Save this PDF as:

Size: px
Start display at page:

## Transcription

3 NPN IR Phototransistor Figure 2: BJT NPN Transistor Diagram The BPW77N NPN Phototransistor works like a typical NPN transistor, only that the current that is supplied to the Base component of the phototransistor is now powered by the infrared light it receives. The Infrared light it receives on the base of the transistor generates a low-level current that is amplified, with the resulting current flowing out through the collector-emitter junction (flowing through the C and E terminals). Figure 3 shows the circuit diagram of a phototransistor. Note that when a resistor is added to the emitter terminal, a voltage level proportional to the incident light intensity can be observed between the emitter and ground. Depending upon your system specifications, R e can have values between 500 Ohm and 1 MOhm. Part A: IR Transmitter Figure 3: Phototransistor Diagram In this lab, you will use a 555 timer integrated circuit to modulate the transmitted light, the timing of which is controlled by externally connected resistors and capacitors, as shown in Figure 4. For the IR LED, we want a resistance R that will limit the current to mA. Pin 3 on the 555IC drives the transistor and the indicator LED, and the transistor drives the IR LED. This is necessary, as the 555 cannot supply the necessary

4 current to activate the IR LED. It is necessary that the appropriate resistors are selected, in order to ensure that neither the IR LED nor the 555 chip are damaged. The period of the timer circuit is defined by the following equation: τ = 0.693*[( R 1+ R2) * CT+ R2 * CT ] Typically, we want to ensure that R2 >> R1. To make sure that R2 is not too large, R1 usually selected to be near 1KOhm. Figure 4: Astable 555 timer circuit and IR LED driver circuit. Prelab (a) 1) Choose R for a 90 ma current, assuming the voltage at the collector of the transistor is 0.3 V. 2) Choose R1, R2, and CT for an oscillation system frequency to match your assigned frequency. Ensure that you use capacitor values that are available in your lab kit. Procedure 1) Build the circuit in Figure 3 (Re = 1K or 3.3K). Connect Vout to the multimeter. Test your circuit what happens when you: a) obstruct the phototransistor with your hand; b) partially block the overhead lights using your body c) point the phototransistor at the room lights. Record your observations.

7 Figure 6: Bandpass Amplifier and Transfer Function

8 Active High Pass Filter Design Equations Prelab (c): Procedure 1) Design the bandpass filter for your assigned system frequency. First select your capacitance, and then select the appropriate resistors. Choose a capacitance such that R1 is at least 500 Ohms. 1) Build the bandpass filter. 2) Finding the peak frequency of your bandpass filter and tuning your filter and transmitter to the same frequency is one of the most critical and important parts of your design project. The best way to do this is to disconnect the bandpass filter from the first two stages and use the sine wave output of your signal generator as the input of your bandpass filter. Set the function generator at the frequency of the square waveform produced by the 555 timer. (Make sure that you reduce the amplitude from the signal generator so that you don t overdrive and saturate your bandpass stage.) Put a potentiometer in the bandpass circuit (R3) to tune your bandpass center frequency at the frequency of the square waveform. Tune the transmitter by varying R3 until the amplitude of the ouput sinusoidal wave is maximized.

9 3) Reconnect the bandpass stage to the rest of the circuit. Test your circuit while moving your transmitter closer and away from the receiver. Describe what occurs. Do you see any clipping in your output? If so, what could be causing it? Rectifier (Fourth Block) While most of the signal s noise has been eliminated thus far, it is still an AC signal. The following components of this project will allow us to detect the signal and turn on our LED light circuit. Unfortunately, not much can be done with an AC signal, as it would constantly turn our light circuit on and off. As such, we need to transform our AC signal into a DC source. We can do this using a Rectifier/Lowpass circuit, as described below in Figure 7. Figure 7: Rectifier and Lowpass Filter The rectifier component allows us to rectify the signal, ensuring that we only receive positive values of the signal. Because this signal still varies around the transmitted frequency, we will add a lowpass filter in order to preserve just the DC component of the signal. When building the rectifier, please note that the rectifier has a gain of R2/R1. This can be used to further amplify the signal, if desired. Reasonable resistances for the rectifier circuit are between 1 and 100 kω, and reasonable values to try for the gain range from 3 on up depending on your noise level. Prelab (d) 1) Design a rectifier with a gain of approximately 6

