Biology 321. Mammalian Histology. Fall, 2012

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1 Biology 321. Mammalian Histology. Fall, 2012 Instructor: Dr. Elaine Chapman. Parker 130. Text/Atlas: Junqueira and Carneiro. Basic Histology: Text and Atlas. 12th edition. McGraw Hill, ISBN Course meets: MTHF, 9 am Lecture Notes and Lam Manual: by the instructor Supplemental videos: The Visual Histology DVD Video Series. (Dr. David Moran and. J. Carter Rowley; 2005) Lab Atlases: University of Illinois Virtual Histology Atlas University of Iowa Virtual Histology Atlas, + your text, other print text/atlases available in the laboratory. General Course Organization: Students will meet with the instructor in Parker 138 to study cell, tissue, and organ structure. All class/lab time will be spent identifying cells, tissues, and organs under the microscope and on the web atlases and discussing the relationship of structure to function. There will be three exams which incorporate both lecture and laboratory material, and the final will be a comprehensive written exam. Lab assignments will be evaluated weekly and the points earned will be included in the total laboratory grade. Evaluation will reflect the following: 55% lecture exams (includes Exam III and final exam) 45% weekly labs and lab exams Grades will be determined as follows: 90%+ = A % = B % = C % = D. Less than 60% = F. Overall Course Goals: 1. The student will study specific organs, tissues, and cells from all organ systems on microscopic slides. 2. The student will correlate organ and tissue structure with function. 3. The student will understand the use of the light microscope and the limitations of light microscopy. 4. The student will compare and contrast the ultrastructure and microanatomy of tissues and cells from every organ system Mastery Goals. After successful completion of this course, the student will be able 1. to identify specific organs, tissues, and cells from all organ/systems under the light microscope. 2. to describe the steps necessary for preparation of histologic specimens 3. to name the four basic tissue types and give examples where these may be found in all organ systems 4. to relate the functions of tissues from all organ systems to the functions of those tissues Tentative Class Schedule: Note: For further information on each topic consult the appropriate chapter(s) in your text. Week 1. 8/28 8/31. Ultrastructure. Fundamental Concepts of Histology, Cell Organelles, Cell Structure. Lab I due Friday, 8/31, by 5 pm 1. identify the instruments, basic steps, and techniques used to prepare and study histologic specimens for light and and electron microscopy. 2. describe the basic principles of histochemistry 3. give examples of substances of biologic interest that can be localized by various

2 histochemical techniques 4. be familiar with the names and functions of cellular organelles and inclusions 5. recognize a cell's structural components in a light or electron photomicrograph 6. predict which structures will be present in a cell from its function 7. explain and give examples of cell differentiation.. Week 2. 9/3 9/7. The 4 Tissue Types: Epithelium. Lab 2 due Friday, 9/7, by 5 pm. Objectives: 1. The student will be able to explain the structural and functional characteristics that distinguish epithelial tissues from the other 3 basic tissue types 2. describe the anatomy and function of types of epithelia and give examples of body sites where each may be found 3. recognize the various epithelial types in photomicrographs or slides and predict their function from their structure 4. classify glands according to structure and mode of secretion Week 3. 9/10 9/14. The 4 Tissue Types: Connective tissue (including cartilage ). Lab 3 and Lab 4A (bone) due Friday, 9/14, by 5 pm. 1. list the structural and functional characteristics of connective tissue that distinguish it from other basic tissue types 2. know the functions of all types of connective tissue and relate structure to function 3. compare and contrast the types of connective tissue in terms of the types, relative amounts, and arrangement of cells, fibers, and ground substance 4. recognize the types of connective tissues (including adipose, bone, cartilage and blood + connective tissue proper) and connective tissue cells in a photomicrograph or slide of a tissue or organ 5. compare the two processes of bone histogenesis in terms of embryonic tissue of origin, intermediate steps, structure of the mature tissue, and location in the body Week 4. 9/17 9/21. The 4 Tissue Types: Connective Tissue (blood cells); Muscle. Lab 4B due Friday 9/21 by 5 pm 1. identify the structures and functions of each of the formed elements of the blood 2. state normal values for hematocrit/hemoglobin values and the differential white blood cell count 3. compare and contrast the three major types of muscle tissue in terms of structure, function, and location 4. describe the relationship between muscle fascicles, muscle fibers, myofibrils, and myofilaments 5. explain the role of specialized structures in the cell (such as T tubules and sarcoplasmic reticulum) in striated muscle function 6. identify the three types of muscle tissue and their substructures in a slide or photomicrograph Week 5. 9/24 9/28. During the week students schedule individual practical exams with the instructor. Take Home Lecture Exam 1 over Chapters 1 8, 10, 12. Lab 5. Nervous and Cardiovascular Systems 1. list the structural and functional features that distinguish nerve tissue from the other basic tissue types 2. differentiate between the cell types that make up nerve tissue and describe the structure,

