Research Project: Religion and Politics in Communist Hungary,

Size: px
Start display at page:

Download "Research Project: Religion and Politics in Communist Hungary, 1948-1964"

Transcription

1 Nicolas Bauquet, march 2005 Research Project: Religion and Politics in Communist Hungary, I started my PhD research in September 2002 to elucidate the relationships between religion and politics in Hungary, since the power takeover by the communists in 1948 up to the signing of the agreement between the Hungarian state and the Vatican in This agreement ended the era of the most violent persecutions, but also revealed the success of the regime in controlling and integrating the most important Christian churches (Catholic, Calvinist and Lutheran). The purpose of this research is to understand how the communist State was able to weaken the political, social and ideological resistance that these churches put up at the beginning of the period. On the contrary, while facing the same challenge, the Polish church had survived a similar repression in the first half of the 1950s, and forced the historical compromise of 1956 on the government. To address such a question, it is not only necessary to research currently available Hungarian sources, but also to adopt a wider perspective on how communist regime worked during the Cold War. Having studied for three years the bibliography and sources which I present hereafter, I now wish to participate in the work coordinated by Professor Mark Kramer s Harvard Project on Cold War Studies, which would come in time for me to give my work its indispensable comparative thrust and international dimension. Main directions Three dimensions should be taken into account in properly addressing the issue of the relationships of state and churches in Hungary: politics and organization, ideological and symbolic conflicts, and target groups. 1. Politics and organization. This part deals with the study of the apparatuses involved in the conflict: the Catholic, Calvinist and Lutheran Churches on the one hand, the Communist Party, the security services and the State Church Office, on the other. I study here the social origins of their memberships as well as their value systems and the way they

2 perceive each other, the structure of their interactions, their goals, their strategies, and the results they yielded. 2. Ideological and symbolic conflicts. This part analyzes the shock of two encompassing belief systems. Sermons, speeches, books, pamphlets, brochures reveal two distinct opposites, conflicting in their views on man and society as well as in their approaches to Hungarian history and nation. More specifically, I study the struggle for the symbolic control of space and time. I compare Catholic processions and pilgrimages which claim Christianity as the defining feature of the Hungarian nation, and new forms of symbolic domination in public spaces, like the parades on 1 May and 7 November. Equally important in this study is the competition over social rites punctuating the various stages of life: traditional Christian sacraments (baptism, confirmation, marriage, funerals) were challenged by new socialist ceremonies introduced since the beginning of the 1960s. 3. Target groups. Finally, I deal with the social dimensions of the struggle opposing the Communist Party and the churches to maintain or increase their control of the Hungarian society. When focused on a few key sociological categories, our study sheds light on the most striking features of the conflict: youth, a major objective for both camps; women, reputed more attached to the churches, and as such the object of a particularly intense competition. Archival materials Many sources are now available to the historians. As a result of this fact, it is possible to address the various questions of this study on the basis of the Archives of the Party and the State, archives of the churches, and oral archives. 1. Archives of the Party, archives of the State. The various apparatuses built by the Party and the State in order to watch, repress and control the churches produced a large amount of source materials. Since the fall of communism in Hungary, they are available for research for the whole period. The archives of the State Church Office, created in 1951 to rule every aspect of religious life, are well preserved and available in the Hungarian National Archives as well as in local collections. The archives of the Communist Party are also available. I studied first the material produced by the secretarial offices of prominent

3 members of the Party (Mátyás Rákosi, József Révai, Mihály Farkas), which proved very rich in documents relating to ecclesiastical affairs. I now intend to study the archives of the local and national party organizations interested in religious matters. Although personal data are still restricted, most security services are now open and allow the historian to take the full measure of the infiltration of church hierarchies by governmental agents. 2. It is necessary to compare the information provided by the documents produced by the communist power with the archives produced by the religious communities themselves. Paradoxically, theses documents are now much more difficult to obtain. The Hungarian Episcopal Conference strictly abides by the fifty-year rule. Therefore, the Episcopal Archives are only open to research up to 1955, but they can provide us with valuable and comprehensive sources on the beginning of the period. I have free access to the archives of the Central Seminar of Budapest, in which the elite of the Hungarian church has been formed for centuries. During the communist period, the power considered this place a key target in the struggle for the control of the formation of church managers. In collaboration with Professor Viktor Karády, I began a study of the social background and geographical origin of the seminarians from the 1930s to the 1960s, in comparison with Protestant ministers. This could provide a frame for the interpretation of the various attitudes toward the communist power in the Hungarian churches. I have been granted access to various private archives, like those of Arpád Fasang, once an intimate friend of the Lutheran bishop Lajos Ordáss. 3. Oral archives. The sudden collapse of communist regimes offers the historian the invaluable opportunity to work freely on archival materials while still being able to collect oral memories of the period. Although most major figures are dead by now, the generation of those who were 20 years old in 1950 can still be of great help to us. I have started conducting interviews with them, e.g. with leaders of the underground scouting movements. The collection of interviews collected by the Central European University and the Institute of the 1956 revolution should also receive close attention.

