THREE DIMENSIONAL GEOMETRY


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1 Chapter 11 THREE DIMENSIONAL GEOMETRY 111 Overview 1111 Direction cosines of a line are the cosines of the angles made by the line with positive directions of the coordinate axes 111 If l, m, n are the direction cosines of a line, then l + m + n = Direction cosines of a line joining two points P (x 1, y 1, z 1 ) and Q (x, y, z ) are x x 1 1 1, y y, z z, PQ PQ PQ where PQ= ( x x ) +( y y ) + ( z z ) Direction ratios of a line are the numbers which are proportional to the direction cosines of the line 1115 If l, m, n are the direction cosines and a, b, c are the direction ratios of a line, then l ; m ; n 1116 Skew lines are lines in the space which are neither parallel nor interesecting They lie in the different planes 1117 Angle between skew lines is the angle between two intersecting lines drawn from any point (preferably through the origin) parallel to each of the skew lines 1118 If l 1, m 1, n 1 and l, m, n are the direction cosines of two lines and θ is the acute angle between the two lines, then cosθ = ll 1 + mm 1 + nn If a 1, b 1, c 1 and a, b, c are the directions ratios of two lines and θ is the acute angle between the two lines, then
2 THREE DIMENSIONAL GEOMETRY 1 cosθ= aa + bb + cc a a a b b b Vector equation of a line that passes through the given point whose position vector is a and parallel to a given vector b is r= a+λb Equation of a line through a point (x 1, y 1, z 1 ) and having directions cosines l, m, n (or, direction ratios a, b and c) is x x1 y y1 z z1 = = or l m n x x1 y y1 z z1 = = 1111 The vector equation of a line that passes through two points whose positions vectors are a and b is r= a+λ( b a) Cartesian equation of a line that passes through two points (x 1, y 1, z 1 ) and (x, y, z ) is x x1 y y1 z z1 = = x x y y z z If θ is the acute angle between the lines r = a1+λb 1 b1 b b 1 1 b θ is given by cosθ= or θ= cos b b b b 1 1 and r = a+λb, then x x1 y y1 z z1 x x y y z z If = = l1 m1 n and = = 1 l1 m n are equations of two lines, then the acute angle θ between the two lines is given by cosθ = ll 1 + mm 1 + nn The shortest distance between two skew lines is the length of the line segment perpendicular to both the lines The shortest distance between the lines r = a1+λb and 1 r = a+λb is
3 MATHEMATICS b1 b a a1 b b Shortest distance between the lines: x x1 y y1 z z1 = = and x x y y z z = = is x x y y z z ( bc bc) ( ca c a) ( ab a b) Distance between parallel lines r a1 b and r = a +λb is b a a1 b 1110 The vector equation of a plane which is at a distance p from the origin, where ˆn is the unit vector normal to the plane, is r nˆ = p 1111 Equation of a plane which is at a distance p from the origin with direction cosines of the normal to the plane as l, m, n is lx + my + nz = p 111 The equation of a plane through a point whose position vector is a and perpendicular to the vector n is ( r a) n= 0or rn = d, where d = a n 1113 Equation of a plane perpendicular to a given line with direction ratios a, b, c and passing through a given point (x 1, y 1, z 1 ) is a (x x 1 ) + b (y y 1 ) + c (z z 1 ) = Equation of a plane passing through three noncollinear points (x 1, y 1, z 1 ), (x, y, z ) and (x 3, y 3, z 3 ) is