3 function, location, and embryonic origin of each 3. briefly describe the structure of the synapse 4. describe the general response of nerve tissue to injury 5. Identify the types of nerve tissue and cells in a photomicrograph or slide of tissue 6. name the types, subtypes, and major functions of each circulatory system component 7. describe the structure of the three tunics/layers that comprise the walls of all circulatory system components 8. relate the structure of each circulatory system component to its major function 9. describe the pathway of the cardiac impulse and the conducting system of the heart 10. recognize the types of vessels present in a slide or photomicrograph of an organ and identify the layers, valves, cell and tissue types, and other named structural components 11. differentiate between cardiac muscle and Purkinje fibers and identify the endocardium, myocardium, epicardium, and valves in a slide or photomicrograph of the heart Week 6. 10/1 10/5 Lymphatic System and Integument. (10/4 10/5 = Fall Break) Lab 6. Lymphatic System and Integument. Labs 5 and 6 are due Monday, 10/8, by 5 pm 1. List the functions of the lymphoid system and relate those functions to the appropriate organs/ tissues 2. describe the flow of lymph from the interstitial spaces, through a lymph node, to the blood stream 3. describe the flow of blood through the spleen 4. identify the organs of the lymphoid system and named structural elements in those organs under a microscope or on a photomicrograph 5. list the functions of the skin and relate them to its structure 6. describe the structure of the epidermis, dermis, and hypodermis, including the basic tissue type of each layer, the arrangement and distinguishing features of each layer, and the cell types typical of each layer 7. name and describe the structure of the epidermal derivatives 8. differentiate the structure and function among the three main types of glands associated with the skin 9. compare and contrast thin vs. thick skin 10. identify the skin type, the named layers of the skin, cell types, and the epidermal derivatives in a slide or photomicrograph of a section of skin Week 7. 10/8 10/12 Digestive System. Lab 7 due Monday, 10/15, by 5 pm. 1. name the parts of the digestive tract and the primary function of each 2. describe the structure of the tongue 3. describe the development of the teeth, the layered structure of teeth, and the structures that hold them in place 4. name the 4 layers of the GI tube and the tissue types found in each layer. 5. compare the tubular organs of the GI tract in terms of the structure of each of their layers and relate structural variations to differences in organ function 6. distinguish the structural differences in the various regions of each of the tubular organs of the GI tract 7. name the secretory product(s), the distinctive structural features, and general staining properties for certain cells of the GI mucosa 8. describe the structural features of the small intestine which promote absorption 9. identify the organs, regions, and cell types present in a slide or photomicrograph of a section of any part of the GI tube. 10. list the accessory glands attached to the digestive tract and name their primary exocrine products and roles in digestion

