Female Reproductive System. Unit 8 Lesson 2 Continued

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1 Female Reproductive System Unit 8 Lesson 2 Continued

2 Female Reproductive System

3 Female Reproductive System Female produce ovum or egg cells. The egg (ovum) cell is the female sex cell.

4 Female Reproductive System Like sperm (the male sex cell), the female ova or egg cell contains 23 chromosomes from the women.

5 Female Reproductive System Women are born with as many eggs cells they will have for their entire life. About 1 to 2 million This is different than men who produce sperm starting at puberty and will continue until they day they die. Remember men create about 100 million sperm cells per day.

6 Female Reproductive System Gestation is the physical development of a fetus inside the womb during pregnancy. During gestation the ovaries create and store immature egg cells in the developing female fetus. It is not until puberty that the egg cells become mature enough to be released and fertilized.

7 Female Reproductive System The ovaries are two small glands that create and store egg cells and also produce estrogen and progesterone.

8 Female Reproductive System Estrogen and progesterone are the two female sex hormones. Each hormone has different characteristics to balance out the other.

9

10 Female Reproductive System Estrogen and progesterone work together to stimulate secondary sex characteristics in women. Example: Increased breast size Widening of hips Softer features

11 Female Reproductive System Estrogen and progesterone also work together to regulate the menstrual cycle. We will be learning about this later.

12 Female Reproductive System Remember that the egg cells in the ovaries do not become mature enough to be fertilized until puberty. Once a female reaches puberty, hormones cause an egg cell to mature in the ovaries.

13 Female Reproductive System Usually only one ovary produces one mature egg cell per month. Let s take a break and talk about how twins can happen.

14 Female Reproductive System If a women has two or more egg cells that mature in one 28 day cycle, there is a possibility of fraternal twins. Fraternal twins happen when two eggs are fertilized by two separate sperm cells.

15 Fraternal twins: Do not share identical genes. Do look identical to each other. Can be the same gender or different genders. Are like any other siblings just born at the same time. Twins

16 Sometimes a newly fertilized egg cell separates into two fertilized egg cells. Each cell has the same genetic code because the codes came from one sperm cell and one egg cell. The result is identical twins. Twins

17 Twins Identical twins come from one fertilized egg that has separated into two before it begins to grow. Identical twins are: Always the same gender Have very similar genetics Rare in occurrences It is not known why some fertilized eggs divide and other do not.

18 Twins Conjoined twins occur when the fertilized egg starts to divide but does not completely divide. The result is the two identical twins that share the same physical body where the fertilized egg did not completely split.

19 Female Reproductive System Now you know how twins can happen let s go back to the egg cell developing in the ovary. It takes about 14 days for one egg cell to fully develop in the ovary.

20 Female Reproductive System Once an egg cell is mature enough, it is released into the fallopian tube. The process of releasing an egg into the fallopian tube is ovulation. Out of the 1 to 2 million egg cells in the women, usually only 400 egg cells will be released in a life time.

21 Female Reproductive System For ovulation to occur, there must be a change in the hormone balance of estrogen and progesterone. Notice in the diagram that at the time of ovulation estrogen is at it s peek and progesterone is at a low.

22 Female Reproductive System Once ovulation occurs, the egg cell is released into the fallopian tube. The fallopian tubes are the pathways that the egg travels from the ovary to the uterus.

23 Female Reproductive System It will take about 5 days for an egg cell to travel through the fallopian tube which is only 4-5 inches long. It is in the fallopian tube that fertilization must take place.

24 Female Reproductive System Remember that fertilization is when the 23 chromosomes from a sperm cell the and 23 chromosomes of an egg cell combine together to create an embryo with 46 chromosomes.

25 Female Reproductive System This means that there is only about 5 days in which a female can become pregnant. If the egg and sperm cell meet outside the fallopian tube, pregnancy will CANNOT happen.

26 Assignment #1 Why do you think that fertilization must occur in the fallopian tubes. Hint: Use the picture to the right to figure out your answer.

27 Female Reproductive System Once the egg cell leaves the fallopian tube, it enters the uterus. The uterus is an organ that shelters the and nourishes a developing baby during pregnancy.

28 Female Reproductive System Monthly the uterus prepares itself for the chance that a fertilized egg will come out of the fallopian tube. It does this by increasing the tissue that makes up the endometrium.

29 Female Reproductive System The endometrium is the lining the of the uterus. Depending if it is a fertilized egg or non fertilized egg will determine the next step.

30 Female Reproductive System If a fertilized egg comes out of the fallopian tube into the uterus, it will attach itself to the wall of the uterus. This means that pregnancy has started.

31 Female Reproductive System The extra blood and tissue provide the protection and nutrients the developing embryo needs to grow. It is important the understand that the only way there could be a fertilized egg is if sperm cells from a man reach the egg cell in the fallopian tube.

32 Female Reproductive System If a non fertilized egg comes out of the fallopian tube, it will float around in the uterus for about 5 days. After 5 days the body realizes that there is not a fertilized egg present and that there is no a need for the extra tissue and blood of the endometrium.