10 Procedure 1) Build the rectifier circuit with your desired gain. Observe the input and output waveforms and make note of them. Is the circuit operating as expected? Vary the amount of transmitted light reaching the receiver and comment on the variations in the output waveform. Is it clipped for high light intensities? Lowpass Filter (Fifth Block) As in the other filters, the lowpass filter uses a resistor and a capacitor to define an RC time constant. The circuit diagram is shown in Figure 7. In this case the time constant is given by R 4 C, and the associated cutoff frequency is 1/(2πR 4 C). At this point in the circuit you want the filter to be very effective in removing the modulation frequency, so the cutoff frequency should be set quite low. If it is set too low, the response of the circuit to a transmitted signal will be slow, on the order of the reciprocal of the cutoff frequency, so 5R 4 C should not be more than about 0.5 second. Because of the capacitors that are available you will probably want to use a large resistor (around 1 MΩ) for R 4. The gain for low frequency signals is set by the ratio R 4 /R 3. Prelab (e) Procedure 1) Design a lowpass filter with a cutoff frequency of between 5 and 20 Hz (your choice) and a low frequency gain of 4 1) Build the lowpass filter. Observe the input and output waveforms on the oscilloscope and make note of them. Is the circuit operating as expected? Again, vary the distance between the transmitter and receiver and record any variations on the output waveform. End of First Part of the Project Second Part of the Project In this part of the project, a comparator will be added to give the circuit the ability to decide whether a signal is present or not. We will then use a flip-flop circuit to toggle the output between on and off with subsequent transmissions. This flip-flop circuit is necessary as it enables us to change whether we turn on or off our LED light circuit with the press of a button, enabling the circuit to only respond to our constructed transmitter. These types of circuits are called sequential logic circuits, and will be further studied in future courses.

11 Comparator (Sixth Block) The comparator circuit is a type of circuit that allows us to compare the value of two voltages. The comparator works by outputting a high voltage if the + input voltage is larger than the input voltage, and a low voltage if the input voltage is larger than the + input voltage. The operation of the first five blocks of the circuit (through the lowpass filter) should give you an output signal that is near zero volts when no transmitted signal is present, and that becomes more negative when a transmitted signal is present. Using this signal as an input to the negative (-) input of the comparator should result in a high output from the comparator when a signal is present and a low signal otherwise, provided that the reference voltage is set properly. Figure 8: Comparator circuit using LM393 comparator chip and positive feedback (adjustable R) A resistor (the 4.7 kω resistor) is used to pull the output up to the high logic level voltage (which in this case is ground or 0 V). Therefore the comparator circuit here has possible outputs of 0V and -12V. The 50 kω potentiometer provides the reference voltage to set the detection threshold. The feedback resistor, R, provides the positive feedback seen in Figure 8. This positive feedback gives the circuit hysteresis, which makes the input voltage level required to turn off the circuit to be different from the one required to turn it on. This is useful, as it allows us to ignore the high frequency noise component still present in our signal. This noise could force the circuit to turn on and off undesirably, as the highly variable noise causes the circuit to constantly increase and decrease below a set threshold voltage. However, with hysteresis, once the circuit is triggered by the input voltage, the reference voltage is changed by the feedback resistor so that switching it back to another state requires a larger change in the input, making the circuit impervious to small amounts of noise. Figure 9 illustrates best how hysteresis improves the circuit.

12 Figure 9: The input and output voltage of the comparator as a function of time, with and without hysteresis caused by positive feedback. Smaller feedback resistance R will cause a larger shift of V ref when the output switches initially. Procedure 1) Build the comparator circuit described in Figure 8. Reasonable values for R range from 100kΩ to a few MΩ. Adjust the potentiometer so that the comparator is switched by the transmitted signal, but not the noise. The function of R is to prevent spurious switching of the comparator by noise at the input, as discussed above. If R is too large, you may see unwanted switching; if R is too small, it will reduce the sensitivity of your circuit. 2) Test your circuit by turning your transmitter on and off. What is the size of the DC component of the noise signal at the input of the comparator? (This may vary depending on the amount of stray light that is present). Can you observe an ac component? (If not, it does not mean none is present.). 3) Try different values of R, and describe how you decide which value to use. What value of R did you finally choose? This value of R should give you two reference voltages at the + input to the comparator, depending on the state of the output this is what produces the hysteresis. Measured and write down the values of the reference voltage (+ input to comparator at Pin 3) with: a) the output high, and b) the output low. How large is the difference between V ref1 and V ref2? How does this compare with the noise level of your signal at the input to the comparator?

