THE RENAISSANCE. Sandro Botticelli. Birth of Venus.

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1 THE RENAISSANCE Sandro Botticelli. Birth of Venus.

2 THE ENGLISH RENAISSANCE ( ) 1. POLITICAL, SOCIO- ECONOMIC EVENTS End of the War of the Roses: Tudor dynasty 2. AGE OF DISCOVERIES Columbus discovers America. 3. RELIGIOUS MATTERS Henry VIII s Act of Supremacy. Anglicanism 4. PHILOSOPHY, SCIENCE and LEARNING. Humanism, anthropocentrism.

3 1.POLITICAL EVENTS Accession of Henry VII. End of the War of the Roses. Henry (Lancastrian) marries Elizabeth of York. TUDOR DYNASTY Accession Henry VIII King Edward VI Queen Mary I Elizabeth I

4 THE TUDORS ( ) The end of dynastic wars: Union of the Houses of Lancaster and York. Henry VII. Age of relative peace and stability. Monarchs try to impose a strong central authority to counter the competing power of feudal society (Nobles)

5 Political development of England Growth in the wealth and political importance of England in the world. Anglicanism: a distinguishing sign of national identity. Strong Nationalism: Elizabeth I, the Virgin Queen (symbol of Englishness). Power at sea: Defeat of the Spanish invincible Armada.

6 Elizabeth I ( )

7 THE CONTEXT: SOCIAL & ECONOMIC CHANGES Enclosure : peasants deprived of lands. Growth of urban society. Emergence of a capitalist burgeoisie ( that supports the monarchs) Great development of trade (expanding market overseas) and commercial institutions: London Stock Exchange Foundation of the Bank of England Foundation of the East India Company.

8 2. THE AGE OF DISCOVERIES 1490 S DECADE OF GEOGRAPHICAL DISCOVERIES: - New World - New routes - Colonization - Trade

9 EXPLORATION AND DISCOVERY Christopher Colombus: first European to discover the American continent (Caribbean region) John Cabot sailed to America to the northeastern shores. (Newfoundland) 1498.Vasco da Gama sailed around Africa to India

10 Giovanni Cabotto Vasco da Gama

11 CONSEQUENCES of DISCOVERIES Expansion of the known world: limitless possibilities (reflect mental explorations) NEW WORLD Territorial expansion and colonisation begins: origin of the British Empire Francis Drake s 1st voyage around the world Walter Ralegh establishes Virginia, the 1st English colony in America.

12 Sir Francis Drake ( ) Second to make a voyage around the world Tried to stop the flow of gold to Spain and attacked Spanish vessels. Commanded English navy against the Spanish Armada invencible

13 Sir Walter Raleigh ( ) Organized piratical expeditions against Spanish dominions. Financed voyages overseas and founded in Roanoke island the first English colony (1585). El Dorado

14 3. RELIGIOUS MATTERS Martin Luther s 95 Theses Against the Sale of Papal Indulgences. Birth of PROTESTANTISM in Germany Aim: REFORMATION OF THE CHURCH Luther is excommunicated Jean Calvin founds a new Protestant Church in Geneva (Puritan dissenters)

15 Martin Luther ( ) German reformer and theologician

16 Bible translation William Tyndale s English version of The New Testament. (Burnt at the stake) (Illustration. Frontpage of the German Bible by Luther)

17 PROTESTANTISM IN ENGLAND Henry VIII defies Roman Catholic Church by divorcing Catherine of Aragon Act of Supremacy Henry becomes: Supreme head of a non-conformist (protestant) Church. ANGLICANISM becomes the state religion in England First Book of Common Prayer published.

18 Monarchs taking sides : Protestant vs. Catholic Edward VI (supporter of Anglicanism) Mary Tudor ( Bloody Mary ). Catholic. Elizabeth I finally establishes Anglicanism as the state religion. Puritans set up first colonies in Virginia, Pennsylvania and Massachussets

19 4. PHILOSOPHY, SCIENCE & LEARNING

20 PHILOSOPHY, SCIENCE AND LEARNING First generation of humanist thinkers: Thomas More s Utopia ( in Latin) Desiderius Erasmus of Rotterdam s Praise of Folly Education (classical learning and Christian doctrine) a prime concern for humanists: preparation for public service : Castiglione s The Courtier. Controversy: Latin vs. Vernacular languages

21 Thomas More ( ) He refused to endorse King Henry VIII's plan to divorce Katherine of Aragon(1527). 1529, More became Lord Chancellor. His best known work is Utopia. A close friend to Erasmus

22 Desiderius Erasmus of Rotterdam ( ) Best known work: Praise of folly, a pamphlet against the behavior of leading classes and church dignitaries, ironizing about mankind vanities. He devoted himself to the defense of Latin, the revision of Christian traditions, the renewal of the educational system.

23 English Humanism: Translations Classical authors: - Virgil s Aeneid by Surrey - Homer s Illiad /Odyssey by Champman - Ovid s Metamorphoses - Plutarch s Lives of the Noble Greeks and Romans by North Modern authors: - Castiglione s The Courtier by Hoby - Ariosto s Orlando Furioso by Harington - More s Utopia by Robynson

24 Illustration. Frontpage of Thomas Hoby s English translation of Castiglione s Il Cortegiano (1528)

25 Humanism Rebirth of letters and arts through classical texts. Development of new aesthetics: classical models adopted and improved. New social, political and economic ideas displace values of the Middle Ages Humanism emphasizes: POTENTIAL OF THE INDIVIDUAL WORDLY LIFE

26 Illustration. Sandro Botticelli. Spring

27 Birth of Modern Science Polish astronomer Copernicus s explanation of the solar system is published: it states that the Earth revolves around the Sun. Galileo ( ) defended Copernicus s theory against the Inquisition. Eppur si muove (1633)

28 Nicholas Copernicus ( ) Polish astronomer The father of modern astronomy Develops heliocentric theory (which contradics Ptolemaic geocentric theory of the universe)

29 Technological factors: Caxton s printing press: increased literacy. By % of the people could read in England. Growing importance of books as vehicles of knowledge SPREAD OF HUMANIST IDEAS INTELLECTUAL FLOURISHING

30 Illustration.Michelangelo. The Creation of Man

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