33 Female Reproductive System When this happens the endometrium will begin to shed. This means the extra blood and tissue will leave the body. The shedding of the endometrium is called menstruation or having a period.

34 Female Reproductive System Menstruation usually occurs every 28 days on average for most women. It usually takes 5 to 7 days for the uterus to completely shed the extra blood and tissue.

35 Female Reproductive System To push out the extra blood and tissue the uterus must contract or squeeze. The contraction of the uterus can cause some women to experience cramping in the abdomen. Cramping is normal, but can be unpleasant and painful.

36 Female Reproductive System The extra blood and tissue from the uterus leave the female body through cervix and then through vagina.

37 Female Reproductive System The cervix is a large muscles that sits at the bottom of the uterus. The job of the cervix is to hold the baby in during pregnancy.

38 Female Reproductive System During labor the cervix must stretch and open to allow the baby to leave the uterus. Because it is a muscle, the stretching and thinning of the cervix can cause pain during the labor process.

39 Female Reproductive System The vagina is a muscular passageway that leads from the uterus to the outside of the body.

40 Female Reproductive System The vagina has several functions: 1. Menstruation: The blood from the uterus leaves the body 2. Intercourse: The male penis enters the body to deliver sperm to reach the egg 3. Birth Canal: The baby will leave the uterus through the vagina

41 Female Reproductive System The urethra is not part of the female reproductive system like it is in the male system. The urethra carries urine from the bladder to the outside of the body.

42 Female Reproductive System It is important to understand that the opening to the urethra is not the same opening as the vagina. Girls urinate and bleed from two different openings in the genital area. Urethra Vagina Anus

43 Menstruation Understanding the menstrual cycle can be confusing Now that you understand the different body parts of the female reproductive system and how they work You can now start to learn about the menstrual cycle

44 Let s start at the beginning Most girls will start menstruating between the ages of 11 and 16 years of age. Some girls could start earlier and others might start later because of when they enter puberty. Menstruation

45 Menstruation A girl will not know when her first period will start. The process starts many days before the bleeding begins.

46 Once a girl begins to go through puberty her body and hormones begin to change. This change in hormones begins the process of developing an immature egg into a mature egg in the ovary. It takes about 13 days for the egg cell to develop. Menstruation

47 Menstruation While the egg is maturing in the ovary, the endometrium (lining of the uterus) starts to thicken. It is preparing itself just in case there is a fertilized egg that comes from the fallopian tube.

48 Menstruation Maturing the egg cell and preparing the uterus usually takes 13 days. We call this day 1 through day 13 of the menstrual cycle.

49 The hormones estrogen and progesterone cause the mature cell to be released in the fallopian tube. This is called ovulation. It usually occurs on day 14 of the monthly cycle. The walls of the uterus continue to thicken. Menstruation

50 During days 15 through 20. The mature egg cell will float in the fallopian tube for about 5 days. Remember in the fallopian tube is where fertilization must take place in order for pregnancy to happen. Menstruation

51 This means that there is about 5 days per menstrual cycle that a female could become pregnant. In order for fertilization to take place; sperm cells must be present inside the female s fallopian tubes at the same time an egg cell is in the fallopian tube. Menstruation

52 Assignment # 2 Why are days 11, 12, and 13 marked as fertile days if ovulation occurs on day 14? Hint: Sperm cells can live 48 to 72 hours inside a female.

53 Once the egg cell reaches the uterus it is day 21 of the menstrual cycle. If the egg is fertilized it will attach itself to the walls of the uterus and pregnancy begins After about 40 weeks, the fetus is mature and a baby is born Menstruation

54 Menstruation A non fertilized egg will remain in the uterus for about 7 days. After 7 days the body realizes that there is not a fertilized egg and it does not need all the extra blood and tissue that has built up on the endometrium.

55 Once this happens the walls of the endometrium will begin to slough off. This is the beginning of menstruation or period This is also day 28 of the menstrual cycle. For most women this is the first and only sign during their menstrual cycle. Menstruation

56 The extra blood and tissue leaves the uterus through the cervix. And then from the cervix to the vagina and out of the body. Most females will bleed on average from 5-7 days. Some days the bleeding could be heavier than other days - this is normal. Menstruation

57 Menstruation If a women becomes pregnant, she will not have her period. The developing fetus is attached to the endomentrium.

58 Assignment # 3 Why do you think a women does not have a period if she is pregnant. Hint: If a women has a period the endometrium leaves the body.

59 Not having a period is one way to know if someone if pregnant. But other tests should be conducted to know for sure. But, having a late or missing period does not always mean that a women is pregnant. Menstruation

60 Menstruation Many women do not have regular menstrual cycles. Irregular menstrual cycles occur often during adolescences. It is important that women keep track of their menstrual cycle.

61 Menstruation Women should count the number of days from the start of their period to the start of their next period. This will help them to know their own cycle and prepare for their next period.