13 The flip-flop (Seventh Block) In this part of the project, a flip-flop will be added so that with each transmitted pulse, the LED circuit will change its state from ON to OFF, and vice versa. The operation of the flip-flop circuit shown in Figure 10 is as follows. The set and reset lines are held low because we will not use them in this circuit. With each positive transition of Vin (once for each pulse) the logic level present on the data line is transferred to the output Q. Q bar (which is normally written as a Q with a bar on top) is the complementary logic level, and is connected to the data line. Since the logic level transferred is the original level on the data line, this means that for every pulse of Vin from the comparator, Q and Q bar will change logic levels as desired. Procedure Figure 10: Flip-flop wiring diagram. The input comes from the comparator 1) Connect the flip-flop shown in Figure 4 to the output of the comparator in your circuit to provide an on/off latch for your circuit. We will connect the comparator output to the clock input, thus toggling the lamp from on to off, and vice versa, every time the comparator output goes high, which should be every time the transmitter button is pushed. 2) After completing the wiring, test the operation of the circuit using your IR transmitter, and debug the circuit if necessary. Verify that the output toggles from high to low each time the transmit button is pushed. Correct operation of this part of the circuit depends on the setting of the reference level on the comparator and on the feedback resistor on the comparator, in addition to

14 correct wiring of the flip-flop, so you may have to tune the comparator circuit for proper operation. LED Circuit (Eight Block) Procedure Figure 11: LED Circuit 1) Select the resistor R such that the current flowing through it is at least 20 ma. 2) Connect the rest of the circuit to the LED diode circuit, using the output of the flip-flop circuit as the input to your LED circuit. Make any further refinements and modifications to your circuit. 3) Ensure that you can get a range of at least 10 ft. between your transmitter and receiver.

### Lab 3. Transistor and Logic Gates

Lab 3. Transistor and Logic Gates Laboratory Instruction Today you will learn how to use a transistor to amplify a small AC signal as well as using it as a switch to construct digital logic circuits. Introduction

### The NPN Transistor Bias and Switching

The NPN Transistor Bias and Switching Transistor Linear Amplifier Equipment Oscilloscope Function Generator (FG) Bread board 9V Battery and leads Resistors:, 10 kω, Capacitors: ( 2) NPN Transistor Potentiometer

### 1. Learn about the 555 timer integrated circuit and applications 2. Apply the 555 timer to build an infrared (IR) transmitter and receiver

Electronics Exercise 2: The 555 Timer and its Applications Mechatronics Instructional Laboratory Woodruff School of Mechanical Engineering Georgia Institute of Technology Lab Director: I. Charles Ume,

### Experiment # (7) FSK Modulator

Islamic University of Gaza Faculty of Engineering Electrical Department Experiment # (7) FSK Modulator Digital Communications Lab. Prepared by: Eng. Mohammed K. Abu Foul Experiment Objectives: 1. To understand

ECE 2C Laboratory Manual 5 Infrared PWM Receiver Overview In this lab you will construct the receiver circuit to complement the PWM transmitter board you assembled last week. This receiver detects, amplifies,

### Lab 9: Op Amps Lab Assignment

3 class days 1. Differential Amplifier Source: Hands-On chapter 8 (~HH 6.1) Lab 9: Op Amps Lab Assignment Difference amplifier. The parts of the pot on either side of the slider serve as R3 and R4. The

### Chapter 12. Common Switching Functional Blocks

Chapter 12 Common Switching Functional Blocks Voltage Comparators In many applications, it is necessary to cause a digital switching action when an analog voltage rises above or drops below some value.

### 555 Timers Astable Operation Cornerstone Electronics Technology and Robotics II

555 Timers Astable Operation Cornerstone Electronics Technology and Robotics II For 555 Timers Introduction, see: http://cornerstonerobotics.org/curriculum/lessons_year2/erii5_555_timer.pdf For 555 Timers

### EXERCISES in ELECTRONICS and SEMICONDUCTOR ENGINEERING

Department of Electrical Drives and Power Electronics EXERCISES in ELECTRONICS and SEMICONDUCTOR ENGINEERING Valery Vodovozov and Zoja Raud http://learnelectronics.narod.ru Tallinn 2012 2 Contents Introduction...

### The 555 timer: Waveform shaping

The 555 timer: Waveform shaping Introduction: Oscillators are ubiquitous not only in research environments but also in our modern, technology-oriented society. Oscillators are used for communication, timing

### Lab #2: Capacitors and the 555 Timer

1 Introduction Lab #2: Capacitors and the 555 Timer The goal of this lab is to introduce capacitors in their role as elements of timing circuits and to convert an analog oscillation into a digital oscillation

### SOUND ACTIVATED SWITCH

EE-389 Electronic Design Lab-II Project Report, EE Dept, IIT Bombay, submitted on 02-12-2005. SOUND ACTIVATED SWITCH Group No. D15 Mamidipally Chandrasekhar (96D07008) Supervisor:

### Notes. Astable and Monostable Multivibrator Trainer NV6507. Operating Manual Ver 1.1

Notes Astable and Monostable Multivibrator Trainer Operating Manual Ver 1.1 Nvis Technologies 20 141-B, Electronic Complex, Pardeshipura, Indore- 452 010 India Tel.: 91-731- 4211500 Email: info@nvistech.com

### Special notes: The transistors we ll use are in a TO-92 package; the leads are arranged like this:

Lab 4: Bipolar transistors and transistor circuits Objectives: investigate the current-amplifying properties of a transistor build a follower and investigate its properties (especially impedances) build

### The 2N3393 Bipolar Junction Transistor

The 2N3393 Bipolar Junction Transistor Common-Emitter Amplifier Aaron Prust Abstract The bipolar junction transistor (BJT) is a non-linear electronic device which can be used for amplification and switching.