4 Bibliography Secondary works already used by me in this doctoral research fall under three broad categories: studies on Hungary itself; studies on countries I whish to study for the purpose of comparison; and studies dedicated to the connections between religion and politics, or providing useful concepts or models for my research. 1. Bibliography dealing with Hungary. I spent most of the first two years of my doctoral studies fathoming my knowledge of historiography on twentieth century Hungary, with a special emphasis on religious matters. Since most writers were involved in the struggle they investigate in their works, it is of utmost importance to take into account the variety of viewpoints in order to lay the groundwork for a scientific study. I also worked with the young generation of historians that has recently pushed through a new approach to State/Church conflict. I am currently organizing a conference which should take place in Budapest in May It will investigate the key religious figure of the period, Cardinal József Mindszenty, for the thirtieth anniversary of his death, and will, I hope, foster debate on the new directions research should take in the field. 2. It seems to me of great importance to emphasize studies on neighboring countries in my research: Poland, East-Germany and Czechoslovakia are central to the comparative dimension. Especially interesting is the case of Romania, considering that millions of Romanian citizens belong to the Hungarian minority. The historical works on the religious policy of the USSR will give us insight in how the models that were to be exported in Central Europe were first invented and for which purposes. Teaching undergraduate classes on religion and politics in East Central Europe at the East Central European Center of Sciences Po has been a stimulating opportunity of studying this bibliography as well as fostering discussions with students coming for the most part from this region. 3. These original stands should not distract us from approaching the Hungarian case as one of the many examples of the complex connections between religion and politics in the twentieth century. Literature on totalitarian regimes, mainly nazi Germany and fascist Italy, among which Emilio Gentile s Sacralization of Politics in Fascist Italy figures

5 prominently, is a major inspiration for my work as well as David Blackbourn s studies on Marpingen.

Death of Communism in Eastern Europe Activity

Death of Communism in Eastern Europe Activity Death of Communism in Eastern Europe Activity The purpose of the activity is for students to examine events that occurred after World War II and during the Cold War to determine possibly causes of the

More information

The Roma ( G y p s i e s )

The Roma ( G y p s i e s ) REFERENCE INFORMATION PAPERS www.osa.ceu.hu The Roma ( G y p s i e s ) The Roma ( G y p s i e s ) Reference Information Paper 3: The Roma (Gypsies) Compiled by Bosko Spasojevic, September 1996 Revised

More information

Master Program for European Union Studies

Master Program for European Union Studies Master Program for European Union Studies Program Course Credits Hours Description References M.A English 2 3 This course is aimed at enhancing students' proficiency in English and also letting them equipped

More information

Why did the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth not belong to the West? Reflections of contemporary authors on Central Europe

Why did the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth not belong to the West? Reflections of contemporary authors on Central Europe Why did the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth not belong to the West? Reflections of contemporary authors on Central Europe and its relations to the West Piotr Chmiel The West: Concept, Narrative and Politics

More information

HIS 13 Introduction to Modern European History

HIS 13 Introduction to Modern European History HIS 13 Introduction to Modern European History Basic Information Instructor Name Home Institution Email Office Hours Naum G. Katz Carnegie Mellon University kats@andrew.cmu.edu by Appointment Course Description

More information

John Calvin and the Protestant Reformation in Geneva. Institutionalizing Protestantism

John Calvin and the Protestant Reformation in Geneva. Institutionalizing Protestantism John Calvin and the Protestant Reformation in Geneva Institutionalizing Protestantism The Spread of Protestantism Protestantism spread rapidly in the early 16th century. It grew strong in northern Europe

More information

INDIANA ACADEMIC STANDARDS FOR WORLD HISTORY AND CIVILIZATION, MODERN COURSE

INDIANA ACADEMIC STANDARDS FOR WORLD HISTORY AND CIVILIZATION, MODERN COURSE Prentice Hall World History: Connections to Today, Modern Era 2003 Indiana Academic Standards for World History and Civilization, Survey Course (Grades 9-12) STANDARD 6: The Renaissance and Reformation

More information

APPENDIX IV MODERN WORLD HISTORY DETAILED KEY CONCEPTS TOPIC 1: REVOLUTIONS IN THOUGHT

APPENDIX IV MODERN WORLD HISTORY DETAILED KEY CONCEPTS TOPIC 1: REVOLUTIONS IN THOUGHT APPENDIX IV MODERN WORLD HISTORY DETAILED KEY CONCEPTS TOPIC 1: REVOLUTIONS IN THOUGHT KEY CONCEPT 1.1: Analyze how the Scientific Revolution and the Enlightenment ideas impacted human thought. a. Identify

More information

WORLD HISTORY AND GEOGRAPHY, PART II GRADE 10

WORLD HISTORY AND GEOGRAPHY, PART II GRADE 10 Parent / Student Course Information SOCIAL STUDIES WORLD HISTORY AND GEOGRAPHY, PART II GRADE 10 Counselors are available to assist parents and students with course selections and career planning. Parents

More information

Chesterhouse Key Stage 3 History

Chesterhouse Key Stage 3 History Syllabus Chesterhouse Key Stage 3 History If you don t know history, you don t know anything. You are a leaf that doesn t know it is part of a tree. Professor Johnston (paraphrased) Grades 7, 8 and 9 2

More information

15-17th October. conference program. CONFESSIONALITY AND UNIVERSITY IN THE MODERN WORLD 20th Anniversary of Károli University

