Ch 13-4 Learning Goal/Content Statement Section 4

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1 Ch 13-4 Learning Goal/Content Statement The Interwar Years Explain how the consequences of World War I and the worldwide depression set the stage for the rise of totalitarianism, aggressive Axis expansion and the policy of appeasement which in turn led to World War II.

2 13-4 vocabulary Benito Mussolini: Fascism: Totalitarianism Joseph Stalin: Gulag Adolf Hitler: Nazi Party:. Anti-Semitism: Nuremberg Laws: Kristallnacht:

3 13-4 vocabulary Benito Mussolini: Italian Fascist leader; he ruled as Italy s dictator for more than 20 years beginning in His alliance with Hitler brought Italy into WWII. Fascism: a totalitarian system of government that focuses on the good of the state rather than on the good of the individual citizen. HYPER NATIONALISM Totalitarianism: form of government in which the person or party in charge has absolute control over all aspects of life. Joseph Stalin: Totalitarian dictator of the Soviet Union; he led the Soviet Union through WWII and created a powerful Soviet sphere of influence in eastern Europe after the war. Gulag: a Soviet forced labor camp or prison, used especially for political dissidents.

4 13-4 vocabulary Adolf Hitler: Totalitarian dictator of Germany; his invasion of European countries led to WWII. He espoused notions of racial superiority and was responsible for the mass murder of millions of Jews and others in the Holocaust. Nazi Party: National Socialist Party; fascist political party of Adolf Hitler governed on totalitarian lines and advocating German racial superiority. Anti-Semitism: hostility or prejudice towards Jews. REVIEW DREYFUS AFFAIR. Nuremberg Laws: Nazi laws that eliminated citizenship and many civilian and property rights for Jews. Kristallnacht: night of broken glass ; an event that occurred on the nights of November 9 and 10 in which Hitler s Nazis encouraged Germans to riot against Jews; nearly 100 Jews died.

5 Ch 13-4 Vocab Italy Russia Germany Similarity:

6 Ch 13-4 Vocab Russia -Stalin -Gulag *Communism* Italy -Mussolini -Fascism Similarity: Totalitarianism Germany -Hitler -Fascism -Nazi Party -Anti- Semitism Nuremberg Laws Kristallnacht

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8 CAUSES OF WWII

9 The What Interwar happened Years Economically that leads Section to WWII? 4 Treaty of Versailles cripples Germany. European economy in ruins after WWI. Propped up by America. U.S. economy suffers because of Stock Market Crash and Great Depression. Europe suffers more. Leads to the Rise of Dictatorships in Europe.

10 Causes of Great Depression Uneven distribution of wealth Inflation Easy credit Over speculation in the stock market

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15 Main Idea Dictators in Europe The political and social unrest that followed World War I helped totalitarian dictators rise to power in Europe. Content Statement/Learning Goal Explain how the consequences of World War I and the worldwide depression set the stage for the rise of totalitarianism, aggressive Axis expansion and the policy of appeasement which in turn led to World War II.

16 After World War I, new ideas about government power promoted by Benito Mussolini led to drastic change in the Italian government. Fascist Ideology Mussolini wanted to build a great, glorious Italian empire Founded National Fascist Party, 1919: Turns his back of former allies Socialists. from Latin fasces, Roman symbol for unity, strength Fascism, authoritarian form of government Good of nation above all else. NATIONALISM!! 1) Mussolini s Italy Mussolini in Power Fascists significant force in Italian politics, 1922 Mussolini wanted more, wanted to rule Italy Called March on Rome Show of force convinced Italy s king to put Mussolini at head of government Mussolini moved to establish dictatorship

17 1)Mussolini s Italy Mussolini not satisfied merely with political control Used threats, violence, political skill to outlaw all opposition Tried to influence Italians thoughts, feelings, behaviors Government attempt to control all aspects of life, totalitarianism Used propaganda to promote Italy s greatness Established festivals, holidays to remind Italians of proud Roman heritage

18 2)Invasion The Interwar of Ethiopia Years Mussolini set out to make Italy strong military power and take Italians minds off of state of poverty. Looked for easy target, settled on Ethiopia. Ethiopia had two serious disadvantages, located between two Italian colonies, military ill-equipped; Italian forces crushed Ethiopia, 1935 League of Nations Ethiopian leader Haile Selassie appealed to League to take action against Italy s aggression No nation willing to get involved, to risk another world war League placed economic sanctions on Italy, took no real action

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21 3)Communism under Stalin Soviet leader Vladimir Lenin died shortly after Communist Soviet Union formed, 1924 Joseph Stalin became new Soviet leader after struggle for power Different Approach Stalin s Soviet Union Karl Marx predicted state would wither away under communism. Socialist Republic Democracy?? Stalin took different approach. Instead of reducing government s power he worked to return Soviet Union to totalitarian state, controlling all Soviet life

22 4)The Five-Year Plans Major part of Stalin s plan to strengthen communism, modernization of economy First Five-Year Plan began 1928, factories and mines set production goals. 5-Year Plans reflected Soviet system of central planning Government makes major decisions about production of goods COMMAND ECONOMY/PLANNED ECONOMY (5 year plans) Differs from capitalist economic system, where market forces are major influences on production 5 Year Plans did lead to increases in Soviet industrial output During first two Five-Year Plans, oil production doubled, coal and steel production quadrupled Demands on Soviet workers were high

23 5)Collectivization and Famine Increase Farm Input Peasant Reaction Stalin believed millions of small, individually owned Soviet farms would be more productive if combined into larger, mechanized farms Combining small farms called collectivization Stalin tried to take land back given to peasants after Russian Revolution Peasants resisted, Stalin responded violently Executed thousands, sent more to Siberian system of labor camps, called the Gulag Resistance continued, particularly in the Ukraine Stalin refused to send food during 1932 famine; millions starved to death in Ukraine.