62 Menstruation Many things can contribute to having longer or shorter spans between periods. Age Stress Diet Exercise Illnesses

63 It is important to understand that if you are sexually active and you have a late or missed period, you should always get checked by a doctor and seek help from a trusted adult. Menstruation

64 Menstruation At the same time the female is having her period - day 1 has started again in the ovary. Another egg cell is beginning to mature in the ovary in preparation for the next cycle. The menstrual cycle then starts all over again.

65 Most women will have a menstrual cycle from the time of puberty to into their 50 s. Women will stop having their periods as they get older. This is called menopause. The time that menopause occurs is different for all women. Menstruation

66 Female Reproductive Problems PMS In order for ovulation to happen, the hormones must change their balance Sometimes this change in hormone balance can cause women to have a change in behavior, moods, and emotions This change is called PMS or premenstrual syndrome

67 Most women will not experience severe symptoms of PMS. But for those who do, their emotions, behaviors, and normal physical functions could change. Some of these changes include moodiness, quick to anger, sadness, and tiredness.

68 It is important for women to understand and recognize these changes. There are medications that can help regulate the shift in hormones so they are not as severe.

69 Urinary Track Infection (UTI) The symptoms of a UTI include: Frequent urination Burning during urination Fever Back ache Antibiotics can be used to cure a UTI but they must be prescribed by a doctor

70 Vaginitis This is an infection in the vagina by bacteria, fungi, or protozoa. The symptoms include: Itching Odor Discharge from the vagina Medical treatment is required to prescribe antibiotics and creams help to cure. Avoiding sexual activity (abstinence) and keeping the genital area dry helps avoid the spread and growth.

71 Endometriosis Sometimes during the menstrual cycle the lining (endometrium) will start to grow outside of the uterus in the wrong places of the females body During her period the endometrium will bleed and cause pain Hormones can help stop the abnormal growth although surgery might be required This abnormal growth of the endometrium can lead to sterility (the inability to become pregnant)

72 Toxic Shock Syndrome This a bacterial infection of the reproductive system Symptoms include: Fever Chills Weakness Rash on the palms of the hands The main cause of toxic shock happens when females do not change their tampons and maxi pads frequently during their periods It is important for girls to follow the manufacture directions on how to proper use feminine hygiene products and change them frequently (every 4-6 hours) Immediate medical care is required for treatment with antibiotics

73 Cervical, Uterine, & Ovarian Cancer Cancer is caused by the uncontrolled growth of cells There may be no outward signs or symptoms of cancer Because the cervix, uterus, and ovaries are all internal organs, it is important for women to have yearly physical exam Early detection increases the chances of treatment Medical treatment is required Chemotherapy and surgery are used to kill and remove cancer cells

74 Breast Cancer Breast are part of the female reproductive system. If caught early, breast cancer can be treated with greater success. It is important to perform self breast exams monthly to check for unusual lumps or thickening.

75 Breast Exams Step 1 Begin by looking at your breast in the mirror with your shoulders straight and your arms on your hips. Look for: Unusual size, shape, color Breast are even in shape Changes in nipple Dimpling, puckering, or bulging of skin Any fluid coming out of one or both nipples

76 Breast Exams Step 2 Raise arms above head Look For Same changes as in step one Unusual size, shape, color Breast are even in shape Changes in nipple Dimpling, puckering, or bulging of skin Any fluid coming out of one or both nipples

77 Breast Exams Step 3 Lay down Using your right hand to feel your left breast and then your left hand to feel your right breast Use a firm, smooth touch with the pads of your fingers. Keep hands flat and together Move in a circular motion

78 Make sure to cover the whole breast. Start at the nipple, moving in larger and larger circles until you reach outer edges. Use different amounts of pressure to feel deeper tissues. Sometimes it is easier to do this step while in the shower because the skin is more slippery. Breast Exams

79 Care for the Female Body Bath or shower daily Do not ware damp clothing longer than necessary Have regular doctor check-ups Report changes such as pain, itching, discharge to parents or doctor Abstain from sex before marriage Maintain good hygiene during menstrual periods

80 Quick Check 1. The female sex cell is called. 2. The two female hormones are called and. 3. Eggs and hormones are produced in the. 4. When an egg is released from the ovary into the. 5. The release of the egg is called. 6. Fertilization must take place in the. 7. The organ that protects the unborn baby during pregnancy is called. 8. If a fertilized egg enters the uterus it will attach to the and pregnancy will begin. 9. An average menstrual cycle is about days. 10. Typically ovulation happens on day of the menstrual cycle.

81 Quick Check 1. The female sex cell is called EGG or OVUM. 2. The two female hormones are called ESTROGEN and PROGESTRONE. 3. Eggs and hormones are produced in the OVARY. 4. When an egg is released from the ovary into the FALLOPIAN TUBE. 5. The release of the egg is called OVULATION. 6. Fertilization must take place in the FALLOPIAN TUBE. 7. The organ that protects the unborn baby during pregnancy is called UTERUS. 8. If a fertilized egg enters the uterus it will attach to the ENDOMETRUIM and pregnancy will begin. 9. An average menstrual cycle is about 28 days. 10. Typically ovulation happens on day 14 of the menstrual cycle.

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