15-17th October. conference program. CONFESSIONALITY AND UNIVERSITY IN THE MODERN WORLD 20th Anniversary of Károli University 15-17th October conference program CONFESSIONALITY AND UNIVERSITY IN THE MODERN WORLD 20th Anniversary of Károli University Welcome to the CONFESSIONALITY AND UNIVERSITY IN THE MODERN WORLD 20th Anniversary

More information

Standards Student Edition Pages Teacher Wraparound Edition Pages

Standards Student Edition Pages Teacher Wraparound Edition Pages Correlations to South Carolina High School Core Course Standards Global Studies Glencoe World Geography Standards Student Edition Pages Teacher Wraparound Edition Pages Standard GS-1: The student will

More information

SOCIAL STUDIES GRADE 9 MODERN WORLD HISTORY. I Can Checklist Office of Teaching and Learning Curriculum Division

SOCIAL STUDIES GRADE 9 MODERN WORLD HISTORY. I Can Checklist Office of Teaching and Learning Curriculum Division SOCIAL STUDIES MODERN WORLD HISTORY GRADE 9 I Can Checklist 2015-2016 Aligned with Ohio s Learning Standards for Social Studies Office of Teaching and Learning Curriculum Division 1 2 I can analyze a historical

More information

2. Prior to the Reformation, all Christians in Western Europe were. 3. What caused Catholics to cry out for reform?

2. Prior to the Reformation, all Christians in Western Europe were. 3. What caused Catholics to cry out for reform? Reformation Questions 7 th Grade Social Studies 1. When did the Reformation begin? a. at the time of Jesus Christ's birth b. in the early 1500's c. upon the Declaration of Independence of the United States

More information

Franco s dictatorship Juan Carlos Ocaña Aybar [4º ESO] Geography and History Bilingual Studies IES Parque de Lisboa, Alcorcón (Madrid)

Franco s dictatorship Juan Carlos Ocaña Aybar [4º ESO] Geography and History Bilingual Studies IES Parque de Lisboa, Alcorcón (Madrid) Franco s dictatorship 1939-1975 Juan Carlos Ocaña Aybar [4º ESO] Geography and History Bilingual Studies IES Parque de Lisboa, Alcorcón (Madrid) 1 FRANCO S DICTATORSHIP (1939-1975) 1. THE LONG AND HARSH

More information

Stalinism in European Literature and Film Spring Hours:

Stalinism in European Literature and Film Spring Hours: ENG 494/598 SLC 494/498/598/ Stalinism in European Literature and Film Spring 2011 POS 494 GCU 494/598 REL 494/598 Instructor: Dr. Ileana Orlich Office: LL 402A Phone: 480-965-4658 Office E-mail orlich@asu.edu

More information

Chapter 15 Section 1 Two Revolutions in Russia

Chapter 15 Section 1 Two Revolutions in Russia Chapter 15 Section 1 Two Revolutions in Russia A. The March Revolution 1. Long Term Unrest a. The Duma had no real power. b. The Czar relied on his secret police to impose his will. c. The proletariat

More information

The Age of the Renaissance. Men can do all things if they will Leon Battista Alberti (architect)

The Age of the Renaissance. Men can do all things if they will Leon Battista Alberti (architect) The Age of the Renaissance 1400-1600 Men can do all things if they will Leon Battista Alberti (architect) ESSENTIAL QUESTIONS: Why did the Renaissance begin in Italy? How did Renaissance art differ from

More information

THE SOCIOLOGICAL PERSPECTIVE CHAPTER OUTLINE

THE SOCIOLOGICAL PERSPECTIVE CHAPTER OUTLINE THE SOCIOLOGICAL PERSPECTIVE CHAPTER SUMMARY Sociology offers a perspective a view of the world that stresses the social experiences of people as the underlying cause of their behavior. Sociology emerged

More information

Chapter 11 THE AGE OF REFORMATION

Chapter 11 THE AGE OF REFORMATION 42 Chapter 11 THE AGE OF REFORMATION Multiple-Choice 1. The emergence of Protestantism in the sixteenth century can be described as (a) the ending of medieval superstition. (b) the forerunner of the Western

More information

Unit: What does it mean to belong to a religion?

Unit: What does it mean to belong to a religion? Unit: What does it mean to belong to a religion? About this unit This unit is intended to allow pupils to explore commitment, belonging and identity within religion. It also gives them the opportunity

More information

IB 20th Century World History Higher Level Year 1 Mr. Barrasso

IB 20th Century World History Higher Level Year 1 Mr. Barrasso IB 20th Century World History Higher Level Year 1 Mr. Barrasso jbarrasso@sturgischarterschool.org This is the first year of a two year course. This course is not a traditional survey history course in

More information

Established Goals: - Students will describe the beliefs, customs, traditions, and influence of the Christian religion, since its existence.

Established Goals: - Students will describe the beliefs, customs, traditions, and influence of the Christian religion, since its existence. Stage 1 10 th Grade World History II The Catholic Church and the Protestant Reformation Established Goals: - Students will describe the beliefs, customs, traditions, and influence of the Christian religion,

More information

Key Issue 1: Where Are Religions Distributed?