4 THREE DIMENSIONAL GEOMETRY 3 x x1 y y1 z z1 x x1 y y1 z z1 = 0 x x y y z z Vector equation of a plane that contains three noncollinear points having position vectors a, b, c is ( r a) ( b a) ( c a) = Equation of a plane that cuts the coordinates axes at (a, 0, 0), (0, b, 0) and x y z (0, 0, c ) is + + = Vector equation of any plane that passes through the intersection of planes r n1= d1and r n= d is ( r n1 d1) +λ( r n d) = 0, where λ is any nonzero constant 1118Cartesian equation of any plane that passes through the intersection of two given planes A 1 x + B 1 y + C 1 z + D 1 = 0 and A x + B y + C z + D = 0 is (A 1 x + B 1 y + C 1 z + D 1 ) + λ ( A x + B y + C z + D ) = Two lines r a1 b and 1 r = a+λb are coplanar if ( a a1)( b1 b) = 0 x x1 y y1 z z Two lines x x y y z z and are coplanar if x x y y z z = 0, 11131In vector form, if θ is the acute angle between the two planes, r n1 = d1 and 1 n1 n r n = d, then θ= cos n n The acute angle θ between the line r a b and plane r n = d is given by
5 4 MATHEMATICS sin θ= b n b n 11 Solved Examples Short Answer (SA) Example 1 If the direction ratios of a line are 1, 1,, find the direction cosines of the line Solution The direction cosines are given by l=, m =, n= a + b + c a + b + c a + b + c Here a, b, c are 1, 1,, respectively Therefore, l= 1, m = 1, n= ie, 1 1 l=, m=, n= ie ±,, are DC s of the line Example Find the direction cosines of the line passing through the points P (, 3, 5) and Q ( 1,, 4) Solution The direction cosines of a line passing through the points P (x 1, y 1, z 1 ) and Q (x, y, z ) are x x, y y, z z PQ PQ PQ Here PQ = ( x x ) + ( y y ) + ( z z ) = ( 1 ) + ( 3) + (4 5) = = 11 Hence DC s are
6 THREE DIMENSIONAL GEOMETRY 5 ± 3 1 1,, or ±,, Example 3 If a line makes an angle of 30, 60, 90 with the positive direction of x, y, zaxes, respectively, then find its direction cosines Solution The direction cosines of a line which makes an angle of α, β, γ with the axes, are cosα, cosβ, cosγ Therefore, DC s of the line are cos30, cos60, cos90 ie, 3 1 ±,, 0 Example 4 The xcoordinate of a point on the line joining the points Q (,, 1) and R (5, 1, ) is 4 Find its zcoordinate Solution Let the point P divide QR in the ratio λ : 1, then the coordinate of P are But x coordinate of P is 4 Therefore, 5λ+ = 4 λ= λ+ 1 5λ+ λ+ λ+ 1,, λ+ 1 λ+ 1 λ+ 1 Hence, the zcoordinate of P is λ+ 1 = 1 λ+ 1 Example 5 Find the distance of the point whose position vector is ( iˆ+ ˆj kˆ ) from the plane r ( î ĵ + 4 ˆk ) = 9 Solution Here a = iˆ+ ˆj kˆ, n iˆ ˆj 4kˆ and d = 9 ( iˆ ˆj kˆ ) ( iˆ ˆj kˆ ) So, the required distance is
7 6 MATHEMATICS = = 1 1 Example 6 Find the distance of the point (, 4, 5) from the line Solution Here P (, 4, 5) is the given point Any point Q on the line is given by (3λ 3, 5λ + 4, (6λ 8 ), x + 3 y 4 z + 8 = = Since PQ = (3λ 1) PQ ( 3iˆ 5ˆj 6kˆ ) + +, we have iˆ+ 5 λ ˆj+ (6λ 3) kˆ 3 (3λ 1) + 5( 5λ) λ) + 6 (6λ 3 ) = 0 9λ + 5λ + 36λ = 1, ie λ = 3 10 Thus Hence PQ = i ˆ + ˆ j k ˆ PQ = = Example 7 Find the coordinates of the point where the line through (3, 4, 5) and (, 3, 1) crosses the plane passing through three points (,, 1), (3, 0, 1) and (4, 1, 0) Solution Equation of plane through three points (,, 1), (3, 0, 1) and (4, 1, 0) is ie ( r (iˆ+ ˆj+ kˆ) ( iˆ ˆj) ( iˆ ˆj kˆ) = 0 r( iˆ+ ˆj+ kˆ ) = 7 or x + y + z 7 = 0 (1) Equation of line through (3, 4, 5) and (, 3, 1) is x 3 y + 4 z + 5 = = ()
