# Elements of a graph. Click on the links below to jump directly to the relevant section

Size: px
Start display at page:

Download "Elements of a graph. Click on the links below to jump directly to the relevant section"

Transcription

1 Click on the links below to jump directly to the relevant section Elements of a graph Linear equations and their graphs What is slope? Slope and y-intercept in the equation of a line Comparing lines on a graph Intersections and shifts of two lines Nonlinear relationships Elements of a graph We often use graphs to give us a picture of the relationships between variables. Let's first look at the basic construction of graphs. _The modern Cartesian coordinate system in two dimensions (also called a rectangular coordinate system) consists of two axes called the x (horizontal) and y (vertical) axes. These axes correspond to the variables we are relating. We can also give the axes different names, such as Price and Quantity. _The point where the two axes intersect is called the origin. The origin is also identified as the point (0, 0).

2 _The arrows on the axes indicate that they extend forever in the same direction. _The intersection of the two axes creates four quadrants indicated by the roman numerals I, II, III, and IV. Conventionally, the quadrants are labeled counterclockwise starting from the northeast quadrant. In Quadrant I the values are (x,y), and II:(-x,y), III:(-x,-y) and IV:(x,-y). (See table below.) _To specify a particular point on a two dimensional coordinate system, you indicate the x unit first (abscissa), followed by the y unit (ordinate) in the form (x,y). (x,y) is called an ordered pair. _An example of a point P on the system is indicated in the picture above using the coordinates (5,2). 5 is the x-coordinate and 2 is the y-coordinate of point P. _Note: In a three dimensional coordinate system, another axis, normally labeled z, is added, providing a sense of a third dimension of space measurement. The axes are commonly defined as mutually orthogonal to each other (each at a right angle to the other). Coordinates in three dimensions are given as (x,y,z). Coordinates of Points A coordinate is one of a set of numbers used to identify the location of a point on a graph. Each point is identified by both an x-coordinate and a y-coordinate. Identifying the x-coordinate The x-coordinate of a point is the value that tells you how far from the origin the point is on the horizontal, or x-axis. To find the x-coordinate of a point on a graph: _Draw a straight line from the point directly to the x-axis. _The number where the line hits the x-axis is the value of the x-coordinate.

3 Below is a graph with two points, B and D. In this figure: _The x-coordinate of point B is 100. _The x-coordinate of point D is 400. Identifying the y-coordinate The y-coordinate of a point is the value that tells you how far from the origin the point is on the vertical, or y-axis. To find the y-coordinate of a point on a graph: _Draw a straight line from the point directly to the y-axis. _The number where the line hits the axis is the value of the y-coordinate. Looking back at the graph with our points B and D, we now identify the y-coordinate for each. _The y-coordinate of point B is 400. _The y-coordinate of point D is 100.

4 Notation for Identifying Points Points are identified by stating their coordinates in the form of (x, y). Note that the x- coordinate always comes first. _The x-coordinate of point B is 100. _The y-coordinate of point B is 400. _Coordinates of point B are (100, 400) _The x-coordinate of point D is 400. _The y-coordinate of point D is 100. _Coordinates of point D are (400, 100) Points On The Axes In the figure below, point A lies on the y-axis and point C lies on the x-axis. When a point lies on an axis, one of its coordinates must be zero. Point A--If you look at how far the point is from the origin along the x-axis, the answer is zero. Therefore, the x-coordinate is zero. Any point that lies on the y-axis has an x- coordinate of zero. If you move along the y-axis to find the y-coordinate, the point is 400 from the origin. The coordinates of point A are (0, 400). Point C--If you look at how far the point is from the origin along the y-axis, the answer is zero. Therefore, the y-coordinate is zero. Any point that lies on the x-axis has a y-coordinate of zero. If you move along the x-axis to find the x-coordinate, the point is 200 from the origin. The coordinates of point C are (200, 0).

5 Example 1. Which point is labeled (20, 60)? 2. Which point(s) have a y-coordinate of 30? Answers to Example 1. Which point is labeled (20, 60)? Point B 2. Which point(s) have a y-coordinate of 30? Points A & C

6 Plotting Points on a Graph There are times when you are given a point and will need to find its location on a graph. This process is often referred to as plotting a point and uses the same skills as identifying the coordinates of a point on a graph. The process for plotting a point is shown using an example. Example Plot the point (200, 300). Step One Step Two Step Three Then, draw a line extending out from the y- axis at the y-coordinate of the point. In our example, this is at 300. First, draw a line extending out from the x- axis at the x-coordinate of the point. In our example, this is at 200. The point where these two lines intersect is at the point we are plotting, (200, 300). Linear equations and their graphs Linear Relationships Many graphs will display linear relationships, and you will need to interpret what is happening. There are several components of relationships that can be quickly determined from a graph once you know what to look for. Two sets of data that are negatively or inversely related, such as ticket price and the attendance at basketball games, graph as a downward sloping line.

7 The example above shows the relationship between ticket prices and attendance. From this graph, you can see that this is a linear relationship where attendance will go down as ticket prices go up. This graph allows you to determine how much you should charge for a ticket. Using this graph involves an understanding of linear relationships and how to graph equations of straight lines. Variables and Constants You will often come across characteristics or elements such as rates, outputs, income, etc., measured by numerical values. Some of these will always remain the same, and some will change. The characteristic or element that remains the same is called a constant. For example, the number of donuts in a dozen is always 12. Therefore, the number of donuts in a dozen is a constant. While some of these characteristics or elements remain the same, some of these values can vary (e.g., the price of a dozen donuts can change from \$2.50 to \$3.00). We call these characteristics or elements variables. Variable is the generic term for any characteristic or element that changes. You should be able to determine which characteristics or elements are constants and which are variables. Relationships Between Variables We express a relationship between two variables, which we will refer to as x and y, by stating the following: The value of the variable y depends upon the value of the variable x. We can write the relationship between variables in an equation. For instance: y = a + bx is an example of a relationship between x and y variables. The equation also has an "a" and "b" in it. These are constants that help define the relationship between the two variables. _In this equation the y variable is dependent on the values of x, a, and b. The y is the dependent variable. _The value of x, on the other hand, is independent of the values y, a, and b. The x is the independent variable.