Key Issue 1: Where Are Religions Distributed? Key Issue 1: Where Are Religions Distributed? Pages 183-191 ***Always keep your key term packet out whenever you take notes from Rubenstein. As the terms come up in the text, think through the significance

More information

Persistent memory Ravensbrück memory cultures in Europe,

Persistent memory Ravensbrück memory cultures in Europe, Summary Persistent memory Ravensbrück memory cultures in Europe, 1945-2010 Susan Hogervorst This thesis deals with the interaction between organizations of Ravensbrück survivors as producers of collective

More information

Growth and Development of Protestantism in Latin America

Growth and Development of Protestantism in Latin America Growth and Development of Protestantism in Latin America Ed Cottrell Religious Studies 282: Introduction to Christianity May 13, 2000 I. Introduction: Protestant History in Latin America Since the arrival

More information

Social Studies 7

Social Studies 7 2015-2016 Social Studies 7 1. The student will be able to analyze geographic features and their impact on ancient civilizations. 2. The student will be able to explain the culture of an ancient civilization.

More information

TJ PROGRAM OF STUDIES: HONORS 20 th CENTURY WORLD HISTORY. Course Description

TJ PROGRAM OF STUDIES: HONORS 20 th CENTURY WORLD HISTORY. Course Description Course Description TJ PROGRAM OF STUDIES: HONORS 20 th CENTURY WORLD HISTORY Twentieth Century World History is a concise, truly global (as opposed to Western oriented) survey of the period from the late

More information

World History Honors Course Syllabus

World History Honors Course Syllabus Course Tile: World History Honors Course Length: Full Year Recommend Grade Level: Grade 9 Course Level and Credit: Honors 5 Credits Prerequisites Successful Completion of 8 th Grade Social Studies Teacher

More information

Camila Loureiro Dias 1

Camila Loureiro Dias 1 . Spain and Portugal in Europe and the Americas. Cambridge / London: Harvard University Press, 2015, 384 pp. ISBN 978-0-674-73538-5. Camila Loureiro Dias 1 In this study about territorial frontiers, Tamar

More information

CHAPTER TWO: NATIVE AMERICAN RELIGIONS. I. Introduction: The Challenges in Studying Native American Religions

CHAPTER TWO: NATIVE AMERICAN RELIGIONS. I. Introduction: The Challenges in Studying Native American Religions CHAPTER TWO: NATIVE AMERICAN RELIGIONS Chapter Outline and Unit Summaries I. Introduction: The Challenges in Studying Native American Religions A. The Contemporary Revival of Interest in Native American

More information

4. Protestants comprise 40% of North Americans. List the five largest denominations (#5 is a tie) by percentage

4. Protestants comprise 40% of North Americans. List the five largest denominations (#5 is a tie) by percentage UNIVERSALIZING RELIGIONS Christianity 1. Give the percentage of the world=s Christian population belonging to each of Christianity s three major branches Roman Catholic - Eastern Orthodox - Protestant

More information

CANONICAL PRE-NUPTIAL QUESTIONNAIRE

CANONICAL PRE-NUPTIAL QUESTIONNAIRE DIOCESE OF VENICE IN FLORIDA CANONICAL PRE-NUPTIAL QUESTIONNAIRE GROOM BRIDE Name Address City/State Telephone Birth-Date Religion-(Rite) Baptism Date (If Convert, indicate date of reception into Catholic

More information

Topic of Discussion The Enlightenment

Topic of Discussion The Enlightenment I Introduction A. During the late seventeenth and early eighteen centuries, colonial America saw major changes. American cities became important seaports and Southern part of America ended becoming the

More information

World History Course Summary Department: Social Studies. Semester 1

World History Course Summary Department: Social Studies. Semester 1 World History Course Summary Department: Social Studies All World History courses (Honors or otherwise) utilize the same targets and indicators for student performance. However, students enrolled in Honors

More information

Hobbes, Locke, Montesquieu, and Rousseau on Government

Hobbes, Locke, Montesquieu, and Rousseau on Government CONSTITUTIONAL RIGHTS FOUNDATION Bill of Rights in Action 20:2 Hobbes, Locke, Montesquieu, and Rousseau on Government Starting in the 1600s, European philosophers began debating the question of who should

More information

Monarchy: Rule by the One Hereditary Ruler

Monarchy: Rule by the One Hereditary Ruler Current Forms of Government (HA) With the exception of Antarctica, the landmasses on Earth are divided into nation-states. Some of these countries, such as Switzerland, have existed for hundreds of years.

More information

The teachers resistance against nazification of Norwegian youth and education during World War ll. By Joron Pihl.

The teachers resistance against nazification of Norwegian youth and education during World War ll. By Joron Pihl. The teachers resistance against nazification of Norwegian youth and education during World War ll. By Joron Pihl. Introduction Why discuss the teachers resistance against nazification of Norwegian youth

More information

Dariusz Pawłoś Foundation for Polish-German Reconciliation

Dariusz Pawłoś Foundation for Polish-German Reconciliation Dariusz Pawłoś Foundation for Polish-German Reconciliation Conference Political and Societal Leadership in Encouraging Reconciliation October 22, 2013, Berlin What are the characteristics of societal leaders

More information

Support material. Worksheets. Points for further discussion. Survivors of the Holocaust BY ZANE WHITTINGHAM AND RYAN JONES PRESENTS

Support material. Worksheets. Points for further discussion. Survivors of the Holocaust BY ZANE WHITTINGHAM AND RYAN JONES PRESENTS Survivors of the Holocaust BY ZANE WHITTINGHAM AND RYAN JONES PRESENTS THE STORIES OF SIX HOLOCAUST SURVIVORS. EACH STORY IS NARRATED IN THE SURVIVOR S OWN WORDS AND IS ILLUSTRATED IN GRAPHIC-NOVEL STYLE,