8 THREE DIMENSIONAL GEOMETRY 7 Any point on line () is ( λ + 3, λ 4, 6λ 5) This point lies on plane (1) Therefore, ( λ + 3) + (λ 4) + (6λ 5) 7 = 0, ie, λ = z Hence the required point is (1,, 7) Long Answer (LA) Example 8 Find the distance of the point ( 1, 5, 10) from the point of intersection of the line r= iˆ ˆj+ kˆ+λ (3iˆ+ 4ˆj+ kˆ ) and the plane r( iˆ ˆj+ kˆ ) = 5 Solution We have r= iˆ ˆj+ kˆ+λ (3iˆ+ 4ˆj+ kˆ) and r( iˆ ˆj+ kˆ ) = 5 Solving these two equations, we get [(iˆ ˆj+ kˆ) +λ (3iˆ+ 4 ˆj+ kˆ)]( iˆ ˆj+ kˆ) = 5 which gives λ = 0 Therefore, the point of intersection of line and the plane is (, 1,) and the other given point is ( 1, 5, 10) Hence the distance between these two points is ( 1) [ 1 5] [ ( 10)], ie 13 Example 9 A plane meets the coordinates axis in A, B, C such that the centroid of the Δ ABC is the point (α, β, γ) Show that the equation of the plane is x y z + + = 3 α β γ Solution Let the equation of the plane be x a + y b + z c = 1 Then the coordinate of A, B, C are (a, 0, 0), (0,b,0) and (0, 0, c) respectively Centroid of the Δ ABC is x x x, y y y, z z z ie,, But coordinates of the centroid of the Δ ABC are (α, β, γ) (given)
9 8 MATHEMATICS Therefore, α = 3 a, β = 3 b, γ = 3 c, ie a = 3α, b = 3β, c = 3γ Thus, the equation of plane is x y z + + = 3 α β γ Example 10 Find the angle between the lines whose direction cosines are given by the equations: 3l + m + 5n = 0 and 6mn nl + 5lm = 0 Solution Eliminating m from the given two equations, we get n + 3 ln + l = 0 (n + l) (n + l) = 0 either n = l or l = n Now if l = n, then m = n and if l = n, then m = n Thus the direction ratios of two lines are proportional to n, n, n and n, n, n, ie 1,, 1 and, 1, 1 So, vectors parallel to these lines are a = i + j k and If θ is the angle between the lines, then cos θ = a b a b b = i + j + k, respectively = ( i+ j k) i+ j+ k ( ) ( 1) ( ) = 1 6 Hence θ = cos 1 1 6
10 THREE DIMENSIONAL GEOMETRY 9 Example 11 Find the coordinates of the foot of perpendicular drawn from the point A (1, 8, 4) to the line joining the points B (0, 1, 3) and C (, 3, 1) Solution Let L be the foot of perpendicular drawn from the points A (1, 8, 4) to the line passing through B and C as shown in the Fig 11 The equation of line BC by using formula r = a + λ ( b a ), the equation of the line BC is r = ( j+ 3k ) +λ i j 4k ( ) xi yi zk = i 1 i 3 4 k Comparing both sides, we get x = λ, y = (λ + 1), z = 3 4λ (1) Thus, the coordinate of L are (λ, (λ + 1), (3 4λ), so that the direction ratios of the line AL are (1 λ), 8 + (λ + 1), 4 (3 4λ), ie 1 λ, λ + 9, 1 + 4λ Since AL is perpendicular to BC, we have, (1 λ) ( 0) + (λ + 9) ( 3 + 1) + (4λ + 1) ( 1 3) = 0 λ = 5 6 The required point is obtained by substituting the value of λ, in (1), which is
11 30 MATHEMATICS 5 19,, Example 1 Find the image of the point (1, 6, 3) in the line x y 1 z 1 3 Solution Let P (1, 6, 3) be the given point and let L be the foot of perpendicular from P to the given line The coordinates of a general point on the given line are x 0 y 1 z 1 3, ie, x = λ, y = λ + 1, z = 3λ + If the coordinates of L are (λ, λ + 1, 3λ + ), then the direction ratios of PL are λ 1, λ 5, 3λ 1 But the direction ratios of given line which is perpendicular to PL are 1,, 3 Therefore, (λ 1) 1 + (λ 5) + (3λ 1) 3 = 0, which gives λ = 1 Hence coordinates of L are (1, 3, 5) Let Q (x 1, y 1, z 1 ) be the image of P (1, 6, 3) in the given line Then L is the midpoint x1 1 y1 6 z1 3 of PQ Therefore, 1, 3 5 x 1 = 1, y 1 = 0, z 1 = 7 Hence, the image of (1, 6, 3) in the given line is (1, 0, 7)