8 The following is an example to illustrate how these equations are constructed. Throughout this tutorial we will use an example of a pizza shop that charges 7 dollars for a plain pizza with no toppings and 75 cents for each additional topping added. The total price of a pizza (y) depends upon the number of toppings (x) you order. The price of a pizza is a dependent variable and number of toppings is the independent variable. In this example, both the price and the number of toppings can change; therefore, both are variables. The total price of the pizza also depends on the price of a plain pizza and the price per topping. In our example, the price of a plain pizza and the price per topping do not change; therefore, these are constants. The relationship between the price of a pizza and the number of toppings can be expressed as an equation of the form: y = a + bx If we know that x (the number of toppings) and y (the total price) represent variables, what are a and b? In our pizza example, "a" is the price of a plain pizza with no toppings and "b" is the price of each topping. They are constant. In other words, they are fixed values that specify how x relates to y. We can set up an equation to show how the total price of pizza relates to the number of toppings ordered. If we create a table of this particular relationship between x and y, we'll see all the combinations of x and y that fit the equation. For example, if plain pizza (a) is \$7.00 and price of each topping (b) is \$.75, we get: y = x

9 given: The procedure for graphing this relationship: 1. Generate a list of points for the relationship. 2. Draw a set of axes and define the scale. 3. Plot the points on the axes. 4. Draw the line by connecting the points. 1. Generate a list of points for the relationship. The first step in the process is to generate a list of points to graph. You do this by selecting several values for the x- coordinate. (NOTE: While two points define a straight line, using three points serves as an extra check that you have done all the calculations correctly. All three points should lie on the same straight line.) Once you have selected values for x, use the equation to calculate their corresponding y values. In the pizza example, the equation is y = x. You first select values of x you will solve for. You then substitute these values into the equation and solve for the y values. In the table below, for each given x value you can see the calculation of each of the y values.

10 After you have completed your table, you should end up with the following list of points: (0, 7.00), (1, 7.75), (2, 8.50), (3, 9.25), (4, 10.00) Notice the coordinates for each point are written using the (x, y) notation. You are now ready to create the graph of these points on a set of axes. 2. Draw a set of axes and define the scale. Once you have your list of points, you are ready to plot them on a graph. The first step in drawing the graph is setting up the axes and determining the scale. The points you have to plot are: (0, 7.00), (1, 7.75), (2, 8.50), (3, 9.25), (4, 10.00) Notice that the x values range from 0 to 4 and the y values go from 7 to 10. The scale of the two axes must include all the points. The distance between the points must be equal on each axis but does not have to be the same for both axes. On the diagram below, notice that the x-axis goes up to 5 and the y-axis goes up to 10; the scale on each axis can be different.

11 3. Plot the points on the axes. After you have drawn the axes, you are ready to plot the points. 4. Draw the line by connecting the points. Once you have plotted each of the points, you can connect them and draw a straight line.

12 Checking a Point in the Equation If, by chance, you have a point and you wish to determine if it lies on the line, you simply go through the same process as generating points. Use the x value given in the point and insert it into the equation. Compare the y value calculated with the one given in the point. Example Does point (6, 10) lie on the line y = x given in our pizza example? To determine this, we need to plug the point (6, 10) into the equation. As we can see here, the point with an x value of 6 that does lie on the line is (6, 11.5). This means that the point (6, 10) does not lie on our line. What is slope? The slope is used to tell us how much one variable (y) changes in relation to the change of another variable (x).

13 We also refer to slope as a ratio of rise to run. Slope = rise/run. Let's go back to the pizza example. As you may recall, a plain pizza with no toppings was priced at 7 dollars. As you add one topping, the cost goes up by 75 cents. In the case of our pizza example, the slope is given in the equation on the right. The price of a pizza changes at a rate of 75 cents for each one topping added. Calculating the Slope To calculate the slope of a line you need only two points from that line, (x1, y1) and (x2, y2). The equation used to calculate the slope from two points is: Note: (y 2 -y 1 ) = rise (x 2 -x 1 ) = run Therefore, slope= rise/run. There are three steps in calculating the slope of a straight line when you are not given its equation. 1. Step One: Identify two points on the line. 2. Step Two: Select one to be (x1, y1) and the other to be (x2, y2). 3. Step Three: Use the slope equation to calculate slope. Rate of Change The ratio of the change in quantity Y to a change in a related quantity, X, is called the rate of change of Y. We calculate the rate of change of Y by dividing the change in Y by the change in X. The rate of change in Y =

14 Now look at the equation for slope. The equation for slope is the same as the equation for calculating the rate of change. Slope represents a rate of change. NOTE: Recall that the growth rate (or percentage change) was calculated by measuring the change in X from time one to time two, dividing the change by the value for X in time one, and multiplying by 100. Growth rate (or percentage change) is a measure of the change in a single variable, whereas rate of change measures the ratio of change between two related variables. Example: Let's say that points (15,8) and (10,7) lie on a straight line. What is the slope of this line? 1. Step One: Identify two points on the line. We are given two points, (15, 8) and (10, 7), on a straight line. 2. Step Two: Select one to be (x1, y1) and the other to be (x2, y2). It doesn't matter which we choose, so let's take (15, 8) to be (x2, y2). Let's take the point (10, 7) to be the point (x1, y1). 3. Step Three: Use the equation to calculate slope. We said that it really doesn't matter which point we choose to be (x1, y1) and which point we choose to be (x2, y2). Let's show that this is true. Take the same two points (15, 8) and (10, 7), but this time we will calculate the slope using (15, 8) as (x1, y1) and (10, 7) as the point (x2, y2). Then substitute these into the equation for slope: We get the same answer as before.

15 Now, take a moment to compare the two lines on the graph below. Notice that the line with the greater slope is the steeper of the two. The greater the slope, the steeper the line. Determining Whether the Slope of a Line is Positive, Negative, Infinite or Zero Let's take a moment to look at what happens when a line has a negative slope. Keeping in mind that the slope is given by: In the figure, the slope of the line is: The slope of this line is negative.

