1 Scheme of work Germany, : Democracy and dictatorship This resource gives you one example of a scheme of work for teaching the period study, Germany, : Democracy and dictatorship from our new GCSE in History specification (8145). We hope the suggested activities will support your teaching of this topic. It is intended as a guide only and not as a prescriptive approach. This scheme of work enables students to understand the growth and decline of democracy and the rise and fall of Nazism and the effects these two developments had on the German people. Assumed coverage This teaching and learning plan is intended for 30 classroom lessons, each of one hour. It doesn t include homework learning time, but it covers three revision and assessment lessons. Assessment Assessment points in the learning activity column indicate possible assessment opportunities. These could be short tests of about ten minutes (exam-style questions, short factual tests, source evaluation) or longer assessments (exam-style questions). In the case of resources, research exercises will assume students have access to a textbook(s) and/or internet. Textbook may be supplemented by other sources for comparison.
2 Part one: Germany and the growth of democracy Lesson 1 the growth of Profile of Kaiser Wilhelm II: students parliamentary annotate a range of sources and government. interpretations to draw inferences and the influence of conclusions about the Kaiser s character, Prussian beliefs, aims and the extent of his power. militarism. Spider diagram of German constitution. 2 industrialisation. social reform and the growth of socialism. The focus is on the nature of Germany s pre-war political system, in particular, the role of the Kaiser, the influence of the military and the representative institutions. The focus should be on the challenges faced by the Kaiser and responses to these challenges. Students to adopt different roles: Who really held power in Germany? The Kaiser? The Chancellors? The Reichstag? Did the balance of power change in the years 1890 to 1914? Study of statistical evidence of rapid urbanisation/industrialisation. Group exercise: how to deal with socialism reform or repression? Essay to explain the problems faced and the actions/approaches taken. Judgement question: how explosive was the situation inside Germany? Who or what posed the greatest problem for the Challenging assumptions: ask your students to research the view that the German emperor completely dominated the government. Cartoons of Kaiser, photographs and historical accounts from the Kaiser and members of the Reichstag. For a detailed account: W.Carr, A History of Germany (Hodder Arnold) Chapter 7. Also see Christopher Clark s biography Kaiser Wilhelm II: A life in Power, Penguin, June 2009, ISBN-13: Graphs/statistics of growth of specific industries/cities.
3 governments of Germany?
4 3 The domestic The focus should be on Outline Navy Laws. Class debate: as a importance of the understanding the member of the Kaiser s Navy Laws. impact the Navy Laws Students research contemporary government, explain had on the Kaiser s opinions/ interpretations. Students what might concern you relationship with the consider the following questions. most about the government. problems you face in Were the Navy Laws just the 1914? Kaiser s personal obsession? Why were they introduced and what part did they play in Weltpolitik? Students construct a fact-file to record findings. How far had Germany s problems been successfully dealt with by 1914? Written accounts. Cartoons of the Kaiser s Navy interests. Assessment point: short revision test.
5 4 War weariness. The emphasis should Study evidence of the problems facing Economic be on the state of Germany in 1918, including interim problems. Germany in 1918: the payments made to the Allies before the Defeat. shock of unexpected Reparations Commission report. The end of the defeat, food shortages, monarchy. blockade and political Map of the demands inflicted by the Post-war chaos following the Treaty Of Versailles. problems November Revolution. including reparations. 5 and 6 Post-war problems including reparations; the occupation of the Ruhr and hyperinflation. Weimar democracy; political change and unrest, ; Spartacists; Kapp Putsch; the Munich Putsch. Students should link these events and analyse the relative importance of the political, economic and social causes of distress. Table of Germany s problems, Students classify the problems into political, economic/financial, social, and military related issues. Timeline and fact-file of events, Diagram of the Weimar Constitution. Students categorise events (such as the putschs) into political, economic/financial, social, and military related issues. They draw a table with four columns and populate with the questions below. Describe the problem. Why was it a threat to the Republic? How far was it a threat? What helped the Republic to survive? Students prioritise Germany s problems in order of severity. Students then justify their reasoning and identify further questions they would ask members of the German public. Students choose five sources which best sum up Weimar s problems at this time; then write a commentary to justify their choice. Maps of Welpolitik and colonial aims. Photographs of poverty in Germany Newspaper headlines about defeat/the Treaty of Versailles. Cartoons. Archive film. Map of the Treaty of Versailles. Access details of key events, eg archive footage and photographic evidence (as stimuli) of events stipulated.
