Organization of the skeletal system

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1 Organization of the skeletal system Adam Koleśnik, MD Department of Descriptive and Clinical Anatomy Center of Biostructure Research Medical University of Warsaw

2 Function of the skeleton movement protection haemopoiesis (bone marrow) calcium reservoir hearing moisturizing and warming the inhaled air

3 The skeletal system axial skeleton skull vertebral column ribs and sternum appendicular skeleton skeleton of the girdle skeleton of the free limb

4 The skeletal system Clinically Oriented Anatomy, 6 th Edition

5 Tissues forming the skeleton bone cartilage fibrous connective tissue (most of ligaments) elastic connective tissue (ligamenta flava)

6 Structure of the bone compact bone spongy (cancellous, trabecular) bone medullary cavity organic material (collagen, glycoproteins) inorganic (mineral) material hydroxiapatite: Ca 10 (PO 4 ) 6 (OH) 2 Clinically Oriented Anatomy, 6 th Edition

7 Structure of the bone woven (bundle) bone fetal bone rapid remodelling repair of fractures lamellar bone osteons (Haversian systems) lamellae osteocytes canaliculi central Haversian canals Volkmann s canals Gray s Anatomy, 39 th Edition

8 Structure of the bone periosteum outer surface of the bone thick fibrocollagenous layer tethered to the bone by Sharpey s fibres important for repair of fractures endosteum inner surface of the bone thinner and more cellular remodelling and repair calcium homeostasis Gray s Anatomy, 39 th Edition

9 osteoblasts Cells of the bone derived from osteoprogenitor (stem) cells synthesis and secretion of organic matrix (osteoid) role in mineralization of osteoid osteocalcin, alkaline phosphatase, pyrophosphatase regulation of bone resorption (osteoclasts activity) endosteum, periosteum, vascular canals within osteons osteocytes major cell type of mature bone do not divide osteoclasts local removal and remodelling of bone respond to cytokines, parathormon, 1,25(OH) 2 vitamin D

10 Bone marrow red marrow haemopoietic organ all bones in fetus and children <5 th year in adults: vertebrae, sternum, ribs, clavicles, scapulae, pelvis, cranial bones, proximal ends of femur and humerus yellow marrow blood vessels and adipocytes (fat cells) may be reactivated when necessary

11 Cartilage cells (chondroblasts, chondrocytes) matrix (collagen type II, proteoglycans, glycosaminoglycans chondroitin sulphate, keratan sulphate) perichondrium

12 Cartilage hyaline cartilage homogenous, glassy, bluish opalescent costal, nasal, some laryngeal, tracheobronchial, most articular cartilages cell nests (mostly pairs of cells) surrounded by the matrix poor regenerative capacity prone to calcification in adults fibrocartilage dense, fasciculated, opaque, white fibroblasts and small groups of chondrocytes intervertebral discs, articular discs, glenoid labra, cartilaginous lining of bony grooves, some articular cartilages elastic cartilage typical chondrocytes yellow elastic fibers external ear, laryngeal cartilages vibrational functions

13 Ossification intramembranous mesenchymal models of bones form during the embryonic period and ossify directly endochondral cartilage models of bones form from mesenchyme during the fetal period and ossify subsequently

14 Ossification Langman s Medical Embryology, 10 th Edition Clinically Oriented Anatomy, 6 th Edition

15 Bone age

16 Adult vs fetal skull material of the Department of Descriptive and Clinical Anatomy, MUW Clinically Oriented Anatomy, 6 th Edition

17 Bone formations Capitulum: small, round, articular head Condyle: rounded, knuckle-like articular area, often occurring in pairs Crest: ridge of bone Epicondyle :eminence superior to a condyle Facet: smooth flat area, usually covered with cartilage, where a bone articulates with another bone Foramen: passage through a bone Fossa: hollow or depressed Groove: elongated depression or furrow Head (L. caput): large, round articular end Line: linear elevation Malleolus: rounded process Notch: indentation at the edge of a bone Protuberance: projection of bone Spine: thorn-like process Spinous process: projecting spine-like part Trochanter: large blunt elevation Trochlea: spool-like articular process or process that acts as a pulley Tubercle: small raised eminence Tuberosity: large rounded elevation

18 Pneumatization Fatu C, Puisoru M, Rotaru M, Truta AM. Ann Anat 2006;188:

19 Fracture healing Clinically Oriented Anatomy, 6 th Edition

20 Development of the skeleton Langman s Medical Embryology, 10 th Edition

21 Development of the vertebrae Langman s Medical Embryology, 10 th Edition

22 Bifid spine and myelomeningocele Langman s Medical Embryology, 10 th Edition Perinatology and Prenatal Cardiology Clinic, MUW Department of Descriptive and Clinical Anatomy, MUW

23 Development of the limbs Langman s Medical Embryology, 10 th Edition

24 Development of the limbs AER apical ectodermal ridge Langman s Medical Embryology, 10 th Edition

25 Limb anomalies meromelia partial absence of the limb amelia complete absence of the limb phocomelia rudimentary hands attached to the trunk by small, irregurarly shaped bones micromelia all segments present, but short brachydactyly shortened digits syndactyly fused digits polydactyly extra digits ectrodactyly absence of digits (usually the thumb) lobster claw deformity - cleft hand and foot

26 Development of the skull red paraaxial mesoderm blue neural crest yellow lateral plate mesoderm Langman s Medical Embryology, 10 th Edition

27 Development of the skull material of the Department of Descriptive and Clinical Anatomy, MUW

28 Development of the face Langman s Medical Embryology, 10 th Edition

29 Development of the face Langman s Medical Embryology, 10 th Edition

30 Thank you for your attention

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