More information

DSHA Theology Department The Church: Its Message and Mission

DSHA Theology Department The Church: Its Message and Mission DSHA Theology Department The Church: Its Message and Mission Unit 1: Meaning and Origin of Church 1. The word church comes from the Greek and Latin for convocation or assembly but can also refer to a liturgical

More information

Sociological Perspectives on Religion. John Carpenter. Sociology B1 CRN John Carpenter. January 1, 2012

Sociological Perspectives on Religion. John Carpenter. Sociology B1 CRN John Carpenter. January 1, 2012 J. Carpenter 1 Sociological Perspectives on Religion By John Carpenter Sociology B1 CRN 12345 John Carpenter January 1, 2012 J. Carpenter 2 Emile Durkheim (1995: Original 1912) defined religion as a unified

More information

Broken Arrow Public Schools AP World and European History Local Objectives

Broken Arrow Public Schools AP World and European History Local Objectives 1 st six weeks 1 Analyze the major civilizations before 1500 and evaluate the contributions of each era to the development of western civilization. (PASS 2-8) 2 Describe the political, social, and economic

More information

The Beginnings of the Cold War

The Beginnings of the Cold War CLASS SET: DO NOT WRITE ON WRITE YOUR ANSWERS ON A SEPARATE WORKSHEET. The Beginnings of the Cold War Background: When the US was attacked in December, 1941 the Soviet Union and the Allied powers formed

More information

AMERICA IN THE 20 TH CENTURY: WORLD WAR II: The Road to War

AMERICA IN THE 20 TH CENTURY: WORLD WAR II: The Road to War 1 PRE-TEST Directions: Read the following statements and circle whether they are True or False. 1. After World War One, many countries had difficulty dealing with war debts, hunger, and unemployment. 2.

More information

Biblioteca dell Istituto Storico Ceco di Roma. Sintesi

Biblioteca dell Istituto Storico Ceco di Roma. Sintesi [1] Biblioteca dell Istituto Storico Ceco di Roma Sintesi diretta da Jaroslav Pánek, František Šmahel e Petr Vorel Tomo 1 [2] The Papacy and the Czech Lands [3] Tomáš Černušák et al. The Papacy and the

More information

Hot War Ends- Cold War Begins

Hot War Ends- Cold War Begins Hot War Ends- Cold War Begins 1945-1990 2011 Houston Independent School District The Cold War In 1945, one major war ended and another began The Cold War lasted about 45 years. The United States became

More information

Renaissance and Reformation Section 1

Renaissance and Reformation Section 1 Renaissance and Reformation Section 1 Renaissance and Reformation Section 1 Renaissance and Reformation Section 1 Main Idea The Italian Renaissance In Italy the growth of wealthy trading cities and new

More information

CURRICULUM VITAE. 18 September 1966, Brežice, Slovenia. Sociology Sociology of Religion

CURRICULUM VITAE. 18 September 1966, Brežice, Slovenia. Sociology Sociology of Religion General information Name Research position Research-teaching position Academic discipline Scientific field Gordan Črpić Research Adviser Full Professor Social Sciences Sociology Branch Special Sociology

More information

Section 3. Objectives

Section 3. Objectives Objectives Summarize the factors that encouraged the Protestant Reformation. Analyze Martin Luther s role in shaping the Protestant Reformation. Explain the teachings and impact of John Calvin. Terms and

More information

Advanced Placement (AP ) Social Studies Courses

Advanced Placement (AP ) Social Studies Courses Advanced Placement (AP ) Social Studies Courses The AP social studies courses are intended to provide a rigorous college level introduction to the social sciences for high school students. While no official

More information

Unit 01 - Study Questions 1. In what ways did geography and climate affect the development of human society? 2. What were the economic and social

Unit 01 - Study Questions 1. In what ways did geography and climate affect the development of human society? 2. What were the economic and social Unit 01 - Study Questions 1. In what ways did geography and climate affect the development of human society? 2. What were the economic and social results of the agricultural revolution? 3. What are the

More information

World History Learning Objectives

World History Learning Objectives World History Learning Objectives Historical Thinking and Skills Students apply skills by utilizing a variety of resources to construct theses and support or refute contentions made by others. Alternative

More information

Guiding wisdom from the season Faith, Politics & Neighbors : A VERY rough draft

Guiding wisdom from the season Faith, Politics & Neighbors : A VERY rough draft Guiding wisdom from the season Faith, Politics & Neighbors : A VERY rough draft 1. Liberty of conscience is the plumb line of the American idea, in religion as in other spheres; this means those who disagree

More information

Exporting the American Model: The Post-War Transformation of European Business

Exporting the American Model: The Post-War Transformation of European Business Oxford Scholarship Online You are looking at 1-10 of 12 items for: keywords : Philippines manpol mancorp Exporting the American Model: The Post-War Transformation of European Item type: book acprof:oso/9780198293170.001.0001

More information

The Shtetl: An Incubator of Jewish Culture

The Shtetl: An Incubator of Jewish Culture The Shtetl: An Incubator of Jewish Culture INTRODUCTION Overview: Beginning in the sixteenth century, when the Polish nobility invited Jews to settle their private lands, the shtetl became an incubator