16 Pattern for Sign of Slope If the line is sloping upward from left to right, the slope is positive (+). If the line is sloping downward from left to right, the slope is negative (-). This means that x and y have a positive (direct) relationship. As x increases, y increases. x and y move in the same direction. In our pizza example, a positive slope tells us that as the number of toppings we order (x) increases, the total cost of the pizza (y) also increases. This means that x and y have a negative (inverse) relationship. As x increases, y decreases. x and y move in opposite directions. For example, as the number of people that quit smoking (x) increases, the number of people contracting lung cancer (y) decreases. A graph of this relationship has a negative slope. Two Other Cases to Consider When the line is horizontal: When the line is vertical: We can see that no matter what two points we choose, the value of the y- coordinate stays the same; it is always 3. Therefore, the change in y along the line is zero. No matter what the change in x along the line, the slope must always equal zero. In this case, no matter what two points we choose, the value of the x- coordinate stays the same; it is always 2. Therefore, the change in x along the line is zero.

17 Zero divided by any number is zero. Horizontal lines have a slope of 0. Since we cannot divide by zero, we Since we cannot divide by zero, we say the slope of vertical line is say infinite. the slope Vertical of a vertical lines have line an is infinite. infinite Vertical slope. lines have an infinite slope. Slope and y-intercept in the equation of a line Equation of a Line The equation of a straight line is given on the right. In this equation: _"b" is the slope of the line _"a" is the y-intercept Each of these will be defined below. NOTE: The equation of a line may also be given as y = β 0 + β 1 x. In this form, β 0 (beta subzero) is the y-intercept and β 1 is the slope. In general, the coefficient of x will be the slope whether it is b, m, or β 1. Equation for Pizza Example Let's label the equation for our pizza example. The slope of the line tells us how much the cost of a pizza changes as the number of toppings change.

18 Slope of Pizza Example As you found earlier, the equation for our pizza example is: y = x The slope in our pizza example is.75 (75 cents). In any equation of a straight line, the slope of the line is the constant that is multiplied by the x variable. y-intercept of Pizza Example In the equation y = a + b x, the constant labeled "a" is called the y-intercept. The y-intercept is the point at which the line crosses the y-axis. The y-intercept is the value of y when x is equal to zero. Note that if x = 0, then y = a. When we use graphs, we call this point (0, a) the y-intercept. Note that if x = 0, then y = a. When we use graphs, we call this point (0, a) the y-intercept. In our pizza example, the equation of the relationship is given by: y = x. The y-intercept occurs when there are no additional toppings (x = 0), which is the price of a plain pizza, or \$7.00. As you can see, the point where the line crosses the y-axis is (0, 7). The y-intercept in this case is 7.

19 Example Determine the slope and y-intercept for the line given by each equation. y = x y -intercept is 20slope is 30 y = 4-10 x y -intercept is 4 slope is (-10) y =.5 x +.66 y -intercept is.66 slope is.5 Matching a Graph of a Straight Line with Its Equation Another skill you will need is the ability to match an equation with its graph. One way to do this is to use the information you have about the equation of a straight line. One way to match an equation of a straight line with the graph of a straight line is to use the slope and y-intercept. Below is the graph of the equation y = 2 x We can check that this is the graph of the equation y = 2 x + 10 by looking for two things: _Does the line cross the y-axis at 10? _Is the slope of the line on the graph 2? By looking at the graph, you can see that the line does cross the y-axis at point A, (0, 10). Now check for the slope. You can do this by using the points B, (10, 30), and C, (20, 50).

20 Using these points, the slope is: Since the slope is found to be two, the graph of the line and the equation of the line match. Example Consider the following graph at the right. Is the equation of the line shown in the graph below: y = 4-6 x, or y = 6 1/4x? The things we need to check for are: _The y-intercept _The slope of the line on the graph _The y-intercept By examining the graph, you will notice that the line crosses the y-axis at the point (0, 6). Therefore, the y-intercept is 6. _The slope of the line on the graph Using the points (4, 5) and (12, 3) from the graph (NOTE: you can use any two points from the graph), the slope is calculated to be:

21 The slope of the line is -1/4. The equation of the line is y= 6 - ¼ x. Comparing lines on a graph One skill that is extremely useful is the ability to draw conclusions about what is going on by examining graphs. For example, the graph here shows the relationship between the number of toppings you select to put on a pizza and the final cost of a pizza (line P). Notice the line in this graph is labeled using a letter. This is one way to label a line. By looking at this graph, we can see that the cost of our plain pizza is \$7.00, and the cost per topping is our slope, 75 cents. This line has the equation of y = x. Shift Due to Change in y-intercept In the graph below, line P shifts from its initial position P0 to P1. When comparing the lines we find:

22 _We can see the only change is that the line has shifted up. _The y-intercept, the point where the line crosses the y-axis, has changed from 7 to 8. Therefore, the initial price of the pizza has risen. _The equation for P0 is y = x, and the equation for P1 is y = x. Shift Due to Change in Slope In the graph below, line P shifts from its initial position P0 to P1. When comparing the lines we find: _Both lines P0 and P1 still cross the y-axis at 7, but the line goes up at a different angle. _Line P1 is steeper than the line P0. This means that the slope of the equation has gone up. The slope has increased from.75 to 1. A plain pizza is still \$7.00, but each additional topping now costs \$1. _The equation for P0 is y = x, and the equation for P1 is y = x. In general, when a line shifts in such a way that it maintains the same steepness as the original line (but moves up or down, or to the right or left), the y-intercept changes while the slope remains the same. If the line changes steepness, the slope must have changed.

23 Example The straight line Q in the graph below is given by the equation y = t + px. If the line shifts from its initial position at Q0 to a the new position Q1, what must have changed in the equation? In this example, the line shifted to the right but did not change its slope. Therefore, only y-intercept, represented by the constant "t," changed in the equation. If you extend both lines to intersect the y-axis, you will find Q1 intersects the y-axis at a smaller number, so "t" must have decreased. (NOTE: The line Q1 intersects the y-axis below the x-axis. This means that the y-intercept of Q1 is a negative number.) The constant "p," which is the slope, remains the same. Example The straight line R in the graph below is given by the equation y = Lx + Q. If the line shifts from its initial position at R0 to the new position R1, what must have changed in the equation? The line has changed in steepness. This means the slope (or the "L" constant) changed. Since R1 is steeper, "L" increased. You may want to make some statement about the constant "Q." In a situation where we cannot see if the two lines both intercept the y-axis in the same place, it is hard to tell if "Q" changed or not. If you do extend both lines through the y-axis, you will find they have the same y-intercept, which means "Q" does not change. Unless we do this, we cannot make any statement about "Q" but can be certain that "L" does change. Intersections and shifts of two lines Many times we have the situation where there is more than one relationship between the x and y variables. You'll find this type of occurrence often in your study of supply and demand.