### Lab 8: Basic Filters: Low- Pass and High Pass

Lab 8: Basic Filters: Low- Pass and High Pass Names: 1.) 2.) 3.) Beginning Challenge: Build the following circuit. Charge the capacitor by itself, and then discharge it through the inductor. Measure the

### Pulse Width Modulation (PWM) LED Dimmer Circuit. Using a 555 Timer Chip

Pulse Width Modulation (PWM) LED Dimmer Circuit Using a 555 Timer Chip Goals of Experiment Demonstrate the operation of a simple PWM circuit that can be used to adjust the intensity of a green LED by varying

### Lab 8: Basic Filters: Low- Pass and High Pass

Lab 8: Basic Filters: Low- Pass and High Pass Names: 1.) 2.) 3.) Objectives: 1. Show students how circuits can have frequency- dependent resistance, and that many everyday signals are made up of many frequencies.

1 of 12 BEFORE YOU BEGIN PREREQUISITE LABS Passive and Active Filters Lab Fourier Transforms Lab Introduction to Oscilloscope Introduction to Arbitrary/Function Generator EXPECTED KNOWLEDGE Laplace transform

### Part 2: Receiver and Demodulator

University of Pennsylvania Department of Electrical and Systems Engineering ESE06: Electrical Circuits and Systems II Lab Amplitude Modulated Radio Frequency Transmission System Mini-Project Part : Receiver

### PH 210 Electronics Laboratory I Instruction Manual

PH 210 Electronics Laboratory I Instruction Manual Index Page No General Instructions 2 Experiment 1 Common Emitter (CE) Amplifier 4 Experiment 2 Multistage amplifier: Cascade of two CE stages 7 Experiment

### A Constant-current Source

A Constant-current Source Frequently, such as when you want to measure temperature with a silicon diode, it is desirable to have a source of a reproducible, constant current. Many laboratory power supplies

### Experiment No. 10 DIGITAL CIRCUIT DESIGN

Experiment No. 10 DIGITAL CIRCUIT DESIGN 1. Objective: The objective of this experiment is to study three fundamental digital circuits. These three circuits form the basis of all other digital circuits,

### Filters and Waveform Shaping

Physics 333 Experiment #3 Fall 211 Filters and Waveform Shaping Purpose The aim of this experiment is to study the frequency filtering properties of passive (R, C, and L) circuits for sine waves, and the

### Design and Construction of a Remote Controlled Power Supply Unit

Leonardo Journal of Sciences ISSN 1583-0233 Issue 11, July-December 2007 p. 41-50 Design and Construction of a Remote Controlled Power Supply Unit Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Federal

### Project: Pulse meter Idea: Use noninvasive infrared light to probe blood pressure and pulse rate in a finger tip. Uses: A variant of this device is

Project: Pulse meter Idea: Use noninvasive infrared light to probe blood pressure and pulse rate in a finger tip. Uses: A variant of this device is used routinely in hospitals and is called a pulse-oximeter.

### CMOY Headphone Project Electronic Lab Phys 318

Project Overview There are two kinds of circuits that need to be built for the headphone amplifier project. ) A power circuit 2) Two amplifier circuits You will build one of each of these circuits on a

### The George Washington University School of Engineering and Applied Science Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering

The George Washington University School of Engineering and Applied Science Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering Final Design Report Dual Channel Stereo Amplifier By: Kristen Gunia Prepared

### Chapter 13: Comparators

Chapter 13: Comparators So far, we have used op amps in their normal, linear mode, where they follow the op amp Golden Rules (no input current to either input, no voltage difference between the inputs).

### Data Conversion and Lab Lab 4 Fall Digital to Analog Conversions

Digital to Analog Conversions Objective o o o o o To construct and operate a binary-weighted DAC To construct and operate a Digital to Analog Converters Testing the ADC and DAC With DC Input Testing the

### Finite State Machine Lab

Finite State Machine Module: Lab Procedures Goal: The goal of this experiment is to reinforce state machine concepts by having students design and implement a state machine using simple chips and a protoboard.