More information

World History: Essential Questions

World History: Essential Questions World History: Essential Questions Content Standard 1.0: Culture encompasses similarities and differences among people including their beliefs, knowledge, changes, values, and traditions. Students will

More information

Name: Cold War Mr. Baffuto/Mr. LaMar DO NOW Questions

Name: Cold War Mr. Baffuto/Mr. LaMar DO NOW Questions Name: Cold War Mr. Baffuto/Mr. LaMar DO NOW Questions 1. Korea Divided at 38th Parallel Hungarian Revolution Crushed Missile Sites Spotted in Cuba The events in these headlines contributed to the 1) development

More information

Profile. Jerusalem University College

Profile. Jerusalem University College Profile Jerusalem University College 6 Profile History Located on Mount Zion, adjacent to the southwest corner of the Old City wall, Jerusalem University College had its beginnings as the Institute of

More information

The Spread of Protestantism

The Spread of Protestantism The Spread of Protestantism Protestant Reformation 3.2A, corruption in the medieval catholic church What forms of corruption existed within the church during the late middle ages? Popes used excommunication

More information

For more commentary from Professor Redlawsk see. David Redlawsk, Ph.D. (732) ext. 285; (319) (cell)

For more commentary from Professor Redlawsk see. David Redlawsk, Ph.D. (732) ext. 285; (319) (cell) Eagleton Institute of Politics Rutgers, The State University of New Jersey 191 Ryders Lane New Brunswick, New Jersey 08901-8557 www.eagleton.rutgers.edu eagleton@rci.rutgers.edu 732-932-9384 Fax: 732-932-6778

More information

The Division of Eastern and Western Europe

The Division of Eastern and Western Europe Connie Ip April 29, 2011 History 151 The Division of Eastern and Western Europe The term Eastern Europe defined in a number of manners and depends on perspective and personal definition. There exists conflicting

More information

MIDLAND ISD ADVANCED PLACEMENT CURRICULUM STANDARDS PRE AP WORLD GEOGRAPHY STUDIES

MIDLAND ISD ADVANCED PLACEMENT CURRICULUM STANDARDS PRE AP WORLD GEOGRAPHY STUDIES (1) History. The student understands how geography and processes of spatial exchange (diffusion) influenced events in the past and helped to shape the present. The student is expected to: (A) analyze the

More information

History. Programme of study for key stage 3 and attainment target (This is an extract from The National Curriculum 2007)

History. Programme of study for key stage 3 and attainment target (This is an extract from The National Curriculum 2007) History Programme of study for key stage 3 and attainment target (This is an extract from The National Curriculum 2007) Crown copyright 2007 Qualifications and Curriculum Authority 2007 Curriculum aims

More information

4. Protestants comprise 40% of North Americans. List the five largest denominations (#5 is a tie) by percentage.

4. Protestants comprise 40% of North Americans. List the five largest denominations (#5 is a tie) by percentage. Chapter 6 Religion: Key Issue 1 Where Are Religions Distributed? Rubenstein, pp. 182-191 UNIVERSALIZING RELIGIONS 1. Give the percentage of the world s Christian population belonging to each of Christianity

More information

Department of History Trent University. History 1202H: Western Civilization from 1789 to the Present WI Oshawa (Conlin)

Department of History Trent University. History 1202H: Western Civilization from 1789 to the Present WI Oshawa (Conlin) Department of History Trent University History 1202H: Western Civilization from 1789 to the Present 2014-15 WI Oshawa (Conlin) Instructor: Dr. Wesley Ferris Email: wesleyferris@trentu.ca Office Location:

More information

Frances Perkins: Private Faith, Public Policy

Frances Perkins: Private Faith, Public Policy Frances Perkins: Private Faith, Public Policy Michelle L. Kew I came to work for God, FDR and the millions of forgotten, plain, common working men. INTRODUCTION In this essay, Michelle Kew has illumined

More information

The Cultural Landscape by Rubenstein Chapter 6: Religion

The Cultural Landscape by Rubenstein Chapter 6: Religion Key Issue 1: Where Are Religions Distributed? Pages 183-191 ***Always keep your key term packet out whenever you take notes from Rubenstein. As the terms come up in the text, think through the significance

More information

Consumer culture comes to Central Europe

Consumer culture comes to Central Europe Consumer culture comes to Central Europe Balaton, September 1995 1. Introduction 2. Definition 3. History: Jan Hus Tomáš G. Masaryk Nazis Communism 4. After the Velvet Revolution: Václav Havel Václav Klaus

More information

Forms of Government STUDY GUIDE

Forms of Government STUDY GUIDE Forms of Government STUDY GUIDE Chapter 4 Study Guide Directions: Use the examples, characteristics, pros and cons on the pages that follow to fill in the information about each form of government. Repeat

More information

E-mail: rbond@palomar.edu. Course Syllabus

E-mail: rbond@palomar.edu. Course Syllabus Western Civilization Since the Reformation History 106 Class # Instructor: Prof. Robert Bond Office Hours: TBA E-mail: rbond@palomar.edu 3.0 Unit Course Course Syllabus DESCRIPTION: History 106 is a survey

More information

THEOLOGY. Freshman Year Humanities I Humanities II Freshman English 103 Freshman English 104

THEOLOGY. Freshman Year Humanities I Humanities II Freshman English 103 Freshman English 104 222 Courses of Instruction THEOLOGY Acting Chairperson: Rev. William J. Sullivan, O.S.B. Professors: Rev. Benedict M. Guevin, O.S.B., Kevin A. McMahon, Dennis M. Sweetland; Associate Professors: R. Ward

More information

Unit 3: Revolutions and Reaction

Unit 3: Revolutions and Reaction Modern World History Curriculum Source: This image from http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/file:francois-louis-joseph_watteau_001.jpg has been licensed for use through the GNU Free Documentation License Agreement.