24 In this graph, there are two relationships between the x and y variables; one represented by the straight line AC and the other by straight line WZ. Notice in this graph that each line is labeled by its endpoints. For example, the notation of AC refers to the line that has A and C as its endpoints. Using the endpoints is another way to label lines. In the following graph, RT is downward sloping; it has a negative slope. Line JK is upward sloping; it has a positive slope. Notice that there are several points on the graph. In all but one instance, the same y value corresponds to different x values on each line. For instance, each line in the graph has a point with a y-value of 3: _On the line RT, point S (3, 3) has a y value of 3 and an x value of 3. _On the line JK, point D (1, 3) has a y value of 3 and an x value of 1. In one case, the two lines have the same (x, y) values simultaneously. This is where the two lines RT and JK intersect. The intersection occurs at point E, which has the coordinates (2, 4); the x-coordinate is 2, and the y-coordinate is 4. Examining the Shift of a Line You will need to be able to draw conclusions from information presented in graphs where a line has shifted positions. It is important to be able to interpret what is happening on a graph after a shift occurs. You will typically be asked what happens to the intersection point of two lines when one of the lines shifts. In any situation where you are given a shift in a line:

25 _identify both the initial and final points of intersection _compare the coordinates of the two \ Before the Shift This graph contains the two lines R and S, which intersect at point A (2, 3). Line S shifts to the right. What happens to the intersection of the two lines if one of the lines shifts? After the Shift Before attempting to answer this question, we should look at a graph that illustrates this scenario. On the graph below, line S0 is our original line S. Line S1 represents our new S after it has shifted. The new point of intersection between R and S is now point B (3, 4).

26 Example Compare the points A (2, 3) and B (3, 4) on this graph. _The x-coordinate changed from 2 to 3. _The y-coordinate changed from 3 to 4. Both the x-coordinate and y-coordinate increased as the line S shifted to the right. This is only one type of shift. S may shift to the left, R may shift to the right or left, or both lines may shift. The same procedure of comparing points of intersection can be used to examine any shift. Nonlinear relationships Many relationships are not linear. In such relationships, each unit change in the x variable will not always bring about the same change in the y variable. The graph of this relationship will be a curve instead of a straight line. This graph below shows a linear relationship between x and y.

27 This graph below shows a nonlinear relationship between x and y. Determining the Slope of a Curve at the Point of Tangency In the section on SLOPE, we looked at how to measure the slope of a straight line. Now we will examine how to find the slope of a point on a curve. One of the differences between the slope of a straight line and the slope of a curve is that the slope of a straight line is constant, while the slope of a curve changes from point to point. As you recall, to find the slope of a line you need to: 1. Step One: Identify two points on the line. 2. Step Two: Select one to be (x1, y1) and the other to be (x2, y2). 3. Step Three: Use the slope equation to calculate slope. Now let's use the slope formula in a nonlinear relationship. Let's try using the procedure outlined above to find the slope of the curve shown below. From point A (0, 2) to point B (1, 2.5)

28 From point B (1, 2.5) to point C (2, 4) From point C (2, 4) to point D (3, 8) Here we see that the slope of the curve changes as you move along it. For this reason, we measure the slope of a curve at just one point. That is, instead of measuring the slope as the change between any two points (between A and B or B and C), we measure the slope of the curve at a single point (at A or C). Tangent Line To measure the slope of a curve at a single point, we must introduce the concept of a tangent. A tangent is a straight line that touches a curve at a single point and does not cross through it. The point where the curve and the tangent meet is called the point of tangency. This curve has a tangent line to the curve with point A being the point of tangency. In this case, the slope of the tangent line is positive. The line on this graph crosses the curve in two places. This line is not tangent to the curve. The slope of a curve at a point is equal to the slope of the straight line that is tangent to the curve at that point. Example: What is the slope of the curve at point A?

29 The slope of the curve at point A is equal to the slope of the straight line BC. By finding the slope of the straight line BC, we have found the slope of the curve at point A. The slope of the line BC is ½, or 0.5. Threfore, the slope at point A is ½ or 0.5. This is the slope of the curve only at point A. To find the slope of the curve at any other point, we would need to draw a tangent line at that point and then determine the slope of that tangent line. Determining Whether the Slope of a Curve is Positive, Negative, or Zero In the section on SLOPE, we made some generalizations concerning the slopes of straight lines. The pattern for slope was: If the line is sloping up to the right, the slope is positive (+). If the line is sloping down to the right, the slope is negative (-). Horizontal lines have a slope of zero (0). Curves with a Positive Slope Both graphs below show curves sloping upward from left to right. As with upward sloping straight lines, we can say that generally the slope of the curve is positive. While the slope will differ at each point on the curve, it will always be positive.

30 To check this, take any point on either curve and draw the tangent to the curve at that point. What is the slope of the tangent? The slope of the tangent is positive. For example, A, B, and C are three points on the curve. The tangent line at each of these points is different. However, each tangent has a positive slope; therefore, the curve has a positive slope at points A, B, and C. In fact, any tangent drawn to the curve will have a positive slope. Curves with a Negative Slope In the graphs below, both of the curves are downward sloping. Straight lines that are downward sloping have negative slopes; curves that are downward sloping also have negative slopes. The slope changes from point to point on a curve, but all of the slopes along these two curves will be negative. In general, to determine if the slope of a curve at any point is positive, negative or zero, you draw in the line of tangency at that point.

31 A, B, and C are three points on the curve. The tangent line at each of these points is different. However, each tangent has a negative slope (each is downward sloping). Therefore, the curve has a negative slope at points A, B, and C. All tangents to this curve will have negative slopes. Example In this example, our curve has a: _positive slope at points A, B, and F _a negative slope at D _a slope of 0 at points C and E (Remember, the slope of a horizontal line is zero.) Maximum and Minimum Points of Curves We can draw interesting conclusions from points on graphs where the highest or lowest values are observed. We refer to these points as maximum and minimum points. _Maximum and minimum points on a graph are found at points where the slope of the curve is zero. _The maximum point is the point on a curve with the highest y-coordinate and a slope of zero. _The minimum point is the point on a curve with the lowest y-coordinate and a slope of zero.