### Laboratory Exercise. Amplitude Modulation and Demodulation

Laboratory Exercise Amplitude Modulation and Demodulation In this lab you will study electronics for amplitude modulation, and two different techniques for demodulation. Introduction All analog and many

### Analog & Digital Electronics Course No: PH-218

Analog & Digital Electronics Course No: PH-218 Lec-18: Multivibrators Course Instructor: Dr. A. P. VAJPEYI Department of Physics, Indian Institute of Technology Guwahati, India 1 Multivibrators A MULTIVIBRATOR

### The 555 Timer IC. Pin Name Purpose. 1 GND Ground reference voltage, low level (0 V)

The 555 Timer IC The 555 timer IC is an integrated circuit (chip) used in a variety of timer, pulse generation, and oscillator applications. The 555 can be used to provide time delays, as an oscillator,

### ELECTRON AND CURRENT FLOW

Lecture 2. Transistors ELECTRON AND CURRENT FLOW When electrons were discovered and were found to flow through a wire, early investigators believed they flowed from a higher potential to a lower one, similar

### Transistor Characteristics and Single Transistor Amplifier Sept. 8, 1997

Physics 623 Transistor Characteristics and Single Transistor Amplifier Sept. 8, 1997 1 Purpose To measure and understand the common emitter transistor characteristic curves. To use the base current gain

### 555 TIMER ASTABLE KIT

ESSENTIAL INFORMATION BUILD INSTRUCTIONS CHECKING YOUR PCB & FAULT-FINDING MECHANICAL DETAILS HOW THE KIT WORKS INVESTIGATE THE 555 TIMER CHIP WITH THIS 555 TIMER ASTABLE KIT Version 2.0 Build Instructions

### Exercise 4 - Broadband transistor amplifier

ANALOG ELECTRONIC CIRCUITS Laboratory work Exercise 4 - Broadband transistor amplifier Task 1: Design a broadband amplifier using a bipolar NPN transistor in a common emitter orientation. For input signal

### Stepper Motor Driver (74194)

Stepper Motor Driver (74194) This page features an inexpensive stepper motor driver that could be used to power slow speed projects on the layout or other hobby applications. Based on the SN74LS194 - Bidirectional

### LINEAR INTEGRATED CIRCUITS (LIC s) LABORATORY MANUAL III / IV B.E (ECE), I - SEMESTER

LINEAR INTEGRATED CIRCUITS (LIC s) LABORATORY MANUAL III / IV B.E (ECE), I - SEMESTER DEPARTMENT OF ELECTRONICS AND COMMUNICATION ENGINEERING SIR C.R.REDDY COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING ELURU 534 007 LINEAR IC

### DIODE CIRCUITS LABORATORY. Fig. 8.1a Fig 8.1b

DIODE CIRCUITS LABORATORY A solid state diode consists of a junction of either dissimilar semiconductors (pn junction diode) or a metal and a semiconductor (Schottky barrier diode). Regardless of the type,

### EE 311: Electrical Engineering Junior Lab Active Filter Design (Sallen-Key Filter)

EE 311: Electrical Engineering Junior Lab Active Filter Design (Sallen-Key Filter) Objective The purpose of this experiment is to design a set of second-order Sallen-Key active filters and to investigate

### Fourier Series Analysis

School of Engineering Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering 332:224 Principles of Electrical Engineering II aboratory Experiment 6 Fourier Series Analysis 1 Introduction Objectives The aim

### Class A Amplifier Design

Module 2 Amplifiers Introduction to Amplifier Design What you ll learn in Module 2. Basic design process. Section 2.0 Introduction to Amplifier Design. Section 2.1 DC Conditions. Design a BJT class A common

### CHAPTER 5. Voltage Regulator

CHAPTER 5 Voltage Regulator In your robot, the energy is derived from batteries. Specifically, there are two sets of batteries wired up to act as voltage sources; a 9V battery, and two 1.5V batteries in

### Chapter 6: Transistors and Gain

I. Introduction Chapter 6: Transistors and Gain This week we introduce the transistor. Transistors are three-terminal devices that can amplify a signal and increase the signal s power. The price is that

### Lab 4 Op Amp Filters

Lab 4 Op Amp Filters Figure 4.0. Frequency Characteristics of a BandPass Filter Adding a few capacitors and resistors to the basic operational amplifier (op amp) circuit can yield many interesting analog

### Chapter 3 Pulse Width Modulator

Chapter 3 Pulse Width Modulator Pulse Width Modulator 3-1: Curriculum Objectives 1. To implement the pulse width modulator by using µa741. 2. To understand the characteristics and basic circuit of LM555.

