1 Relationships in Ecosystems Vocabulary
2 Relationships in Ecosystems Big Ideas Diversity and Evolution of Living Organisms Explore the scientific theory of evolution by relating how the inability of a species to adapt within a changing environment may contribute to the extinction of that species. Discuss distinguishing characteristics of the domains and kingdoms of living organisms.
3 Relationships in Ecosystems Big Ideas Interdependence Explain and illustrate the roles of and relationships among producers, consumers, and decomposers in the process of energy transfer in a food web. Compare and contrast the relationships among organisms such as mutualism, predation, parasitism, competition, and commensalism. Describe and investigate various limiting factors in the local ecosystem and their impact on native populations, including food, shelter, water, space, disease, parasitism, predation, and nesting sites.
4 Relationships in Ecosystems Big Ideas Interdependence Compare and contrast the relationships among organisms, including predation, parasitism, competition, commensalism, and mutualism. Use a food web to identify and distinguish producers, consumers, and decomposers. Explain the pathway of energy transfer through trophic levels and the reduction of available energy at successive trophic levels.
5 Relationships in Ecosystems What is an organism? An individual living thing What is an environment? The place where an organism lives (its habitat) What does an organism get from its environment? Food Water Shelter Other things it needs to live, grow and reproduce What is a niche The role an organism plays in its habitat
6 Interactions Among Living Things Niches Organisms occupy many niches in an environment.
7 Relationships in Ecosystems What are the two parts of an organisms habitat? Biotic factors Living or once living Examples: Living organisms, decomposing plant material, owl pellets Abiotic factors Nonliving factors Examples: sunlight, temperature, water
8 Relationships in Ecosystems Some abiotic factors Air 78 % nitrogen, 21 % oxygen and.04% carbon dioxide Water is a major ingredient of the fluid inside the cells of all organisms. Soil is a mixture of mineral and rock particles, the remains of dead organisms, water, and air. The decaying matter found in soil is called humus. Sunlight is the energy source for almost all life on Earth. Temperature of a region depends in part on the amount of sunlight it receives, as well as the latitude and elevation Climate refers to an area s average weather conditions over time, including temperature, rainfall or other precipitation, and wind Wind motion of air from its heating by the Sun creates air currents that are called wind.
9 Living Things and the Environment Factors in a Prairie Habitat A prairie dog interacts with many biotic and abiotic factors in the prairie habitat.
10 Relationships in Ecosystems How is an ecosystem organized? Organisms living things Species organisms that can mate with each other and produce offspring that can also mate and reproduce Population All members of one species in a particular area Community All the different populations in a particular area Ecosystem All of the communities in a particular area Biosphere All of the ecosystems on Earth Draw concentric circles showing the organization of the biosphere
11 Living Things and the Environment Ecological Organization The smallest level of organization is the organism. The largest is the entire ecosystem.
12 Relationships in Ecosystems What is ecology? The study of how organisms interact with each other and with their environment
13 Energy Flow in Living Organisms A food chain shows a sequence of organisms that eat other organisms.
14 Energy Flow in Living Organisms As you can see, organisms that make their own food are called autotrophs or producers Organisms that eat other organisms are called heterotrophs or consumers. Three types: Herbivores eat only producers Omnivores eat producers and other consumers Carnivores eat only other consumers The first heterotroph in a food chain is called the primary consumer, the second, secondary; the third, tertiary Organisms that break down dead organisms are called decomposers (detrivores)
15 Energy Flow in Living Organisms On a page in your notes, draw a food chain. Include a producer, primary, secondary and tertiary consumers and a decomposer. Remember that decomposers return nutrients to producers
16 Energy Flow in Living Organisms For the purposes of energy flow, a food chain (web) involves the transfer of energy from one organism to another through the cycling of matter (food)
17 Energy Flow in Living Organisms As you move up a food chain, energy is converted when organisms higher up eat organisms lower down. Some energy is lost during each conversion (Second Law of Thermodynamics); organisms higher in the food chain receive only part of the energy from the organisms they eat. The energy efficiency of each new level in the food chain is 10% of the level below it.