32 Maximum Point Point A is at the maximum point for this curve. Point A is at the highest point on this curve. It has a greater y-coordinate value than any other point on the curve and has a slope of zero. Minimum Point Point A is at the minimum point for this curve. Point A is at the lowest point on this curve. It has a lower y-coordinate value than any other point on the curve and has a slope of zero. Identify any maximum and minimum points on the curve. _The curve has a slope of zero at only two points, B and C. _Point B is the maximum. At this point, the curve has a slope of zero with the largest y- coordinate. _Point C is the minimum. At this point, the curve has a slope of zero with the smallest y- coordinate. _Point A clearly has the lowest y-coordinate of the points on the curve. Point D has the highest y-coordinate. However, at neither one of these points is the slope of the curve zero.

### Graphing Linear Equations

Graphing Linear Equations I. Graphing Linear Equations a. The graphs of first degree (linear) equations will always be straight lines. b. Graphs of lines can have Positive Slope Negative Slope Zero slope

### Review of Fundamental Mathematics

Review of Fundamental Mathematics As explained in the Preface and in Chapter 1 of your textbook, managerial economics applies microeconomic theory to business decision making. The decision-making tools

### Lecture 8 : Coordinate Geometry. The coordinate plane The points on a line can be referenced if we choose an origin and a unit of 20

Lecture 8 : Coordinate Geometry The coordinate plane The points on a line can be referenced if we choose an origin and a unit of 0 distance on the axis and give each point an identity on the corresponding

### Section 1.1 Linear Equations: Slope and Equations of Lines

Section. Linear Equations: Slope and Equations of Lines Slope The measure of the steepness of a line is called the slope of the line. It is the amount of change in y, the rise, divided by the amount of

### Linear Equations. Find the domain and the range of the following set. {(4,5), (7,8), (-1,3), (3,3), (2,-3)}

Linear Equations Domain and Range Domain refers to the set of possible values of the x-component of a point in the form (x,y). Range refers to the set of possible values of the y-component of a point in

### Plot the following two points on a graph and draw the line that passes through those two points. Find the rise, run and slope of that line.

Objective # 6 Finding the slope of a line Material: page 117 to 121 Homework: worksheet NOTE: When we say line... we mean straight line! Slope of a line: It is a number that represents the slant of a line

### Example SECTION 13-1. X-AXIS - the horizontal number line. Y-AXIS - the vertical number line ORIGIN - the point where the x-axis and y-axis cross

CHAPTER 13 SECTION 13-1 Geometry and Algebra The Distance Formula COORDINATE PLANE consists of two perpendicular number lines, dividing the plane into four regions called quadrants X-AXIS - the horizontal

### Part 1: Background - Graphing

Department of Physics and Geology Graphing Astronomy 1401 Equipment Needed Qty Computer with Data Studio Software 1 1.1 Graphing Part 1: Background - Graphing In science it is very important to find and

### What does the number m in y = mx + b measure? To find out, suppose (x 1, y 1 ) and (x 2, y 2 ) are two points on the graph of y = mx + b.

PRIMARY CONTENT MODULE Algebra - Linear Equations & Inequalities T-37/H-37 What does the number m in y = mx + b measure? To find out, suppose (x 1, y 1 ) and (x 2, y 2 ) are two points on the graph of

### EQUATIONS and INEQUALITIES

EQUATIONS and INEQUALITIES Linear Equations and Slope 1. Slope a. Calculate the slope of a line given two points b. Calculate the slope of a line parallel to a given line. c. Calculate the slope of a line

### EdExcel Decision Mathematics 1

EdExcel Decision Mathematics 1 Linear Programming Section 1: Formulating and solving graphically Notes and Examples These notes contain subsections on: Formulating LP problems Solving LP problems Minimisation

Problem 1 The Parabola Examine the data in L 1 and L to the right. Let L 1 be the x- value and L be the y-values for a graph. 1. How are the x and y-values related? What pattern do you see? To enter the

1.3 LINEAR EQUATIONS IN TWO VARIABLES Copyright Cengage Learning. All rights reserved. What You Should Learn Use slope to graph linear equations in two variables. Find the slope of a line given two points

### Year 12 Pure Mathematics. C1 Coordinate Geometry 1. Edexcel Examination Board (UK)

Year 1 Pure Mathematics C1 Coordinate Geometry 1 Edexcel Examination Board (UK) Book used with this handout is Heinemann Modular Mathematics for Edexcel AS and A-Level, Core Mathematics 1 (004 edition).

### Graphing Linear Equations in Two Variables

Math 123 Section 3.2 - Graphing Linear Equations Using Intercepts - Page 1 Graphing Linear Equations in Two Variables I. Graphing Lines A. The graph of a line is just the set of solution points of the

1.2 GRAPHS OF EQUATIONS Copyright Cengage Learning. All rights reserved. What You Should Learn Sketch graphs of equations. Find x- and y-intercepts of graphs of equations. Use symmetry to sketch graphs

### Vector Notation: AB represents the vector from point A to point B on a graph. The vector can be computed by B A.

1 Linear Transformations Prepared by: Robin Michelle King A transformation of an object is a change in position or dimension (or both) of the object. The resulting object after the transformation is called

### CHAPTER 1 Linear Equations

CHAPTER 1 Linear Equations 1.1. Lines The rectangular coordinate system is also called the Cartesian plane. It is formed by two real number lines, the horizontal axis or x-axis, and the vertical axis or

### Math 113 Review for Exam I

Math 113 Review for Exam I Section 1.1 Cartesian Coordinate System, Slope, & Equation of a Line (1.) Rectangular or Cartesian Coordinate System You should be able to label the quadrants in the rectangular

### Graphing Motion. Every Picture Tells A Story

Graphing Motion Every Picture Tells A Story Read and interpret motion graphs Construct and draw motion graphs Determine speed, velocity and accleration from motion graphs If you make a graph by hand it

### x x y y Then, my slope is =. Notice, if we use the slope formula, we ll get the same thing: m =

Slope and Lines The slope of a line is a ratio that measures the incline of the line. As a result, the smaller the incline, the closer the slope is to zero and the steeper the incline, the farther the

### 1 Functions, Graphs and Limits

1 Functions, Graphs and Limits 1.1 The Cartesian Plane In this course we will be dealing a lot with the Cartesian plane (also called the xy-plane), so this section should serve as a review of it and its