12 THREE DIMENSIONAL GEOMETRY 31 Example 13 Find the image of the point having position vector i 3 j 4 k in the plane r i j k 3 0 Solution Let the given point be P i 3j 4k and Q be the image of P in the plane r i j k 3 0 as shown in the Fig 114 Then PQ is the normal to the plane Since PQ passes through P and is normal to the given plane, so the equation of PQ is given by r = i 3j 4k i j k Since Q lies on the line PQ, the position vector of Q can be expressed as λ i+ 3 λ j+ 4+ λ k i j k i j k, ie, ( ) ( ) ( ) Since R is the mid point of PQ, the position vector of R is ( 1+ λ ) i+ ( 3 λ ) j+ ( 4+λ ) k + i+ 3 j+ 4k
13 3 MATHEMATICS ie, λ ( 1) 3 λ λ+ i+ j 4 k + + Again, since R lies on the plane r ( i j+ k) + 3= 0, we have λ ( 1) 3 j λ 4 λ+ i+ + + k ( i j k + ) + 3= 0 λ = Hence, the position vector of Q is ( i + 3j + 4k) i j k, ie 3 i+ 5j + k Objective Type Questions Choose the correct answer from the given four options in each of the Examples 14 to 19 Example 14 The coordinates of the foot of the perpendicular drawn from the point (, 5, 7) on the xaxis are given by (A) (, 0, 0) (B) (0, 5, 0) (C) (0, 0, 7) (D) (0, 5, 7) Solution (A) is the correct answer Example 15 P is a point on the line segment joining the points (3,, 1) and (6,, ) If x coordinate of P is 5, then its y coordinate is (A) (B) 1 (C) 1 (D) Solution (A) is the correct answer Let P divides the line segment in the ratio of λ : 1, x  coordinate of the point P may be expressed as λ = Thus ycoordinate of P is λ+ = λ+ 1 6λ+ 3 x = giving 6 λ+ 3 = 5 λ+ 1 λ+ 1 so that Example 16 If α, β, γ are the angles that a line makes with the positive direction of x, y, z axis, respectively, then the direction cosines of the line are (A) sin α, sin β, sin γ (B) cos α, cos β, cos γ (C) tan α, tan β, tan γ (D) cos α, cos β, cos γ
14 THREE DIMENSIONAL GEOMETRY 33 Solution (B) is the correct answer Example 17 The distance of a point P (a, b, c) from xaxis is (A) a c (B) a b (C) b c (D) b + c Solution (C) is the correct answer The required distance is the distance of P (a, b, c) from Q (a, o, o), which is b c Example 18 The equations of xaxis in space are (A) x = 0, y = 0 (B) x = 0, z = 0 (C) x = 0 (D) y = 0, z = 0 Solution (D) is the correct answer On xaxis the y coordinate and z coordinates are zero Example 19 A line makes equal angles with coordinate axis Direction cosines of this line are (A) ± (1, 1, 1) (B) ±,, (C) ±,, (D) ±,, Solution (B) is the correct answer Let the line makes angle α with each of the axis Then, its direction cosines are cos α, cos α, cos α Since cos α + cos α + cos α = 1 Therefore, cos α = 1 3 Fill in the blanks in each of the Examples from 0 to Example 0 If a line makes angles its direction cosines are 3, 4 and 4 with x, y, z axis, respectively, then
15 34 MATHEMATICS Solution The direction cosines are cos, cos 3 4, cos 4, ie, 1 1 ± 0, Example 1 If a line makes angles α, β, γ with the positive directions of the coordinate axes, then the value of sin α + sin β + sin γ is Solution Note that sin α + sin β + sin γ = (1 cos α) + (1 cos β) + (1 cos γ) = 3 (cos α + cos β + cos γ) = Example If a line makes an angle of 4 with each of y and z axis, then the angle which it makes with xaxis is Solution Let it makes angle α with xaxis Then cos α + cos + 4 cos = 1 4 which after simplification gives α = State whether the following statements are True or False in Examples 3 and 4 Example 3 The points (1,, 3), (, 3, 4) and (7, 0, 1) are collinear Solution Let A, B, C be the points (1,, 3), (, 3, 4) and (7, 0, 1), respectively Then, the direction ratios of each of the lines AB and BC are proportional to 3, 1, 1 Therefore, the statement is true Example 4 The vector equation of the line passing through the points (3,5,4) and (5,8,11) is r 3iˆ 5ˆj 4kˆ ( iˆ 3ˆj 7kˆ) Solution The position vector of the points (3,5,4) and (5,8,11) are r r a 3iˆ 5ˆj 4kb ˆ, 5iˆ 8ˆj 11k ˆ, and therefore, the required equation of the line is given by r 3iˆ 5ˆj 4kˆ ( iˆ 3ˆj 7kˆ) Hence, the statement is true
