 51 contribute to the discovery of DNA? It showed how DNA molecules are arranged as a tightly coiled helix.

100 Q: Do all cells in your body contain the same DNA?

101 Q: Do all cells in your body contain the same DNA? YES!! (cells only transcribe those portions of genes that they need)

102 Q: What molecule is pictured below?

103 Q: What molecule is pictured below? DNA

104 Q: What is structure X?

105 Q: What is structure X? Phosphate Sugar Nucleotide Base

106 Q: What 3 parts make up a DNA nucleotide?

107 Q: What 3 parts make up a DNA nucleotide? Phosphate Sugar Base

108 Q: What are DNA s 4 bases?

109 Q: What are DNA s 4 bases? Guanine Cytosine Adenine Thymine

110 Q: What is DNA s sugar?

111 Q: What is DNA s sugar? Deoxyribose

112 Q: What are the base pairing rules for DNA?

113 Q: What are the base pairing rules for DNA? Guanine with cytosine Adenine with thymine (GCAT)

114 Q: What is the shape of DNA?

115 Q: What is the shape of DNA? Double helix

116 Q: What makes up the sides of a DNA molecule?

117 Q: What makes up the sides of a DNA molecule? alternating phosphate and sugar (deoxyribose) molecules

118 Q: What makes up the "steps/rungs" of a DNA molecule?

119 What makes up the "steps/rungs" of a DNA molecule? Complimentary Base pairs

120 Q: What are the base pairing rules for DNA?

121 What are the base pairing rules for DNA? Guanine with cytosine Adenine with thymine (GCAT)

122 Q: DNA is copied during a process called?

123 Q: DNA is copied during a process called? DNA Replication

124 Q: Why is DNA replication considered to be semi-conservative?

125 Q: Why is DNA replication considered to be semi-conservative? Because the two resulting copies of DNA, each is half original, parental DNA, and half new daughter DNA.

126 When replication is complete, how do the 2 new DNA molecules compare to each other? to the original DNA molecule?

127 When replication is complete, how do the 2 new DNA molecules compare to each other? to the original DNA molecule? They are identical to each other and to the original parental molecule

128 Q: Which of the following base pair sequence could be produced in DNA replication? a. 5 AGTCUT 3 3 TCUGTA 5 B. 5 AGTCAT 3 3 TCAGTA 3

129 Q: Which of the following base pair sequence could be produced in DNA replication? a. 5 AGTCUT 3 3 TCUGTA 5 B. 5 AGTCAT 3 3 TCAGTA 3

130 Q: Which enzyme unwinds the DNA and breaks hydrogen bonds between bases during replication?

131 Q: Which enzyme unwinds the DNA and breaks hydrogen bonds between bases during replication? DNA Helicase

132 Q: Which enzyme is responsible for adding nucleotides to the DNA template to produce new DNA strands?

133 Q: Which enzyme is responsible for adding nucleotides to the DNA template to produce new DNA strands? DNA Polymerase

134 Name the 4 nitrogen bases on RNA.

135 Name the 4 nitrogen bases on RNA. G, C, A, and U

136 What sugar is found on RNA?

137 What sugar is found on RNA? Ribose

138 Name the 3 types of RNA.

139 Name the 3 types of RNA. mrna, rrna, trna

140 Which type of RNA is shown in #2? #1? 1

141 Which type of RNA is shown in #2? mrna #1? trna 1

142 What parts of mrna molecules are left in and actually code for the production of proteins called?

143 What parts of mrna molecules are left in and actually code for the production of proteins called? EXONS

144 Q: If the DNA sequence is TAC CGA, what codons will be produced?

145 Q: If the DNA sequence is TAC CGA, what codons will be produced? DNA: TAC CGA mrna: AUG GAU

146 Q: What is the role of the enzyme RNA polymerase?

147 Q: What is the role of the enzyme RNA polymerase? The enzyme RNA polymerase helps build mrna.

148 Q: What is a long chain of amino acids connected by peptide bonds is also known as?

149 Q: What is a long chain of amino acids connected by peptide bonds is also known as? PROTEIN

150 Q: How many different kinds of amino acids make up proteins?

151 Q: How many different kinds of amino acids make up proteins? 20

152 What type of bonds are the ones that attach amino acids to each other in a growing polypeptide?

153 What type of bonds are the ones that attach amino acids to each other in a growing polypeptide? Peptide Bonds

154 A strand of mrna contains the codons UCA-AUG-GAG. Which amino acid sequence will it produce?

155 A strand of mrna contains the codons UCA-AUG-GAG. Which amino acid sequence will it produce? Ser-Met-Glu

156 Proteins are synthesized (made) at what organelle in the cytoplasm? Protein RNA Ribosome

157 Proteins are synthesized (made) at what organelle in the cytoplasm? RIBOSOMES Protein RNA Ribosome

158 When producing proteins, which is the correct sequence? a. ribosomes, mrna, DNA, protein b. DNA, mrna, ribosomes, protein

159 When producing proteins, which is the correct sequence? a. ribosomes, mrna, DNA, protein b. DNA, mrna, ribosomes, protein

160 What does the diagram below show?

161 What does the diagram below show? Types of Mutations

162 Explain what has occurred in the figure below A-T C-G G-C C-G T-A A-T replication A-T G-C C-G T-A A-T A-T G-C C-G T-A A-T original DNA new DNA molecules

163 Explain what has occurred in the figure below A-T C-G G-C C-G T-A A-T original DNA replication A-T G-C C-G T-A A-T A-T G-C C-G T-A A-T new DNA molecules Mutation a base pair was DELETED

164 STUDY!!! Exam is THIS Wednesday! This is the LAST exam (besides the Final Exam) of the semester!

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