More information

Mock Exam Question 2015 A1 Sample answer

Mock Exam Question 2015 A1 Sample answer Mock Exam Question 2015 A1 Sample answer Describe two key moments in the development of philosophical thought from the classical to contemporary period. The ancient Greek philosophers The Sophists, Socrates,

More information

The Globalization of Christianity. Strayer: Ways of the World Chapter 16

The Globalization of Christianity. Strayer: Ways of the World Chapter 16 The Globalization of Christianity Strayer: Ways of the World Chapter 16 In 1500, Christianity was mostly limited to Europe. small communities in Egypt, Ethiopia, southern India, and Central Asia serious

More information

[Title] Stereotype and Ideology in Hungarian Anti-Semitism. [Introduction to the topic] Around 1900, Hungarian society experienced an upsurge of

[Title] Stereotype and Ideology in Hungarian Anti-Semitism. [Introduction to the topic] Around 1900, Hungarian society experienced an upsurge of [Student Last Name] 1 [Student Name] [TA Name, Section Number] Prospectus and Annotated Bibliography: [MMWx -- x term 200x] [Day Month Year] [Title] Stereotype and Ideology in Hungarian Anti-Semitism [Introduction

More information

Hitler s Religious Policies. Lydia Cawley and Morgan Romero

Hitler s Religious Policies. Lydia Cawley and Morgan Romero Hitler s Religious Policies Lydia Cawley and Morgan Romero In National Socialism there are no ultimate, universal standards. The Church in Germany is of no mere ephemeral interest. It raises in an acute

More information

High School Course Guide Social Studies Course Descriptions

High School Course Guide Social Studies Course Descriptions 49036 Applied Community Citizenship IV (B) 1 credit Gr: 9-12 Knowledge and Skills for World Geography and determined by the ARD Committee to be a suitable substitute for World Geography. 49083 Basic World

More information

Background on the First Amendment

Background on the First Amendment Background on the First Amendment Congress shall make no law respecting an establishment of religion, or prohibiting the free exercise thereof; or abridging the freedom of speech, or of the press, or the

More information

Imperial Expansion and State Rivalries during the Military Revolution. The Thirty Years War

Imperial Expansion and State Rivalries during the Military Revolution. The Thirty Years War Imperial Expansion and State Rivalries during the Military Revolution The Thirty Years War A Simplified Overview One of the Greatest Conflicts of Early Modern European History Extension of the Dutch Revolt

More information

Christianity. The Growth of Christianity. Early Christian Book Held in Israel, the country Jordan wants it

Christianity. The Growth of Christianity. Early Christian Book Held in Israel, the country Jordan wants it Christianity The Growth of Christianity Early Christian Book Held in Israel, the country Jordan wants it http://www.pravmir.com/wp-content/uploads/2011/03/51881831_book_464.jpg Beginnings Christianity

More information

The Catholic Parish in the 21 st Century: Challenges and Opportunities

The Catholic Parish in the 21 st Century: Challenges and Opportunities The Catholic Parish in the 21 st Century: Challenges and Opportunities March 4, 2014 Villanova University Challenges and Opportunities Associated with Pastoral Leadership Thomas Gaunt, S.J., PhD Opening,

More information

Master s Thesis: Building Situations of Strength: Dean Acheson, the Korean War, and German Rearmament June 1950-May 1952

Master s Thesis: Building Situations of Strength: Dean Acheson, the Korean War, and German Rearmament June 1950-May 1952 1 Sean Brennan EDUCATION Ph.D., History, May 2009 University of Notre Dame, Notre Dame, IN Historical Fields: Twentieth Century Russia, emphasis on Religious, Diplomatic, and Political History Nineteenth

More information

Chapter 6 Learning Guide Religion

Chapter 6 Learning Guide Religion Chapter 6 Learning Guide Religion Key Issue 1 Where Are Religions Distributed? Pgs. 168-178 1. Define universalizing religion: 2. Define ethnic religion: Universalizing Religions 3. Give the percentage

More information

Cold War Archives. Joint Conference Concludes 'Open House Project' October 2000

Cold War Archives. Joint Conference Concludes 'Open House Project' October 2000 Page 1 of 6 This Issue Previous Article Next Article Contents - - - - - - - - - - - Library of Congress Information Bulletin Index Page - - - - - - - - - - - Library of Congress Web Site The Library Today

More information

Mussolini's Domestic Policies: Economic and Propaganda,

Mussolini's Domestic Policies: Economic and Propaganda, Mussolini's Domestic Policies: Economic and Propaganda, 1922-1939 Past Paper Questions: Compare and contrast the domestic policies of Hitler and Mussolini. (May 10) Evaluate the impact on Italy of Mussolini

