# GLOLAB Two Wire Stepper Motor Positioner

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1 Introduction A simple and inexpensive way to remotely rotate a display or object is with a positioner that uses a stepper motor to rotate it. The motor is driven by a circuit mounted near the motor and by a control circuit at a remote location. Power for the motor and its driver circuit and for the signals that control the speed and direction of the motor are all carried over a single two conductor cable. This is a device that will remotely position an object on command to any desired rotation at an adjustable speed in small steps. The object can then be left in that position until a different rotation is desired or it may be continuously rotated in steps. How it works Motors Almost any two phase (sometimes called four phase) unipolar stepper motor with a voltage rating of from 9 to 4 volts and a current rating of 900 milliamps or less may be used. A unipolar motor has two center tapped windings with six leads and has its voltage and either its current or resistance marked on the nameplate. Another motor characteristic is its stepping angle which is also marked on the nameplate. An angle of.8 degrees or less is preferred because each step is smaller but 7.5 degrees or even more can be used. Although many surplus motors come without a wiring diagram, you can easily find the correct connections with an ohmmeter. Figure is a diagram of a typical stepper motor. The winding resistance will be a few hundred ohms or less. To find the center tap first measure between any two leads. If you measure an open circuit try again until you get a reading and then record its value. Number these leads and. Connect the meter to lead and a lead other than until you get another reading and then number it. If this value is the same as the - value then lead number is the center tap. If it is twice the - value then lead number is the center tap. Make a note of which lead is the center tap as this lead will be connected to the power. Repeat the above procedure for the remaining leads numbering them 4, 5 and 6 to find the center tap of the second winding. The motor voltage is not very critical. A lower than rated voltage may be used with a resulting lower torque. You should expect your stepper motors to run very warm or even hot because power is applied to two windings at all times. You may have seen specifications or applications that use a resistor in series with the center tap of each winding. Their purpose is to maintain a more constant torque at high speeds and are not necessary for low speed operation. When resistors are used, a higher than rated voltage is applied and the excess voltage is dropped across the resistor. At high speed as the motor impedance increases more voltage drops across the motor and less across the resistor to maintain a more constant torque. A constant current driver circuit would do the same thing. Control circuit Figure is a diagram of the control circuit built on a.45 X.8 inch PC board. IC is an LMC555 CMOS timer that generates a 00 microsecond wide clock pulses to step the motor and control its speed. The speed can be varied by changing the pulse repetition rate with R. The negative going clock pulses at pin of IC drive the gate of Q, an IRL50N power FET that momentarily turns OFF and disconnects the driver board from ground. These power interruption sends pulses to the motor driver circuits that cause the motor to step. Motor speed is controlled by the rate of the interruptions and direction is controlled by the polarity of the voltage applied to the driver circuit through interconnect lines L

2 and L. Bipolar MPSA05 NPN transistor Q and MPSA55 PNP transistors Q and Q4 invert the pulse from pin and pull the drain of Q UP when it is OFF. Pushbutton S starts and stops the motor by turning the clock on and off. Toggle switch S sets its direction by switching polarity. Power for the motor is provided by DC wall transformer T and filter capacitor C. Five volt regulator IC and filter capacitor C supply power to IC. Driver circuit Figure is a diagram of the motor driver circuit built on a.7 X. inch PC board. The motor is driven by four IRL50N power FETs having very low ON resistance of 0. ohms resulting in very little voltage drop and almost no heat. These FETs have a logic level gate threshold making them ideal for use in circuits powered by 5 volts. They were also chosen for their specifications of 60 volts at 5 amperes. FETs Q, Q, Q4 and Q5 are driven by CD40 dual D type flip flop ICA and ICB, each having dual phase outputs that latch either Q or Q ON and either Q4 or Q5 ON, depending on the state of the flip flops. Current flows through one half of each motor winding at all times. Each flip flop has its data input cross coupled to the other flip flop s output through a CD4070 exclusive OR gate in IC4. The cross coupling between flip flops causes them to change state alternately when simultaneously triggered. The sequence of change, ICA before ICB or ICB before ICA, is controlled by the exclusive OR circuits that feed data into pins 5 and 9 of IC. This sequence change controls the direction of the motor. A DOWN or UP level passing from L through D to direction control pins and 6 of IC4 determines weather it will invert or noninvert the data applied to its input pins and 5. Both the clock and the direction control data are carried to the driver board over the same wires that power the motor. If L, figure is positive then the motor will rotate left when IC is triggered by a clock pulse. If L is positive then the motor will rotate right. The motor steps when the voltage across L and L goes DOWN and then goes UP again producing a clock pulse. The UP transition feeds through D4 or D5 and R8, depending on the polarity of L, L, into clock input pins and of IC. Zener diodes D4 and D5 serve the dual purpose of coupling the clock pulses into IC and acting as a transient voltage suppressor. High voltage spikes caused by switching, that may appear across L, L will pass through the forward conduction of one of these diodes and through the reverse zener breakdown of the other, thus clamping the L, L voltage to a maximum of about volts. C4 delays the rise of the clock pulse so it arrives later than the direction control pulse at IC4. D improves the discharge of C4 through R9. Power is supplied to the motor and the circuits through bridge rectifier BR which rectifies the L, L input into a positive output. Power for IC and IC4 also passes through 5 volt regulator IC5 and is further filtered by C6. D6 clamps inductive spikes from the motor. Some unpredictable motion may occur when the direction is changed. This is caused by a pulse or pulses that are generated when the polarity is switched. These pulses appear to the circuits as clock pulses. This is usually not objectionable when the positioner is used to rotate a display or similar object. Construction Control Board Install all resistors, D, IC and all capacitors except C. Install a jumper made from an excess resistor lead, the IC socket, terminal block, Q - Q4 and IC. Install C, the wires for R, S, S and T. Connect the wires to R, S and S. Solder the leads from a DC wall transformer to the PC board holes marked and -V. Use a transformer with a voltage rating similar to that of the stepper motor and a current rating a little more than twice the motor current rating. Plug IC into its socket being careful to handle it as a static sensitive device and your control board is complete. The control