4 11. compare the structure of the 3 primary salivary gland types 12. describe the structure and function of the pancreatic acinus and its duct system 13. describe the dual blood supply of the liver and the hepatic portal system 14. Describe the boundaries and contents of the classical lobule, the portal lobule, and the hepatic acinus and relate these views of liver to its function 15. describe the structure, function, and location of the gall bladder 16. identify the gall bladder on a slide or photomicrograph 17. identify the pancreas, the pancreatic acinar cell, the pancreatic ducts, and the islets of Langerhans on a slide or photomicrograph 18. identify the liver, the parts of the portal triad, the central vein, hepatocytes, Kupffer cells, and sinusoids on a slide or photomicrograph Week 8. 10/15 10/19. Respiratory System Lab 8 due Friday, 10/19 by 5 pm. identify the organ, tissues, and cell types present in a slide or photomicrograph of the respiratory tract or lung tissue. 1. Describe the walls of the respiratory tract in terms of the arrangement, composition, and function of the component layers and describe the structure and function of the cells in each layer. 2. distinguish between the parts of the respiratory tract on the basis of the differences in the structure of their walls 3. describe the structure of the interalveolar septum, the blood air barrier, and identify its components on an electron micrograph Week 9. 10/22 10/26 complete and review unit 2. Exam II. On chapters 9, 11, due Friday, 10/26 by 5 pm. Lab Practical II time TBA this week. Week /29 11/2 Urinary System Lab 9A due Friday, 11/2, by 5 pm. : 1. list the organ, tissues, and cell types present and distinguish between the various components 2. describe the structure, function, and location of each component of a nephron and the urinary tract into which the nephrons empty, and be able to identify these structures in histologic sections. 3. identify the components of the glomerular filtration barrier in an electron micrograph or a diagram 4. name the components of the juxtaglomerular apparatus and describe its function 5. Trace the flow of blood through the kidney 6. trace the flow or urinary filtrate from Bowman's space to the exterior, naming in order the tubules and urinary tract components through which it flows and describe the changes in filtrate composition that occur in each component of the system. 7. compare the roles of ADH and aldosterone in renal function 8. compare and contrast the structure of the male vs. the female urethra 9. differentiate between the anterior and posterior pituitary in terms of structure, secretion, and development 10. describe the neural and vascular relationships of the hypothalamus and the pituitary gland Week /5 11/9 Endocrine System Labs 9B, 10A due Friday, 11/9, by 5 pm.

5 1. list the general characteristics of endocrine glands 2. list the endocrine organs and cell types, their secretions, and the basic functions of each secretion 3. describe the relationship of structure of the thyroid to its function 4. differentiate between cortex and medulla of the adrenal gland and describe the layers of the cortex and the role of the central vein of the adrenal medulla 5. compare and contrast the various mechanisms of secretion (autocrine/ paracrine/ endocrine; apocrine/ merocrine/ holocrine) Week / Male Reproductive Tract. Lab 10B due Friday, 11/16, by 5 pm. 1. trace the pathway of sperm from the seminiferous tubules to the penile urethra and describe the processes of spermatogenesis and spermiogenesis 2. relate the events of spermatogenesis to mitosis and meiosis 3. discuss the endocrine function of the testis and its relationship to hypothalamic and pituitary function 4. list and describe the functions of our friend, the Sertoli cell 5. relate the unique structure of the mature sperm to its function 6. describe the structure and function of each organ of the sperm pathway and accessory glands Week /19 20 Begin Female Reproduction. THEN IT'S THANKSGIVING!!! Week /26 11/30 Complete Female Reproduction. Lab 11 due Friday, 11/30, by 5 pm. 1. list and briefly describe the steps by which haploid ova are derived from diploid oogonia 2. describe the progression of the follicle during the proliferative/follicular phase of the menstrual cycle 3. differentiate the structures of the primordial follicle, the primary follicle, the secondary follicle, and the Graafian follicle 4. identify and describe the structure and function of the corpus luteum and corpus albicans 5. describe the histology of the oviduct and relate its structure to its function 6. discuss the significance of the distinctive blood supply to the functional layer of the endometrium 7. differentiate between sections of endometrium obtained during the proliferative vs. secretory phases of the menstrual cycle and name the hormones involved in each phase 8. specify at least one functional and one structural difference between the cervix and the body of the uterus 9. describe the neurohumoral reflex of lactation 10. differentiate between the active and the inactive mammary gland 11. identify each organ and its substructure on a photomicrograph or under the microscope Week /3 12/7 Special Senses Lab 12 due Friday, 12/7, by 5 pm. 1. draw a simple diagram of the eye to illustrate its basic structural features 2. describe the two types of photoreceptors and indicate how their structure reflects their function 3. describe the structure of the cornea and identify its layers on a photomicrograph or under the microscope 4. list the ten layers of the retina and identify its parts on a photomicrograph or under the microscope

6 5. trace the path of sound waves from the external ear to the eighth nerve 6. explain the structure and function of the cochlear hair cells 7. describe the basic structure of the cochlea and identify its parts on a photomicrograph or under the microscope Week /10 12/11 Complete all work. Prepare for Exam III (Chapters 19 23) and Lab Practical III. Final Exam Thursday, December 13, at 9 am.

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