### 5 Systems of Equations

Systems of Equations Concepts: Solutions to Systems of Equations-Graphically and Algebraically Solving Systems - Substitution Method Solving Systems - Elimination Method Using -Dimensional Graphs to Approximate

### Week 1: Functions and Equations

Week 1: Functions and Equations Goals: Review functions Introduce modeling using linear and quadratic functions Solving equations and systems Suggested Textbook Readings: Chapter 2: 2.1-2.2, and Chapter

### A synonym is a word that has the same or almost the same definition of

Slope-Intercept Form Determining the Rate of Change and y-intercept Learning Goals In this lesson, you will: Graph lines using the slope and y-intercept. Calculate the y-intercept of a line when given

### Basic Graphing Functions for the TI-83 and TI-84

Basic Graphing Functions for the TI-83 and TI-84 The primary benefits of the TI-83 and TI-84 are the abilities to graph functions and to identify properties those functions possess. The purpose of this

### Algebra 2 Chapter 1 Vocabulary. identity - A statement that equates two equivalent expressions.

Chapter 1 Vocabulary identity - A statement that equates two equivalent expressions. verbal model- A word equation that represents a real-life problem. algebraic expression - An expression with variables.

### What are the place values to the left of the decimal point and their associated powers of ten?

The verbal answers to all of the following questions should be memorized before completion of algebra. Answers that are not memorized will hinder your ability to succeed in geometry and algebra. (Everything

Introduction to Quadratic Functions The St. Louis Gateway Arch was constructed from 1963 to 1965. It cost 13 million dollars to build..1 Up and Down or Down and Up Exploring Quadratic Functions...617.2

### -2- Reason: This is harder. I'll give an argument in an Addendum to this handout.

LINES Slope The slope of a nonvertical line in a coordinate plane is defined as follows: Let P 1 (x 1, y 1 ) and P 2 (x 2, y 2 ) be any two points on the line. Then slope of the line = y 2 y 1 change in

### The Point-Slope Form

7. The Point-Slope Form 7. OBJECTIVES 1. Given a point and a slope, find the graph of a line. Given a point and the slope, find the equation of a line. Given two points, find the equation of a line y Slope

### Angles and Quadrants. Angle Relationships and Degree Measurement. Chapter 7: Trigonometry

Chapter 7: Trigonometry Trigonometry is the study of angles and how they can be used as a means of indirect measurement, that is, the measurement of a distance where it is not practical or even possible

### LINEAR EQUATIONS IN TWO VARIABLES

66 MATHEMATICS CHAPTER 4 LINEAR EQUATIONS IN TWO VARIABLES The principal use of the Analytic Art is to bring Mathematical Problems to Equations and to exhibit those Equations in the most simple terms that

### Coordinate Plane, Slope, and Lines Long-Term Memory Review Review 1

Review. What does slope of a line mean?. How do you find the slope of a line? 4. Plot and label the points A (3, ) and B (, ). a. From point B to point A, by how much does the y-value change? b. From point

### Why should we learn this? One real-world connection is to find the rate of change in an airplane s altitude. The Slope of a Line VOCABULARY

Wh should we learn this? The Slope of a Line Objectives: To find slope of a line given two points, and to graph a line using the slope and the -intercept. One real-world connection is to find the rate

### Law of Demand: Other things equal, price and the quantity demanded are inversely related.

SUPPLY AND DEMAND Law of Demand: Other things equal, price and the quantity demanded are inversely related. Every term is important -- 1. Other things equal means that other factors that affect demand

### Understanding Basic Calculus

Understanding Basic Calculus S.K. Chung Dedicated to all the people who have helped me in my life. i Preface This book is a revised and expanded version of the lecture notes for Basic Calculus and other

### Procedure for Graphing Polynomial Functions

Procedure for Graphing Polynomial Functions P(x) = a n x n + a n-1 x n-1 + + a 1 x + a 0 To graph P(x): As an example, we will examine the following polynomial function: P(x) = 2x 3 3x 2 23x + 12 1. Determine

### PLOTTING DATA AND INTERPRETING GRAPHS

PLOTTING DATA AND INTERPRETING GRAPHS Fundamentals of Graphing One of the most important sets of skills in science and mathematics is the ability to construct graphs and to interpret the information they

### MODERN APPLICATIONS OF PYTHAGORAS S THEOREM

UNIT SIX MODERN APPLICATIONS OF PYTHAGORAS S THEOREM Coordinate Systems 124 Distance Formula 127 Midpoint Formula 131 SUMMARY 134 Exercises 135 UNIT SIX: 124 COORDINATE GEOMETRY Geometry, as presented

### Graphing - Slope-Intercept Form

2.3 Graphing - Slope-Intercept Form Objective: Give the equation of a line with a known slope and y-intercept. When graphing a line we found one method we could use is to make a table of values. However,

### Vocabulary Words and Definitions for Algebra

Name: Period: Vocabulary Words and s for Algebra Absolute Value Additive Inverse Algebraic Expression Ascending Order Associative Property Axis of Symmetry Base Binomial Coefficient Combine Like Terms

### 2.1 Increasing, Decreasing, and Piecewise Functions; Applications

2.1 Increasing, Decreasing, and Piecewise Functions; Applications Graph functions, looking for intervals on which the function is increasing, decreasing, or constant, and estimate relative maxima and minima.

### Vectors. Objectives. Assessment. Assessment. Equations. Physics terms 5/15/14. State the definition and give examples of vector and scalar variables.

Vectors Objectives State the definition and give examples of vector and scalar variables. Analyze and describe position and movement in two dimensions using graphs and Cartesian coordinates. Organize and

### ALGEBRA 2: 4.1 Graph Quadratic Functions in Standard Form

ALGEBRA 2: 4.1 Graph Quadratic Functions in Standard Form Goal Graph quadratic functions. VOCABULARY Quadratic function A function that can be written in the standard form y = ax 2 + bx+ c where a 0 Parabola

### Lecture 9: Lines. m = y 2 y 1 x 2 x 1

Lecture 9: Lines If we have two distinct points in the Cartesian plane, there is a unique line which passes through the two points. We can construct it by joining the points with a straight edge and extending

### Algebra Cheat Sheets

Sheets Algebra Cheat Sheets provide you with a tool for teaching your students note-taking, problem-solving, and organizational skills in the context of algebra lessons. These sheets teach the concepts

### Algebra I Vocabulary Cards

Algebra I Vocabulary Cards Table of Contents Expressions and Operations Natural Numbers Whole Numbers Integers Rational Numbers Irrational Numbers Real Numbers Absolute Value Order of Operations Expression

### Mathematics Placement

Mathematics Placement The ACT COMPASS math test is a self-adaptive test, which potentially tests students within four different levels of math including pre-algebra, algebra, college algebra, and trigonometry.