6 7 and 8 Review of lessons 4, Students should assess Enquiry: how did the Weimar Republic 5 and 6 the impact of events in survive? Weimar Germany up to 1923 and reflect on the implications for Germany s subsequent developments. Interpretations exercise: students look at interpretations relating to attitudes to Germany s defeat, the Treaty of Versailles and the problems faced by Weimar up to Why do these interpretations differ? Which are more convincing? Causation study relating to unrest: the attitudes of different groups of people to Weimar: monarchists; Communists; Freikorps; Nationalists; Republicans. Further research: is it entirely true to assume that all Germans suffered during this period? For example, did some people prosper from hyperinflation? Contemporary written and later opinions/cartoons about Weimar. For interpretations of the period: E Dobert, Convert to Freedom, 1941; Egon Larsen, Weimar Eyewitness,1976; W.Guttman, The Great Inflation, Class debate: which was the most serious problem Germany faced at this time? Write a report to justify your choice. Assessment point: short factual recall test.
7 9 and 10 The extent of The emphasis is on Enquiry question: how far had Weimar Research opportunity: recovery during the how Germans were recovered by mid-1929? how was news of Stresemann era affected by Weimar s Stresemann s death ( ): recovery in the years Fact file: students research the main reported at the time in Did they economic developments (including Oct 1929? Did feel more optimistic or international agreements), and political obituaries written in pessimistic about what and cultural changes Germany and Britain happened under differ? In what ways Stresemann? How far Card sort: students place the changes did they differ? had Weimar recovered from their fact files into relevant economically and categories, including those about which culturally by 1929? Germans would feel optimistic and/or pessimistic. economic development including the new currency the Dawes Plan and the Young Plan the impact of international agreements on recovery Weimar culture. Role play: students match descriptions of different people s attitudes to Weimar, for example: a communist, an unemployed soldier, a shop keeper, a farmer, a democratic socialist, a Nazi, a business leader and a Jewish doctor. Access to factual details of events in the Stresemann era. Archive, film/cartoons, photos as visual snapshots /stimuli. Opinions/later interpretations as written accounts of attitudes to Weimar. 11 Review of Part one: Germany and the growth of democracy Class debate: what evidence is there to support the view that Weimar had recovered by 1929? Students complete a report on the debate and suggest reasons why extremist parties remained unpopular. Assessment point: students do exam style questions based on Part 1. Opportunity to discuss how to approach exam style questions with the class.
8 Part two: Germany and the Depression Lesson 12 and 13 Growth in support Sources exercise drawing on evidence of for the Nazis and poverty, unemployment and changing other extremist election results. Students match parties , inferences to statements drawn from including the role of source material. the SA; Hitler s appeal. The focus should be on how the Depression linked to political extremism; how far was the rise of the Nazis the result of the Depression as well as the appeal of the Nazis and the fear which was associated with Nazi violence. The appeal of the Nazis: students watch film clips and read interpretations drawn from Nazi supporters/opponents. Why do some interpretations differ? Which are more/most convincing? Students explain the relative importance of a range of factors which might explain Hitler s appeal. These might include: Hitler s ideas attitudes to Weimar fear and the use of SA Hitler s propaganda and oratory support of business leaders. Students write an interview with a member of German society at this time. The interview should explore attitudes to the Depression and the rise of extremist political groups. A wide range of sources are available: visual, written and film clips. Interpretations might include: Albert Speer, Inside the Third Reich, 1960 (also useful throughout the Nazi period); C Zukmayer, A Part of Myself: Portarit of an Epoch 1970; E Amy Buller, Darkness over Germany, A comprehensive set of documents relating to the Nazi state can be found in J.Noakes and G.Pridham, Nazism vols 1 and 2, Exeter University Press.