16 THREE DIMENSIONAL GEOMETRY EXERCISE Short Answer (SA) 1 Find the position vector of a point A in space such that OA is inclined at 60º to OX and at 45 to OY and OA = 10 units Find the vector equation of the line which is parallel to the vector 3iˆ ˆj 6kˆ and which passes through the point (1,,3) 3 Show that the lines x 1 y z x 4 y 1 and = = z intersect 5 Also, find their point of intersection 4 Find the angle between the lines r = 3iˆ ˆj+ 6 kˆ+ λ(iˆ+ ˆj+ kˆ r ) and = ( ˆj 5 kˆ) + μ(6iˆ+ 3ˆj+ kˆ) 5 Prove that the line through A (0, 1, 1) and B (4, 5, 1) intersects the line through C (3, 9, 4) and D ( 4, 4, 4) 6 Prove that the lines x = py + q, z = ry + s and x = p y + q, z = r y + s are perpendicular if pp + rr + 1 = 0 7 Find the equation of a plane which bisects perpendicularly the line joining the points A (, 3, 4) and B (4, 5, 8) at right angles 8 Find the equation of a plane which is at a distance 3 3 units from origin and the normal to which is equally inclined to coordinate axis 9 If the line drawn from the point (, 1, 3) meets a plane at right angle at the point (1, 3, 3), find the equation of the plane 10 Find the equation of the plane through the points (, 1, 0), (3,, ) and (3, 1, 7)
17 36 MATHEMATICS 11 Find the equations of the two lines through the origin which intersect the line x 3 y 3 z π = = at angles of each Find the angle between the lines whose direction cosines are given by the equations l + m + n = 0, l + m n = 0 13 If a variable line in two adjacent positions has direction cosines l, m, n and l + δl, m + δm, n + δn, show that the small angle δθ between the two positions is given by δθ = δl + δm + δn 14 O is the origin and A is (a, b, c)find the direction cosines of the line OA and the equation of plane through A at right angle to OA 15 Two systems of rectangular axis have the same origin If a plane cuts them at distances a, b, c and a, b, c, respectively, from the origin, prove that = a b c Long Answer (LA) 16 Find the foot of perpendicular from the point (,3, 8) to the line 4 x y 1 z Also, find the perpendicular distance from the given point 6 3 to the line 17 Find the distance of a point (,4, 1) from the line x 5 y 3 z Find the length and the foot of perpendicular from the point 1,, to the plane x y + 4z + 5 = 0 19 Find the equations of the line passing through the point (3,0,1) and parallel to the planes x + y = 0 and 3y z = 0
18 THREE DIMENSIONAL GEOMETRY 37 0 Find the equation of the plane through the points (,1, 1) and ( 1,3,4), and perpendicular to the plane x y + 4z = 10 1 Find the shortest distance between the lines given by r= (8+ 3 λiˆ (9+ 16 λ) ˆj+ ˆ ( λ ) kand r= 15iˆ+ 9 ˆj+ 5 kˆ+μ (3iˆ+ 8 ˆj 5 kˆ) Find the equation of the plane which is perpendicular to the plane 5x + 3y + 6z + 8 = 0 and which contains the line of intersection of the planes x + y + 3z 4 = 0 and x + y z + 5 = 0 3 The plane ax + by = 0 is rotated about its line of intersection with the