18 Energy Flow in Living Organisms Because of this loss of energy as organisms eat other organisms, as you move up a food chain, there are fewer and fewer organisms
19 Relationships in Ecosystems Energy Flow in Ecosystems Energy Pyramid Trophic levels Primary Secondary Tertiary
20 Energy Flow in Ecosystems Energy Pyramids Suppose that the producers at the base of an energy pyramid contain 330,000 kilocalories. How much energy would be available at each level of the pyramid?
21 Energy Flow in Ecosystems Food Web A food web consists of many interconnected food chains.
22 Energy Flow in Living Organisms In a food web, lines with arrows are drawn between the organisms being eaten and the organism eating it The arrow always points from the predator toward the prey, because this is the direction of the energy flow
23 Relationships in Ecosystems Common relationships exist between organisms Adaptations can cause special relationships to occur between different species Predator/prey One organism (predator) eats another (prey) Predator adaptations Running fast Hunting at night Prey adaptations Mimicry Camouflage Predator/prey populations An increase in predators may lead to a decrease in prey, which leads to a decrease in predators and an increase in prey Adaptations may cause escalation Faster cheetah selects for faster gembock
24 Interactions Among Living Things Predator-Prey Interactions On Isle Royale, an island in Lake Superior, the populations of wolves (the predator) and moose (the prey) rise and fall in cycles.
25 Relationships in Ecosystems Adaptations can cause special relationships to occur between different species Common relationships exist between organisms Competition organisms compete for food or other resources in the same habitat Adaptations may reduce competition Living in different parts of a tree Feeding at different times of day
26 Relationships in Ecosystems Adaptations can cause special relationships to occur between different species Symbiotic relationships exist between organisms At least one organism must benefit Parasitism Parasites live on (head louse)/in (tapeworm) another animal (host) and feeds on it (parasite benefits at expense of host) Commensalism animals benefit from each other (hermit crabs with sea anemones on its shell) Mutualism animals depend on each other (termites and protozoans that live in their intestines, coral polyps and zooanthellae)
27 Populations Populations change in size Births and deaths Birth rate number of births in a certain time period Death rate number of deaths in a certain time period If birth rate > death rate, population size increases If birth rate < death rate, population size decreases Growth rate = birth rate death rate
28 Populations Immigration and emigration Immigration organisms moving into an area Emigration - organisms moving out of an area Population density Number of individuals / unit area Example: 20 butterflies in a 10 m 2 garden 20/10 = 2 butterflies / m 2
29 Populations Immigration/Emigration in a Rabbit Population This graph shows how the size of a rabbit population changed over ten years.
30 Populations Population Density of the Flamingos in the Pond In the pond on the top, there are 10 flamingos in 8 square meters. The population density is 1.25 flamingos per square meter.
31 Populations Limiting factor Environmental factor that causes a population to stop growing or decrease in size Largest population an area can support is its carrying capacity Factors that limit population growth Food Shelter Water Space Disease Predation and Parasitism Nesting sites
32 Populations Factors that limit population growth in the Everglades Water Flow Pesticides and Herbicides Invasive species (example: Burmese python) Urbanization Water and air quality Food
33 Classwork 1 Copy the questions into your notebook and answer them 1. Name three things an organism gets from its environment 2. factors are living or were once living; factors are non-living 3. Place these in order from smallest to largest: Population Organisms Ecosystem Community Species 1. Name the type of relationship: a. animals benefit from each other b. animals depend on each other c. organisms compete for food or other resources in same niche d. One organism eats another e. One organism lives on/in another 5. List four factors that limit population growth
34 Classwork 1 Copy the questions into your notebook and answer them 1. Identify the type of organism a. break down dead organisms b. eat only other consumers c. eat only producers d. make their own food e. eat producers and other consumers 2. Part of a food chain: Organism A Organism B Which is the predator? 1. In a population, the birth rate is less than the death rate. Is the population increasing or decreasing? 2. As you move up a food chain, energy is converted when organisms higher up eat organisms lower down, but the energy efficiency of each new level in the food chain is 10% of the level below it. How does this affect the number of organisms as you move along?
35 Classwork 1 Copy the questions into your notebook and answer them 10. Name three factors that limit populations in the Everglades