9 14 Election results; the The emphasis should Research of key historical figures such Class debate: It was role of Papen and be on how Hitler as Hindenburg, Papen and Schleicher. the Weimar Hindenburg and became Chancellor; a Students match statements about these constitution rather Hitler s appointment brief narrative of the individuals to their aims and actions, than the Depression as Chancellor. plotting by key political resulting in Hitler s appointment as which enabled Hitler figures including Chancellor. to become Hindenburg. Students Chancellor. Do you should be aware that Group work: students to argue how far agree? Explain your the failure of Weimar Hitler was in a position of weakness on answer. parties was reflected in the 30th January 1933 and present their their loss of electoral findings. support. Research materials.
10 15 The Reichstag Fire The focus should be on Enquiry question: how did Hitler become Student exercise: how the Reichstag Fire dictator? (For use in lessons 15, 16 and prioritise the was used to promote 17). preconditions which Hitler s dictatorship. Hitler needed to fulfil From a prepared set of sources and in order to become interpretations students draw inferences dictator of Germany. about who was to blame for the Students could then Reichstag Fire. justify their choices. Factual details of events. Eye witness accounts and other sources. 16 the Enabling Act elimination of political opposition trade unions. The focus should be on the key events between 28 th February 1933 and early Starting with the Emergency Decree, the steps by which Hitler arrested suspects, took over regional governments and civil service, passed the Enabling Act, banned trade unions and other political parties. Timeline of key events. Students list the key steps, draw links between them and explain how the links contributed to the formation of Hitler s dictatorship. Exercise: students study a range of interpretations and consider the following questions: What do the interpretations suggest? How and why do they differ? How convincing are the interpretations? Research opportunity: how were these events reported and commented on abroad, such as in Britain? Eye witness accounts, cartoons and archive film. Contrasting interpretations of Hitler s seizure of dictatorial powers.
11 17 Rohm and The focus should be on Night of the Long Knives exercise: the Night of the Long the final step in Hitler drawing on a range of sources, students Knives; Hitler neutralising opposition construct a report about who was becomes Führer. within the Nazi Party. involved, why the event took place and what were its immediate effects. Eye witness accounts, cartoons and archive film. 18 Review Part two: Germany and the Depression Review and assessment Overview opportunity: students explain the relative importance of the factors which allowed Hitler to become Führer; students could include the use of media, the law, violence and intimidation. Assessment point: students analyse two interpretations about the rise of the Nazis and explain which interpretation they found more convincing; complete a bullet point explanation question. Specimen paper
12 Part three: the experiences of Germans under the Nazis Lesson 19 and 20 benefits and Spanning the years Enquiry question: Totalitarian regimes Group work: drawbacks , the focus controlled every aspect of life. Why? students take a employment should be on the extent snapshot of the public works to which the Nazis Students prepare a PowerPoint experiences of programmes brought benefits to presentation of research into different groups of rearmament Germans and interpretations of Nazi economic policies Germans, for self-sufficiency Germany. This clearly and actions. example, in 1935, the impact of the changed over time and 1939, 1941 and war on the changed by different Students categorise a statement bank 1945 and explain economy and the degrees for different into evidence of benefits and drawbacks how the attitudes German people, groups of people. for different groups of people (using the might change at including eight groups of people introduced in each point. bombing, lessons 9 and 10). rationing, labour shortages, Students produce a timeline to show the refugees. fluctuations in key economic indicators between 1933 and 1945; use colour coding to highlight the impact of the war economy. Students write an essay and come to a judgement about benefits and drawbacks of Nazi economic developments. Statistics/photographs. Written accounts. Political cartoons Statements for a statement bank. William L Shirer s The Rise and Fall of the Third Reich, 1960, remains a central text for interpretations about the Nazi state.
13 21 Reasons for policies, The focus should relate Students construct a spider diagram from Class debate: did practices and their to Nazi policies towards studies of Nazi policies towards women, Nazi policies put the impact on women. women: the reasons for to include: role and status of the policies; the aims of policies women on a methods used; their reasons for those aims pedestal? level of success and how the policies changed over their impact on women. time the level of success/failure the effect they had on women. A range of interpretations including ones from women who were there at the time, but survived to write about their experiences later. Interpretations exercise: students study a range of interpretations and consider the following questions: What do the interpretations suggest? How and why do they differ? How convincing are the interpretations?