plane z = 0 through an angle α Prove that the equation of the plane in its new position is ax + by ± ( a + b tan α) z = 0 4 Find the equation of the plane through the intersection of the planes r ( î + 3 ĵ ) 6 = 0 and r (3 î ĵ 4 ˆk ) = 0, whose perpendicular distance from origin is unity 5 Show that the points ( iˆ ˆj+ 3 kˆ ) and 3( iˆ+ ˆj+ kˆ ) are equidistant from the plane r(5iˆ+ ˆj 7 kˆ ) + 9= 0 and lies on opposite side of it 6 AB= 3 iˆ ˆj+ kˆ and CD = 3iˆ+ ˆj+ 4kˆare two vectors The position vectors of the points A and C are 6iˆ+ 7ˆj+ 4kˆ and 9ˆj+ kˆ, respectively Find the position vector of a point P on the line AB and a point Q on the line CD such that PQ is perpendicular to AB and CD both 7 Show that the straight lines whose direction cosines are given by l + m n = 0 and mn + nl + lm = 0 are at right angles 8 If l 1, m 1, n 1 ; l, m, n ; l 3, m 3, n 3 are the direction cosines of three mutually perpendicular lines, prove that the line whose direction cosines are proportional to l 1 + l + l 3, m 1 + m + m 3, n 1 + n + n 3 makes equal angles with them Objective Type Questions Choose the correct answer from the given four options in each of the Exercises from 9 to 36 9 Distance of the point (α,β,γ) from yaxis is
19 38 MATHEMATICS (A) β (B) β (C) β + γ (D) α + γ 30 If the directions cosines of a line are k,k,k, then (A) k>0 (B) 0<k<1 (C) k=1 (D) k 1 3 or The distance of the plane r ˆ 3 ˆ 6 ˆ i + j k = 1 from the origin is (A) 1 (B) 7 (C) 1 7 (D) None of these 3 The sine of the angle between the straight line plane x y + z = 5 is x y 3 z and the (A) (B) 4 5 (C) The reflection of the point (α,β,γ) in the xy plane is (A) (α,β,0) (B) (0,0,γ) (C) ( α, β,γ) (D) (α,β, γ) 34 The area of the quadrilateral ABCD, where A(0,4,1), B (, 3, 1), C(4, 5, 0) and D (, 6, ), is equal to (A) 9 sq units (B) 18 sq units (C) 7 sq units (D) 81 sq units 35 The locus represented by xy + yz = 0 is (A) A pair of perpendicular lines (B) A pair of parallel lines (C) A pair of parallel planes (D) A pair of perpendicular planes 36 The plane x 3y + 6z 11 = 0 makes an angle sin 1 (α) with xaxis The value of α is equal to (D) 10 (A) 3 (B) 3 (C) 7 (D) 3 7
20 THREE DIMENSIONAL GEOMETRY 39 Fill in the blanks in each of the Exercises 37 to A plane passes through the points (,0,0) (0,3,0) and (0,0,4) The equation of plane is 38 The direction cosines of the vector (iˆ ˆj k ˆ) are 39 The vector equation of the line x 5 y 4 z is 40 The vector equation of the line through the points (3,4, 7) and (1, 1,6) is 41 r The cartesian equation of the plane ( iˆ ˆj k ˆ) is State True or False for the statements in each of the Exercises 4 to 49 4 The unit vector normal to the plane x + y +3z 6 = 0 is 1 3 i ˆ ˆ j k ˆ The intercepts made by the plane x 3y + 5z +4 = 0 on the coordinate axis are, 4, The angle between the line r (5 iˆ ˆj 4 kˆ) ( iˆ ˆj kˆ) and the plane r(3 iˆ 4 ˆj k ˆ) 5 0 is 1 5 sin The angle between the planes r( iˆ 3 ˆj k ˆ) 1 and r( iˆ ˆj ) 4 is 1 5 cos The line r iˆ 3 ˆj kˆ ( iˆ ˆj kˆ) lies in the plane r(3 iˆ ˆj k ˆ) 0 47 The vector equation of the line x 5 y 4 z is
21 40 MATHEMATICS r 5 iˆ 4ˆj 6 kˆ (3iˆ 7ˆj kˆ) 48 The equation of a line, which is parallel to iˆ ˆj 3k ˆ and which passes through x 5 y z 4 the point (5,,4), is If the foot of perpendicular drawn from the origin to a plane is (5, 3, ), then the equation of plane is r(5 iˆ 3ˆj kˆ ) = 38
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