### Figure 2: Diode Markings

Cornerstone Electronics Technology and Robotics I Week 8 Transistors and Comparators Administration: o Prayer Semiconductor Diodes: o Semiconductor Diode Symbol: Figure 1: Diode Symbol o Diode Markings:

### BME 3512 Biomedical Electronics Laboratory Three - Diode (1N4001)

BME 3512 Biomedical Electronics Laboratory Three Diode () Learning Objectives: Understand the concept of PN junction diodes, their application as rectifiers, the nature and application of halfwave and

### Content Map For Career & Technology

Content Strand: Applied Academics CT-ET1-1 analysis of electronic A. Fractions and decimals B. Powers of 10 and engineering notation C. Formula based problem solutions D. Powers and roots E. Linear equations

### LAB 6 BIPOLAR TRANSISTORS AND AMPLIFIERS

LAB 6 BIPOLAR TRANSISTORS AND AMPLIFIERS Objective In this experiment you will study the i-v characteristics of an npn bipolar junction transistor. You will bias the transistor at an appropriate point

### ENGR 210 Lab 10 RC Oscillators and Measurements Purpose: In a previous lab you measured the exponential response of RC circuits.

ENGR 210 Lab 10 RC Oscillators and Measurements Purpose: In a previous lab you measured the exponential response of RC circuits. Typically, the exponential time response of a circuit becomes important

### Lab 2 Intro to Digital Logic and Transistors

University of Pennsylvania Department of Electrical and Systems Engineering ESE 111 Intro to ESE Lab 2 Intro to Digital Logic and Transistors Introduction: Up until now, everything that you have done has

### Phototransistor Switching Time Analysis

A p p l i c at i o n Note AN3009 Phototransistor Switching Time Analysis Authors: Van N. Tran Staff Application Engineer, CEL Opto Semiconductors Robert Stuart, CEL Product Marketing Manager Hardik Bhavsar,

### IC VOLTAGE REGULATORS

IC VOLTAGE REGULATORS A voltage regulator is one of the most widely used electronic circuitry in any device. A regulated voltage (without fluctuations & noise levels) is very important for the smooth functioning

### AM Modulator. Experiment theory: Experiment # (3) Islamic University of Gaza Faculty of Engineering Electrical Department

Islamic University of Gaza Faculty of Engineering Electrical Department Experiment # (3) AM Modulator Communications Engineering I (Lab.) Prepared by: Eng. Omar A. Qarmout Eng. Mohammed K. Abu Foul Experiment

### Bipolar Transistor Amplifiers

Physics 3330 Experiment #7 Fall 2005 Bipolar Transistor Amplifiers Purpose The aim of this experiment is to construct a bipolar transistor amplifier with a voltage gain of minus 25. The amplifier must

### Laboratory 1 Ohm's Law

Laboratory 1 Ohm's Law Key Concepts: Measuring resistance, DC voltage and DC current Investigating Ohmic (I = V/R) and non-ohmic components Equipment Needed: Digital Multimeter (2) Variable DC power supply

### CHAPTER 16 OSCILLATORS

CHAPTER 16 OSCILLATORS 16-1 THE OSCILLATOR - are electronic circuits that generate an output signal without the necessity of an input signal. - It produces a periodic waveform on its output with only the

### 12 Converting Between Digital and Analog

12 CONVERTING BETWEEN DIGITAL AND ANALOG 12 Converting Between Digital and Analog For many applications, it is necessary to convert analog signals from a circuit or sensor to digital signals that can be

### Generating Common Waveforms Using the LM555, Operational Amplifiers, and Transistors

Generating Common Waveforms Using the LM555, Operational Amplifiers, and Transistors Kenneth Young November 16, 2012 I. Abstract The generation of precise waveforms may be needed within any circuit design.

### Comparators, positive feedback, and relaxation oscillators

Experiment 4 Introductory Electronics Laboratory Comparators, positive feedback, and relaxation oscillators THE SCHMITT TIGGE AND POSITIVE FEEDBACK 4-2 The op-amp as a comparator... 4-2 Using positive

### See Horenstein 4.3 and 4.4

EE 462: Laboratory # 4 DC Power Supply Circuits Using Diodes by Drs. A.V. Radun and K.D. Donohue (2/14/07) Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering University of Kentucky Lexington, KY 40506 Updated

### Bipolar Transistor Amplifiers

Physics 3330 Experiment #7 Fall 2013 Bipolar Transistor Amplifiers Purpose The aim of this experiment is to construct a bipolar transistor amplifier with a voltage gain of minus 25. The amplifier must

### Physics 623 Transistor Characteristics and Single Transistor Amplifier Sept. 13, 2006

Physics 623 Transistor Characteristics and Single Transistor Amplifier Sept. 13, 2006 1 Purpose To measure and understand the common emitter transistor characteristic curves. To use the base current gain

### The OpEL will close at 4:30PM on Thursday Nov 8. Week 9 is due next Wed (Nov 7) as usual. The make-up lab (photoflash) is due Wed Nov 14.

