Female Reproductive System Laboratory Exercise 60

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1 Female Reproductive System Laboratory Exercise 60 Background The organs of the female reproductive system are specialized to produce and maintain the female sex cells, to transport these cells to the site of fertilization, to provide a favorable environment for a developing offspring, to move the offspring to the outside, and to produce fermale sex hormones. These organs include the ovaries, which produce the egg cells and female sex hormones, and sets of internal and external accessory organs. The internal accessory organs include the uterine tubes, uterus, and vagina. The external organs are the labia majora, labia minora, clitoris, and vestibular glands. Materials Needed Textbook Human torso model Anatomical chart of the female reproductive system Compound light microscope Prepared microscope slide of the following: Ovary section with maturing follicles Uterine tube (cross section) Uterine wall section Purpose of the Exercise Review the structure and functions of the female reproductive organs and examine some of their features microscopically. Procedure A Female Reproductive Organs 1. Label figures 60.1, 60.2, 60.3, 60.4, and Observe the human torso model and the anatomical chart of the female reproductive system. Locate the following features: ovaries, ligaments, uterine tubes (oviducts; fallopian tubes), uterus, rectouterine pouch, vagina, mons pubis, vulva, vestibule, vestibular bulbs, breasts. 3. Complete Part A of the laboratory report. 1

2 Procedure B Microscopic Anatomy 1. Obtain a prepared microscope slide of an ovary section with maturing follicles, and examine it with low-power magnification. Locate the outer layer, or cortex, which is composed of densely packed cells, and the inner layer, or medulla, which largely consists of loose connective tissue. 2. Focus on the cortex of the ovary, using high-power magnification. Note the thin layer of small cuboidal cells on the free surface. These cells comprise the germinal epithelium. Also locate some primordial follicles just beneath the germinal epithelium. Note that each follicle consists of a single, relatively large primary oocyte with a prominent nucleus and a covering of follicular cells. 3. Prepare a labeled sketch of the ovarian cortex in Part B of the laboratory report. 4. Use low-power magnification to search the ovarian cortex for maturing follicles in various stages of development. Prepare three labeled sketches in Part B of the laboratory report to illustrate the changes that occur in a follicle as it matures. 5. Obtain a microscope slide of a cross section of a uterine tube. Examine it, using low-power magnification. Note that the shape of the lumen is very irregular. 6. Focus on the inner lining of the uterine tube, using high-power magnification. Note that the lining is composed of simple columnar epithelium and that some of the epithelial cells are ciliated on their free surfaces. 7. Prepare a labeled sketch of a representative region of the wall of the uterine tube in Part B of the laboratory report. 8. Obtain a microscope slide of the uterine wall section. Examine it, using lowpower magnification, and locate the following: endometrium, myometrium, perimetrium. 9. Prepare a labeled sketch of a representative section of the uterine wall in Part B of the laboratory report. 10. Complete Part C of the laboratory report. 2

3 Figure 60.1 Label the ligaments and other structures associated with the female internal reproductive organs. Figure 60.2 Label the structures of the female reproductive system in this sagittal view. 3

4 Figure 60.3 Label the female external reproductive organs and associated structures. Figure 60.4 Label the structures associated with the maturation of a follicle. 4

5 Figure 60.5 Label the structures of the breast (anterior view). Part A Complete the following statements: 1. The ovaries are located in the lateral wall of the cavity. 2. The largest of the ovarian attachments is called the ligament. 3. The ovarian cortex appears granular because of the presence of. 4. The meiosis of egg formation is called. 5. A primary oocyte is closely surrounded by flattened epithelial cells called cells. 6. When a primary oocyte divides, a secondary oocyte and a (an) are produced. 7. Primordial follicles are stimulated to develop into primary follicles by the hormone called. 8. is the process by which a secondary oocyte is released from the ovary. 5

6 9. Uterine tubes also are called. 10. The is the funnel-shaped expansion at the end of a uterine tube. 11. The ligament is a band of tissue within the broad ligament that helps to hold the uterus in proper position. 12. A portion of the uterus called the extends downward into the upper portion of the vagina. 13. The inner mucosal lining of the uterus is called the. 14. The myometrium is largely composed of tissue. 15. The vaginal orifice is partially closed by a thin membrane called the. 16. The group of external accessory organs that surround the openings of the urethra and vagina comprise the. 17. The rounded mass of fatty tissue overlying the symphysis pubis of the female is called the. 18. The female organ that corresponds to the male penis is the. 19. The of the female corresponds to the bulbourethral glands of the male. 20. Orgasm is accompanied by a series of reflexes involving the lumbar and regions of the spinal cord. Part B 1. Prepare a labeled sketch of a representative region of the ovarian cortex. 6

7 2. Prepare a series of three labeled sketches to illustrate follicular maturation. 3. Prepare a labeled sketch of a representative section of the wall of a uterine tube. 4. Prepare a labeled sketch of a representative section of uterine wall. 7

8 Part C Complete the following: 1. Describe the fate of a mature follicle. 2. Describe the function of the cilia in the lining of the uterine tube. 3. Briefly describe the changes that occur in the uterine lining during a reproductive cycle. 8

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