### Copyrighted Material. Chapter 1 DEGREE OF A CURVE

Chapter 1 DEGREE OF A CURVE Road Map The idea of degree is a fundamental concept, which will take us several chapters to explore in depth. We begin by explaining what an algebraic curve is, and offer two

### Questions: Does it always take the same amount of force to lift a load? Where should you press to lift a load with the least amount of force?

Lifting A Load 1 NAME LIFTING A LOAD Questions: Does it always take the same amount of force to lift a load? Where should you press to lift a load with the least amount of force? Background Information:

### Managerial Economics Prof. Trupti Mishra S.J.M. School of Management Indian Institute of Technology, Bombay. Lecture - 13 Consumer Behaviour (Contd )

(Refer Slide Time: 00:28) Managerial Economics Prof. Trupti Mishra S.J.M. School of Management Indian Institute of Technology, Bombay Lecture - 13 Consumer Behaviour (Contd ) We will continue our discussion

### Lesson 4: Solving and Graphing Linear Equations

Lesson 4: Solving and Graphing Linear Equations Selected Content Standards Benchmarks Addressed: A-2-M Modeling and developing methods for solving equations and inequalities (e.g., using charts, graphs,

### Unit 1 Equations, Inequalities, Functions

Unit 1 Equations, Inequalities, Functions Algebra 2, Pages 1-100 Overview: This unit models real-world situations by using one- and two-variable linear equations. This unit will further expand upon pervious

### Correlation key concepts:

CORRELATION Correlation key concepts: Types of correlation Methods of studying correlation a) Scatter diagram b) Karl pearson s coefficient of correlation c) Spearman s Rank correlation coefficient d)

### Trigonometry Review with the Unit Circle: All the trig. you ll ever need to know in Calculus

Trigonometry Review with the Unit Circle: All the trig. you ll ever need to know in Calculus Objectives: This is your review of trigonometry: angles, six trig. functions, identities and formulas, graphs:

### MA107 Precalculus Algebra Exam 2 Review Solutions

MA107 Precalculus Algebra Exam 2 Review Solutions February 24, 2008 1. The following demand equation models the number of units sold, x, of a product as a function of price, p. x = 4p + 200 a. Please write

### Elasticity. I. What is Elasticity?

Elasticity I. What is Elasticity? The purpose of this section is to develop some general rules about elasticity, which may them be applied to the four different specific types of elasticity discussed in

### IV. ALGEBRAIC CONCEPTS

IV. ALGEBRAIC CONCEPTS Algebra is the language of mathematics. Much of the observable world can be characterized as having patterned regularity where a change in one quantity results in changes in other

### Two vectors are equal if they have the same length and direction. They do not

Vectors define vectors Some physical quantities, such as temperature, length, and mass, can be specified by a single number called a scalar. Other physical quantities, such as force and velocity, must

### Parallel and Perpendicular. We show a small box in one of the angles to show that the lines are perpendicular.

CONDENSED L E S S O N. Parallel and Perpendicular In this lesson you will learn the meaning of parallel and perpendicular discover how the slopes of parallel and perpendicular lines are related use slopes

### Section 10.4 Vectors

Section 10.4 Vectors A vector is represented by using a ray, or arrow, that starts at an initial point and ends at a terminal point. Your textbook will always use a bold letter to indicate a vector (such

### Algebra II End of Course Exam Answer Key Segment I. Scientific Calculator Only

Algebra II End of Course Exam Answer Key Segment I Scientific Calculator Only Question 1 Reporting Category: Algebraic Concepts & Procedures Common Core Standard: A-APR.3: Identify zeros of polynomials

### (Least Squares Investigation)

(Least Squares Investigation) o Open a new sketch. Select Preferences under the Edit menu. Select the Text Tab at the top. Uncheck both boxes under the title Show Labels Automatically o Create two points

### Integers (pages 294 298)

A Integers (pages 294 298) An integer is any number from this set of the whole numbers and their opposites: { 3, 2,, 0,, 2, 3, }. Integers that are greater than zero are positive integers. You can write

### Equations Involving Lines and Planes Standard equations for lines in space

Equations Involving Lines and Planes In this section we will collect various important formulas regarding equations of lines and planes in three dimensional space Reminder regarding notation: any quantity

### MATH 60 NOTEBOOK CERTIFICATIONS

MATH 60 NOTEBOOK CERTIFICATIONS Chapter #1: Integers and Real Numbers 1.1a 1.1b 1.2 1.3 1.4 1.8 Chapter #2: Algebraic Expressions, Linear Equations, and Applications 2.1a 2.1b 2.1c 2.2 2.3a 2.3b 2.4 2.5

### Solving Simultaneous Equations and Matrices

Solving Simultaneous Equations and Matrices The following represents a systematic investigation for the steps used to solve two simultaneous linear equations in two unknowns. The motivation for considering

### Slope & y-intercept Discovery Activity

TI-83 Graphing Calculator Activity Slope & y-intercept Discovery Activity Justin Vallone 11/2/05 In this activity, you will use your TI-83 graphing calculator to graph equations of lines. Follow the steps

### www.mathsbox.org.uk ab = c a If the coefficients a,b and c are real then either α and β are real or α and β are complex conjugates

Further Pure Summary Notes. Roots of Quadratic Equations For a quadratic equation ax + bx + c = 0 with roots α and β Sum of the roots Product of roots a + b = b a ab = c a If the coefficients a,b and c

### Motion Graphs. Plotting distance against time can tell you a lot about motion. Let's look at the axes:

Motion Graphs 1 Name Motion Graphs Describing the motion of an object is occasionally hard to do with words. Sometimes graphs help make motion easier to picture, and therefore understand. Remember: Motion

Chapter Additional Topics in Math In addition to the questions in Heart of Algebra, Problem Solving and Data Analysis, and Passport to Advanced Math, the SAT Math Test includes several questions that are

### Slope-Intercept Equation. Example

1.4 Equations of Lines and Modeling Find the slope and the y intercept of a line given the equation y = mx + b, or f(x) = mx + b. Graph a linear equation using the slope and the y-intercept. Determine

### GRAPHING IN POLAR COORDINATES SYMMETRY

GRAPHING IN POLAR COORDINATES SYMMETRY Recall from Algebra and Calculus I that the concept of symmetry was discussed using Cartesian equations. Also remember that there are three types of symmetry - y-axis,

### Linear Approximations ACADEMIC RESOURCE CENTER

Linear Approximations ACADEMIC RESOURCE CENTER Table of Contents Linear Function Linear Function or Not Real World Uses for Linear Equations Why Do We Use Linear Equations? Estimation with Linear Approximations

### Temperature Scales. The metric system that we are now using includes a unit that is specific for the representation of measured temperatures.