The OpEL will close at 4:30PM on Thursday Nov 8. Week 9 is due next Wed (Nov 7) as usual. The make-up lab (photoflash) is due Wed Nov 14. 1 As an Astable Multivibrator 2 3 An integrated chip that is used

### Smart Lighting Controller!!

Smart Lighting Controller!! 1! Smart lighting! No need to spend energy lighting the room if!» It s already bright enough from natural light!» There s nobody in the room! Idea is to detect these things,

### Transistor Amplifiers

Physics 3330 Experiment #7 Fall 1999 Transistor Amplifiers Purpose The aim of this experiment is to develop a bipolar transistor amplifier with a voltage gain of minus 25. The amplifier must accept input

### 3-Digit Counter and Display

ECE 2B Winter 2007 Lab #7 7 3-Digit Counter and Display This final lab brings together much of what we have done in our lab experiments this quarter to construct a simple tachometer circuit for measuring

### IMPLEMENTATION OF AUTOMATIC SOLAR STREET LIGHT CONTROL CIRCUIT

IMPLEMENTATION OF AUTOMATIC SOLAR STREET LIGHT CONTROL CIRCUIT Malik Sameeullah B.Tech (Electrical engineering) Department of Electrical Engineering Jamia Millia Islamia New Delhi-110025 malik_sameeullah@rediffmail.com

### ARRL Morse Code Oscillator, How It Works By: Mark Spencer, WA8SME

The national association for AMATEUR RADIO ARRL Morse Code Oscillator, How It Works By: Mark Spencer, WA8SME This supplement is intended for use with the ARRL Morse Code Oscillator kit, sold separately.

### LABORATORY 2 THE DIFFERENTIAL AMPLIFIER

LABORATORY 2 THE DIFFERENTIAL AMPLIFIER OBJECTIVES 1. To understand how to amplify weak (small) signals in the presence of noise. 1. To understand how a differential amplifier rejects noise and common

### Collector I C. Base I B I E. Emitter. NPN transistor

ECE 2210 A.Stolp 3/25/00 rev, 11/21/06 Imagine, if you will, a hydraulic device where the flow in a small pipe controls a valve in a larger pipe. The greater the flow in the small pipe the more it opens

### Generation of Square and Rectangular Waveforms Using Astable Multivibrators

Generation of Square and Rectangular Waveforms Using Astable Multivibrators A square waveform can be generated by arranging for a bistable multivibrator to switch states periodically. his can be done by

### EXPERIMENT 4:- MEASUREMENT OF REACTANCE OFFERED BY CAPACITOR IN DIFFERENT FREQUENCY FOR R-C CIRCUIT

Kathmandu University Department of Electrical and Electronics Engineering BASIC ELECTRICAL LAB (ENGG 103) EXPERIMENT 4:- MEASUREMENT OF REACTANCE OFFERED BY CAPACITOR IN DIFFERENT FREQUENCY FOR R-C CIRCUIT

### Lab 1: The Bipolar Junction Transistor (B.J.T): D.C. and ac Operation.

Lab 1: The Bipolar Junction Transistor (B.J.T): D.C. and ac Operation. Schedule For This Lab: Week 1: Week 2: Report BJT D.C. Characteristics and the Current Mirror. BJT A.C. Characteristics. Your report

### Infrared Beacon for Robotics. Circuit Schematics

Infrared Beacon for Robotics This project is an Infrared (IR) beacon for use in some robotics games and competitions. It emits an IR signal at 1200Hz (adjustable ±200Hz) suitable for some IR sensors in

### 1. Measure the characteristics of an emitter follower circuit. 2. Construct and analyze a voltage regulator circuit for a solar panel.

Experiment 3 The Transistor Objectives 1. Measure the characteristics of an emitter follower circuit. 2. Construct and analyze a voltage regulator circuit for a solar panel. Equipment 1. 1 2N2222 NPN bipolar

### Electronic Instrumentation ENGR-4300 Experiment 6. Experiment 6 Electronic Switching

Experiment 6 Electronic Switching Purpose: In this experiment we will discuss ways in which analog devices can be used to create binary signals. Binary signals can take on only two states: high and low.