More information

CHRISTIANITY. Chapter 6 Religion: Key Issue 1 Where Are Religions Distributed? Rubenstein, pp UNIVERSALIZING RELIGIONS

CHRISTIANITY. Chapter 6 Religion: Key Issue 1 Where Are Religions Distributed? Rubenstein, pp UNIVERSALIZING RELIGIONS Chapter 6 Religion: Key Issue 1 Where Are Religions Distributed? Rubenstein, pp. 170 178 UNIVERSALIZING RELIGIONS 1. Give the percentage of the world s Christian population belonging to each of Christianity

More information

Religion: Key Issue 1 Where Are Religions Distributed? Rubenstein, pp UNIVERSALIZING RELIGIONS CHRISTIANITY

Religion: Key Issue 1 Where Are Religions Distributed? Rubenstein, pp UNIVERSALIZING RELIGIONS CHRISTIANITY Religion: Key Issue 1 Where Are Religions Distributed? Rubenstein, pp. 170-178 UNIVERSALIZING RELIGIONS 1. Give the percentage of the world s Christian population belonging to each of Christianity s three

More information

we ArE FiGhtinG intolerance of today using the holocaust And other crimes AGAinst humanity in history As A starting point. For democracy, TolErAncE

we ArE FiGhtinG intolerance of today using the holocaust And other crimes AGAinst humanity in history As A starting point. For democracy, TolErAncE the living history forum we ArE FiGhtinG intolerance of today using the holocaust And other crimes AGAinst humanity in history As A starting point. For democracy, TolErAncE And human rights. We aim to

More information

CMFE. Community TV and digitalisation in the Nordic countries. By Christer Hedërstrom

CMFE. Community TV and digitalisation in the Nordic countries. By Christer Hedërstrom Community TV and digitalisation in the Nordic countries By Christer Hedërstrom Text prepared with occasion of the seminar Community TV and digital transition in Europe, organized by the UNESCO Chair in

More information

COMMITTEE ON CULTURE, SCIENCE AND EDUCATION

COMMITTEE ON CULTURE, SCIENCE AND EDUCATION Updated 24 June 2009 COMMITTEE ON CULTURE, SCIENCE AND EDUCATION Hearing on Islam, Islamism and Islamophobia in Europe Rapporteur: Mr Mogens Jensen, Denmark, Socialist Group Copenhagen, Tuesday, 8 September

More information

Freedom of religion and religious communities in Denmark

Freedom of religion and religious communities in Denmark Freedom of religion and religious communities in Denmark Denmark enjoys freedom of religion. This means that people are allowed to form congregations for the worship of God in a manner according with their

More information

Higher Level IB History Internal Assessment The Historical Investigation

Higher Level IB History Internal Assessment The Historical Investigation Higher Level IB History Internal Assessment The Historical Investigation What is a Historical Investigation? The historical investigation is a problem-solving activity that enables students to demonstrate

More information

curriculum for excellence building the curriculum 1 the contribution of curriculum areas a guide to developing professional practice

curriculum for excellence building the curriculum 1 the contribution of curriculum areas a guide to developing professional practice building the curriculum 1 the contribution of curriculum areas a guide to developing professional practice > SUCCESSFUL LEARNERS > CONFIDENT INDIVIDUALS > RESPONSIBLE CITIZENS > EFFECTIVE CONTRIBUTORS

More information

MARRIAGE, FAMILY AND DIVORCE A Social Document of the ULCA

MARRIAGE, FAMILY AND DIVORCE A Social Document of the ULCA MARRIAGE, FAMILY AND DIVORCE A Social Document of the ULCA A Series of Statements of the United Lutheran Church in America, 1930, 1936, 1940, 1944, 1956 1930: Minutes, 7th Biennial Convention, ULCA, pp.

More information

SECTION 10.1 TEST (page 84 of Catholic Christianity Revision Guide) MARK SCHEME FOR QUESTION 1

SECTION 10.1 TEST (page 84 of Catholic Christianity Revision Guide) MARK SCHEME FOR QUESTION 1 SECTION 10.1 TEST (page 84 of Catholic Christianity Revision Guide) MARK SCHEME FOR QUESTION 1 Question Example answer Commentary Mark 1a) What is atonement? Reconciliation between God and A correct ()

More information

APEH Essays Rearranged by Freller Chapter 15 Democracy, Totalitarianism and World War II

APEH Essays Rearranged by Freller Chapter 15 Democracy, Totalitarianism and World War II AP European History Mr. Blackmon APEH Essays Rearranged by Freller Chapter 15 Democracy, Totalitarianism and World War II 1919-1945 Enforcing the Treaty of Versailles Great Depression Totalitarianism 1.

More information

Trends and Changes in Library Education in Russia, Ukraine and Baltic States before and after the Fall of USSR/ Sonia Goldsteins

Trends and Changes in Library Education in Russia, Ukraine and Baltic States before and after the Fall of USSR/ Sonia Goldsteins Trends and Changes in Library Education in Russia, Ukraine and Baltic States before and after the Fall of USSR/ Sonia Goldsteins Abstract Social, political and economical changes that occurred during the

More information

Map, Table and Chart Study Related to the Holocaust

Map, Table and Chart Study Related to the Holocaust This packet contains a series of maps, tables, charts and animations that are related to our study of the Holocaust. Save it to your computer and then open it by first launching your web browser. Then

More information