14 22 and 23 Reasons for This focus should relate Students produce a spider diagram of the policies, to Nazi policies towards structure the Hitler Youth. practices and young people: the their impact on reasons, the methods, Inferences and purpose exercise which young people their level of success enables to students to consider why and youth and their impact on some young people supported Hitler and groups. young people. why others didn t. Students look at Education. written accounts and other sources and consider whether support changed over time and the reasons why it changed. 24 Reasons for policies, practices, and their control of the Churches and religion. The focus should be on Nazi policies towards churches and religion: the reasons, the methods, their level of success and their impact on churches and individuals. Explanation exercise to include the reasons why the Nazis considered control of the young important, the methods they employed (including changes in schooling) and why the Hitler Youth was so attractive. Students to prepare a table listing key religious groups and individuals and then look at how Nazi policies impacted on them and how they reacted to Hitler s policies. Assessment point: short quiz of factual material. Hitler Youth accounts and interpretations such as: H Metelmann, Through Hell for Hitler, 1960; Charles A Beard, Education under the Nazis, in Foreign Affairs,1936; Sophie Scholl s letters.published after the end of World War Two. Visual images of Hitler Youth. Sources relating to changes to the school curriculum. Photos, personal recollections of religious changes. See also W Ebenstein, The Nazi state, 1943 for interpretations about religious and wider policies.
15 25 and 26 Reasons for Students produce a timeline of policies, persecution practices and their impact on racial policy and persecution. Aryan ideas The Final Solution. The focus should be on understanding of Nazi racial policy and their effects why and how were minorities persecuted? How and why did this change over time including the Final Solution? How was it possible to carry out persecution out on a large scale? Card sort to categorise the reasons for racial persecution. Why did the Nazis persecute racial minorities such as Jews? Challenging stereotypes exercise: students look at individual case studies including victims, perpetrators, collaborators, resisters and bystanders. How was it possible to carry out racial persecution on this scale? What are the main characteristics of totalitarian regimes? How far did the Nazis fulfil these characteristics? Which aspect of Nazi policies made them the most dangerous to ordinary people? Holocaust Education Trust gives access to written and visual sources and accounts of anti-semitism. Film records available. The Diaries of Victor Klemperer remain a central resource relating to racial persecution.
16 27 Goebbels. Research: students produce a profile The use of Joseph Goebbels. propaganda and censorship. Nazi culture. The focus should be on the reasons for propaganda and the development of Nazi culture; the methods used; their level of success and their effects on German people. Use of propaganda/censorship: students use a range of propaganda sources to annotate and identify appeal, key messages (both positive and negative), and assess their effectiveness. Students categorise into different forms of appeal via a table with the following headings: community; excitement; power; order etc. Class discussion: why is it so difficult for historians to assess the impact of propaganda on German society? Archive film material. Written and visual sources and interpretations. Group work exercise: students study the importance of the Olympics, the Nuremberg rallies, art, film, posters. Assessment point: students complete an essay assessing how important was Nazi culture to the propaganda effort.
17 28 Repression and the The focus should be on Research: students produce a profile of police state, and the the reasons for Himmler. roles of Himmler, the repression, methods, SS and Gestapo. their impact and their Students study institutions of repression, effect on the German for example, the Gestapo, police, courts, people. concentration camps, SS. In a spider diagram, they identify institutions, describe what they did and access their impact. Students look at interpretations written by people who were there at the time and wrote about their experiences afterwards to explain what Germans remembered of Nazi repression. Why do they differ? How and why are some interpretations more convincing than others? Access to research materials about Himmler. Interpretations about control and repressions during the Nazi regime. 29 Opposition and resistance, including White Rose group, Swing Youth, Edelweiss Pirates and July 1944 bomb plot. The emphasis should be on who opposed the Nazis, why and how effectively were they dealt with? Analytical essay: students explain and assess the importance of opposition to the Nazis. How serious was it? Students complete a peer to peer assessment exercise using the essay and then feedback on what a model answer with a judgement should look like. Interpretations about control and repressions during the Nazi regime, for example, letters written by Sophie Scholl. 30 Parts 1, 2 and 3 Review and Assessment Students complete Section A from the specimen paper in 50 minutes under exam conditions. Specimen paper
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