24 6)Political Purges Stalin s Soviet Union Stalin, absolute power, but feared people plotting against him Began campaign called Great Purge, to get rid of people, things undesirable During Great Purge, thousands executed, sent to the Gulag 7)Totalitarian Rule (This is what America fears) Stalin s regime dominated Soviet life Children encouraged to join youth organizations, taught attitudes, beliefs Religion discouraged, churches closed Cult of Personality- Ignorance is bliss. Portraits of Stalin decorated public places, creating heroic, idealized image Streets, towns renaming in Stalin s honor, created cult of personality By ruthlessly removing opposition, Stalin gained stranglehold over society

25 8) Post War Germany Germany underwent great changes after World War I. Like Mussolini and Stalin, Germany s Adolf Hitler rose to power during a time of conflict and political instability. 8)Postwar Germany Germany formed new republican government, Weimar Republic Extremely unpopular Germans blamed Weimer Republic for humiliating Versailles Treaty *RESENTMENT*!! 8)Economy Blamed Weimar Republic for economic problems. Inflation soared German mark virtually worthless Savings wiped out Depression brought more chaos **U.S. Great Depression couldn t lend Germany $$** 9)Hitler s Early Career Born Austria 1889 Served in German army World War I Soon joined Nazi Party Discovered he had knack for public speaking, leadership

26 German hyper-inflation The Interwar Years

27 Tales of German Hyperinflation p.739 One American dollar could buy about 9 German marks in At the height of the panic, a dollar could buy more than 4 trillion marks. By 1923, some 300 paper mills and 2,000 printing presses were working around the clock to print money. Prices rose extremely fast. One customer at a café ordered a cup of coffee at 5,000 marks. By the time he ordered his second, the price had risen to 7,000 marks.

28 German Hyper inflation

29 German Hyper inflation Trying to sell food cheaply. LOOK AT THE PRICE ABOVE.

30 GERMANY S ECONOMIC WOES

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32 GERMANY S ECONOMIC WOES

33 GERMANY S ECONOMIC WOES

34 The Interwar 9)Hitler s Years Early Career/ Hitler Gains Section Power 4 Search for power Became key figure in Nazi Party Wanted greater power Attempted overthrow of government, arrested, imprisoned, 1923 Hitler gains power Continued to try to gain power after released from prison Economic effects of Great Depression helped cause Mein Kampf Wrote book while in prison My Struggle described major political ideas Nationalism, racial superiority of German people, Aryans Promises Germans desperate for strong leader to improve lives Promised to rebuild military Talk of mighty German empire, master race, won supporters

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36 Nazi Party Gains Strength Many Germans wanted to believe Hitler s words were true Nazis continued to gain strength in early 1930s Most popular of many German political parties; becomes 2 nd most popular party from 9 th most popular in Hitler appointed as chancellor, 1933 Most powerful post in German government Hitler Controls Germany Began to crush opposition Many opponents arrested, others intimidated by Nazi thugs Cult of personality built up glorifying Hitler as the Führer, leader Nazi youth organizations shaped minds of young Germans 10)Hitler Controls Germany Hitler s Programs Began to rebuild German military Improved German economy Strict wage controls, massive government spending, reduced unemployment Much spending for rearmament Also new public buildings, roads

37 Nazi Rise to Power 1928

38 Nazi Rise to Power 1930

39 Nazi Rise to Power July 1932

40 Nazi Rise to Power November 1932 The Interwar Years

41 March 1933 Elections Number of Votes Percentage National Socialist 17,277, Social Democratic 7,182, Communist 4,848, Center 4,425, Nationalist 3,137, Bavarian People's 1,074, Other parties 1,533,

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44 11) Nazi Anti-Semitism Nazis mounted more direct attacks on Jews November 9 and 10, 1938, anti-jewish riots across Germany, Austria Attack known as Kristallnacht, Night of Broken Glass Nearly 100 Jews killed Thousands of Jewish businesses, places of worship damaged, destroyed Greater horrors yet to come Hitler s Germany about to lead world into history s bloodiest war

45 A key component of the Nazi system was strong anti-semitic beliefs. Anti-Semitism is hostility toward or prejudice against Jews. Hitler blamed Jews for many of German s problems, including its defeat in World War I. Long History Anti-Semitism had long history in largely Christian Europe Nazi anti-semitism combined this with false beliefs that Jews were separate race Combined religious prejudice with hatred based on ancestry 11)Nazi Anti-Semitism Laws Excluding Jews Many laws passed excluding Jews from mainstream German life 1935 Nuremberg Laws created separate legal status for Jews Eliminated citizenship, civil and property rights Right to work was limited Nuremberg Laws defined a person as Jewish based on ancestry of grandparents not religious beliefs.

46 11.Nazi Anti-Semitism Hostility toward or prejudice against Jews Germany s Jewish population in 1933: 505,000 Germany s Overall population in 1933: 67,000,000 Less than.75% of population

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