3 board may be mounted in a suitable enclosure with R, S and S accessible from the top or front. Driver Board Install all the resistors, capacitors, diodes and IC5, then two jumpers made from excess resistor leads. Next install the IC sockets and terminal block. Insert and solder power FETs Q through Q5 being very careful to handle them as static sensitive devices. Plug IC and IC4 which are also static sensitive devices into their sockets and your driver board is complete. Installation Most stepper motors have a /4 inch diameter shaft. You can mount a flat faced knob on the motor shaft using the knob set screw to hold it in place. The object to be rotated can be attached to the knob using a self-adhesive Velcro fastener. You can keep the motor from rotating more than 60 degrees if this is desirable by using a long screw as a mechanical stop in one of the motor mounting holes. Another long screw used in place of a knob set screw will stop against it. If the knob slips on the motor shaft, file a small flat on the shaft for the set screw to rest against. If you have access to a machine shop even better mounting schemes can be devised including weather protection for outdoor use. unloaded or lightly loaded. When using a 4 volt transformer, be sure that the motor is connected and the L, L terminals are interconnected before applying power. Voltages in excess of 0 volts may damage regulator ICs, capacitors and diodes. Power to the stepper motor should be maintained to keep the object pointed in the desired direction. Stepper motors have a small amount of holding torque with no power applied but wind or other forces could overcome this torque and cause the object to move. A positioner has been run with 500 feet of gauge wire connecting the control and driver boards while using a 6 volt 00 milliamp motor. Heavier gauge wire is preferred for lower voltage drop and should be used for greater distances or larger motors. Solder the motor center tap leads to the holes marked on the PC board and the remaining leads to the holes marked A, B, C and D as shown in the schematic. Be sure that the leads from one winding connect to A and B. The leads of the other winding should connect to C and D. Mount the driver circuit board near the motor. The current rating of the motor used is limited by the ampere current rating of bridge rectifier BR. Although stepper motors that run on 9 to 4 volts can be used, care must be taken when using a 4 volt wall transformer, that the voltage applied to the control board never exceeds 0 volts. Many transformers supply more than their specified voltage when

4 Stepper Motor Camera Positioner A B C D STEPPER MOTOR FIGURE c 999 Glolab Corporation 4 Van Voorhis Wappingers Falls, NY fax (94)

5 R 5MEG 5 Q Q R 00K R 0.56K R5 0K R6 K Q 6 IC Q4 Q L L D S C S L L 0.47 R4 0K 0 VAC T VDC C 000 IC C. 5 - TWO WIRE STEPPER MOTOR POSITIONER FIGURE c 999 Glolab Corporation 4 Van Voorhis Wappingers Falls, NY fax (94)

6 6 Q5 A 5 ICA Q6 4 B R8 6 5 IC4A 4 M R7 0K 00K D IC4B Q7 C R9 4.7K R0 00K C ICB Q8 D 0 D D4 D5 BR L D6 IC5 C IC, IC4 PIN 4 = 5 PIN 7 = GROUND L TWO WIRE STEPPER MOTOR POSITIONER FIGURE c 999 Glolab Corporation 4 Van Voorhis Wappingers Falls, NY fax (94)

7 TWO WIRE STEPPER MOTOR POSITIONER PARTS LIST DESCRIPTION SOURCE PART NUMBER R - 5MEG potentiometer Mouser VA605 R, R8, R0-00K /8 watt 5% Digi-key R -.56K /8 watt 5% R4, R5, R7-0K /8 watt 5% R6 - K /8 watt 5% R9-4.7K /8 watt 5% C -.47 MFD 5 volt tantalum Mouser K5V C MFD 5 volt electrolytic Mouser 59-SKR5V000 C -. MFD 50 volt metalized film C MFD 50 volt metalized film P45 C5-00 MFD 6 volt electrolytic D, D, D - N94 silicon diode Mouser 60-N94 D4, D5 - N475 zener diode Mouser N475 D6 - N4004 rectifier Mouser Q - MPSA05 NPN transistor Mouser Q, Q - MPSA55 PNP transistor Mouser Q4, Q5, Q6, Q7, Q8 - IRL50N hexfet IRL50N BR - AMP 400 volt bridge rectifier Mouser 58-RC04 IC - LMC555 CMOS timer Jameco 6797 IC, IC5-78L05 5 volt regulator Jameco 58 IC - CD40 dual D flip flop Jameco 677 IC4 - CD4070 quad exclusive or Jameco 58 M, M - two phase unipolar 4 volts T - DC or AC adapter transformer to match motor Jameco 7 IC socket - eight pin A908 IC sockets - fourteen pin A94 Terminal blocks - two position ED975 S - momentary N/O push button switch Mouser S - double pole double throw toggle switch Circuit Specialists Hookup wire - 4 gauge 4 inches Control printed circuit board Driver printed circuit board

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