### Voltage Divider and Power Prac

Name: Teacher: Voltage Divider and Power Prac Part 1: Simple voltage divider incorporating a NTC Thermistor Figure 1 represents a simple voltage divider using a NTC thermistor. +5V 22k T h e r m i s t

### TRANSISTOR AMPLIFIERS AET 8. First Transistor developed at Bell Labs on December 16, 1947

AET 8 First Transistor developed at Bell Labs on December 16, 1947 Objective 1a Identify Bipolar Transistor Amplifier Operating Principles Overview (1) Dynamic Operation (2) Configurations (3) Common Emitter

### Programmable Single-/Dual-/Triple- Tone Gong SAE 800

Programmable Single-/Dual-/Triple- Tone Gong Preliminary Data SAE 800 Bipolar IC Features Supply voltage range 2.8 V to 18 V Few external components (no electrolytic capacitor) 1 tone, 2 tones, 3 tones

### Electronic Instrumentation Project 3 Build an Astable Multivibrator Experiment 8 Diodes

Electronic Instrumentation Project 3 Build an Astable Multivibrator Experiment 8 Diodes www.rpi.edu/~sawyes/courses Agenda Review Experiment 7: Flip Flops Review: Steps to understanding the 555 Timer RC

### Amplitude Modulation Transmitter Design

Amplitude Modulation Transmitter Design LAB 5 Introduction The motivation behind this project is to design, implement, and test an Amplitude Modulation (AM) Transmitter. The Transmitter consists of a Balanced

### Multi-Stage Amplifiers

Experiment-4 Multi-Stage Amplifiers Introduction The objectives of this experiment are to examine the characteristics of several multi-stage amplifier configurations. Several of these will be breadboarded

### EE320L Electronics I. Laboratory. Laboratory Exercise #10. Frequency Response of BJT Amplifiers. Angsuman Roy

EE320L Electronics I Laboratory Laboratory Exercise #10 Frequency Response of BJT Amplifiers By Angsuman Roy Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering University of Nevada, Las Vegas Objective:

### LAB 7 MOSFET CHARACTERISTICS AND APPLICATIONS

LAB 7 MOSFET CHARACTERISTICS AND APPLICATIONS Objective In this experiment you will study the i-v characteristics of an MOS transistor. You will use the MOSFET as a variable resistor and as a switch. BACKGROUND

### Ultrasound Distance Measurement

Final Project Report E3390 Electronic Circuits Design Lab Ultrasound Distance Measurement Yiting Feng Izel Niyage Asif Quyyum Submitted in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the Bachelor of Science

### Physics Electronics Temple University, Fall C. J. Martoff, Instructor. Lab Exercise 2: 555 Timer Chip Oscillators

Physics 430 - Electronics Temple University, Fall 2009-0. J. Martoff, Instructor Objectives: Lab Exercise 2: 555 Timer hip Oscillators Apply basic ideas of voltage dividers and R circuits to control an

### Lecture 3: Transistors

Lecture 3: Transistors Now that we know about diodes, let s put two of them together, as follows: collector base emitter n p n moderately doped lightly doped, and very thin heavily doped At first glance,

### Design the prototype (Week 2 3) 2010 Oregon State University ECE 323 Manual Page 15

SECTION TWO Design the prototype (Week 2 3) 2010 Oregon State University ECE 323 Manual Page 15 SECTION OVERVIEW In this section, you will design the schematic for your prototype USB powered audio amplifier.

### BASIC ELECTRONICS PROF. T.S. NATARAJAN DEPT OF PHYSICS IIT MADRAS

BASIC ELECTRONICS PROF. T.S. NATARAJAN DEPT OF PHYSICS IIT MADRAS LECTURE-12 TRANSISTOR BIASING Emitter Current Bias Thermal Stability (RC Coupled Amplifier) Hello everybody! In our series of lectures

### ELEC 2020 EXPERIMENT 6 Zener Diodes and LED's

ELEC 2020 EXPERIMENT 6 Zener Diodes and LED's Objectives: The experiments in this laboratory exercise will provide an introduction to diodes. You will use the Bit Bucket breadboarding system to build and

### Bipolar Junction Transistors. Online Resource for ETCH 213 Faculty: B. Allen

Bipolar Junction Transistors Transistor types NPN Transistor A thin, highly doped p-type region (base) is sandwiched between two n-type regions (emitter and collector). PNP Transistor A thin, highly doped

### INTEGRATED CIRCUITS LAB MANUAL EEC-551

INTEGRATED CIRCUITS LAB MANUAL EEC-551 DEPARTMENT OF ELECTRONICS AND COMMUNICATION ENGINEERING 27, Knowledge Park-III, Greater Noida, (U.P.) Phone : 0120-2323854-58 website :- www.dronacharya.info CONTENTS

### Chapter 5 System Timing

LED Array Scope, Part 2 Chap 5: Page 1 L.E.D. Oscilloscope Learn Electronics by Doing - Theory is pretty thin stuff until it s mixed with experience.- Chapter 5 System Timing To be able to sweep the dot

### LABORATORY WORK BOOK For The Course EL-236 Amplifiers and Oscillators

LABORATORY WORK BOOK For The Course EL-236 Amplifiers and Oscillators Name : Roll No. : Batch Year Dept. : : : Department of Electronic Engineering N.E.D. University of Engineering & Technology, Karachi