Temperature Scales INTRODUCTION The metric system that we are now using includes a unit that is specific for the representation of measured temperatures. The unit of temperature in the metric system is

### Solving Systems of Linear Equations Graphing

Solving Systems of Linear Equations Graphing Outcome (learning objective) Students will accurately solve a system of equations by graphing. Student/Class Goal Students thinking about continuing their academic

### 3.3. Solving Polynomial Equations. Introduction. Prerequisites. Learning Outcomes

Solving Polynomial Equations 3.3 Introduction Linear and quadratic equations, dealt within Sections 3.1 and 3.2, are members of a class of equations, called polynomial equations. These have the general

### Also, compositions of an exponential function with another function are also referred to as exponential. An example would be f(x) = 4 + 100 3-2x.

Exponential Functions Exponential functions are perhaps the most important class of functions in mathematics. We use this type of function to calculate interest on investments, growth and decline rates

### MA.8.A.1.2 Interpret the slope and the x- and y-intercepts when graphing a linear equation for a real-world problem. Constant Rate of Change/Slope

MA.8.A.1.2 Interpret the slope and the x- and y-intercepts when graphing a linear equation for a real-world problem Constant Rate of Change/Slope In a Table Relationships that have straight-lined graphs

### Summary of important mathematical operations and formulas (from first tutorial):

EXCEL Intermediate Tutorial Summary of important mathematical operations and formulas (from first tutorial): Operation Key Addition + Subtraction - Multiplication * Division / Exponential ^ To enter a

### Lecture 2. Marginal Functions, Average Functions, Elasticity, the Marginal Principle, and Constrained Optimization

Lecture 2. Marginal Functions, Average Functions, Elasticity, the Marginal Principle, and Constrained Optimization 2.1. Introduction Suppose that an economic relationship can be described by a real-valued

### How to Graph Trigonometric Functions

How to Graph Trigonometric Functions This handout includes instructions for graphing processes of basic, amplitude shifts, horizontal shifts, and vertical shifts of trigonometric functions. The Unit Circle

### Algebra 2 PreAP. Name Period

Algebra 2 PreAP Name Period IMPORTANT INSTRUCTIONS FOR STUDENTS!!! We understand that students come to Algebra II with different strengths and needs. For this reason, students have options for completing

### Teaching and Learning Guide 2: Linear Equations

Guide 2: Linear Equations Table of Contents Section 1: Introduction to the guide... 3 Section 2: Graphs and co-ordinates... 3 1. The concept of graphs and co-ordinates... 3 2. Presenting the concept of

### Make sure you look at the reminders or examples before each set of problems to jog your memory! Solve

Name Date Make sure you look at the reminders or examples before each set of problems to jog your memory! I. Solving Linear Equations 1. Eliminate parentheses. Combine like terms 3. Eliminate terms by

### 1 Determine whether an. 2 Solve systems of linear. 3 Solve systems of linear. 4 Solve systems of linear. 5 Select the most efficient

Section 3.1 Systems of Linear Equations in Two Variables 163 SECTION 3.1 SYSTEMS OF LINEAR EQUATIONS IN TWO VARIABLES Objectives 1 Determine whether an ordered pair is a solution of a system of linear

### 2013 MBA Jump Start Program

2013 MBA Jump Start Program Module 2: Mathematics Thomas Gilbert Mathematics Module Algebra Review Calculus Permutations and Combinations [Online Appendix: Basic Mathematical Concepts] 2 1 Equation of

### Session 7 Bivariate Data and Analysis

Session 7 Bivariate Data and Analysis Key Terms for This Session Previously Introduced mean standard deviation New in This Session association bivariate analysis contingency table co-variation least squares

### Chapter 4 Online Appendix: The Mathematics of Utility Functions

Chapter 4 Online Appendix: The Mathematics of Utility Functions We saw in the text that utility functions and indifference curves are different ways to represent a consumer s preferences. Calculus can

### Section 13.5 Equations of Lines and Planes

Section 13.5 Equations of Lines and Planes Generalizing Linear Equations One of the main aspects of single variable calculus was approximating graphs of functions by lines - specifically, tangent lines.

### TI-83/84 Plus Graphing Calculator Worksheet #2

TI-83/8 Plus Graphing Calculator Worksheet #2 The graphing calculator is set in the following, MODE, and Y, settings. Resetting your calculator brings it back to these original settings. MODE Y Note that

### Solving Equations Involving Parallel and Perpendicular Lines Examples

Solving Equations Involving Parallel and Perpendicular Lines Examples. The graphs of y = x, y = x, and y = x + are lines that have the same slope. They are parallel lines. Definition of Parallel Lines

### 2After completing this chapter you should be able to

After completing this chapter you should be able to solve problems involving motion in a straight line with constant acceleration model an object moving vertically under gravity understand distance time

### Dealing with Data in Excel 2010

Dealing with Data in Excel 2010 Excel provides the ability to do computations and graphing of data. Here we provide the basics and some advanced capabilities available in Excel that are useful for dealing

### M 1310 4.1 Polynomial Functions 1

M 1310 4.1 Polynomial Functions 1 Polynomial Functions and Their Graphs Definition of a Polynomial Function Let n be a nonnegative integer and let a, a,..., a, a, a n n1 2 1 0, be real numbers, with a

### or, put slightly differently, the profit maximizing condition is for marginal revenue to equal marginal cost:

Chapter 9 Lecture Notes 1 Economics 35: Intermediate Microeconomics Notes and Sample Questions Chapter 9: Profit Maximization Profit Maximization The basic assumption here is that firms are profit maximizing.