Course: History 109 -Europe to the Age of Revolution (3 Credits-Compulsory) M.A. San Diego State University, B.A. University of California, San Diego

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1 Course: History 109 -Europe to the Age of Revolution (3 Credits-Compulsory) Course duration: Three hours per week for 15 weeks (45 hours) As taught in 2010/2011 session Lecturer: Valdivia, Vivian M.A. San Diego State University, B.A. University of California, San Diego Office location: History Department, Room 13 Consultation Hours: Monday, Wednesdays 12pm-1:30pm Course Content Europe to the Age of Revolution is a survey of European history highlighting fundamental developments such as the early economic and social institutions, feudalism, the Renaissance, Reformation in the Christian Church, the Age of Discoveries, Mercantilism, the New Scientific views of the World, the Age of Enlightenment, the American and French Revolutions. Course Description This course will examine the factors that created a change in European intellectual and religious culture. The course will examine how a shift in thinking led to revolution. In addition, this class will explore why revolutionary ideas led to social movements in some countries and not in others. Course Justification This course will allow students to understand the development of Europe from Enlightenment until the period of Revolution. The class will discuss major changes in Europe and the impact of these changes in the rest of world. Course Objectives: The objective is to help students understand that the enlightenment, the reformation and other European movements as part of a historic process. More specifically students should be able to: i. Understand the ideas of Enlightenment thinkers. ii. Understand the reasons that led up to the church Reformation iii. Identify major Renaissance figures iv. Understand the importance of the American and French revolutions. Course Requirements:

2 Students will be required to attend class at least 75% of the time in order to take the final exam. In addition, students should be on time and ready to discuss the reading assigned for that week. The primary source readings are on the syllabus and can be found online. Other supplemental readings are available at the library. Grading: Types of Grading Score(%) 1 Test 15 2 Assignment 15 3 Participation 10 4 Final Examination 60 Total 100 Course Delivery Strategies and Practical Schedules: Students will be asked to contribute to the online discussion board in response to the questions of the week. In addition, students will be expected to participate in class discussion and small group activities. LECTURE CONTENT: Week 1: Precursors to the Enlightenment Objective The objective of this introductory part of the course is to examine the conditions prior to the enlightenment. This week will discuss how the enlightenment came after the middle ages and the shift that took place. 1 st hour-from the middle ages to the enlightenment. 2 nd hour-religion in an Age of Reason 3 rd Hour- European Feudal Society 1. Block, March. Feudal Society. London : Routledge & Kegan Paul, 1961.

3 2. Brooke, Christopher. Europe in the Central Middle Ages, pp London:Longman From the Middle Ages to Enlightenment.Available online at 4. Feudal Society. Available online at Week 2&3-Enlightenment and Thinkers and their Philosophy Course Objective The objective of this week is to expose students to philosophic enlightenment principles and how these ideas developed depending on the early and late stages of development. Week 2 1 st hour- Discuss Enlightenment and its core principles. 2 nd hour- Alexander Pope and discuss his literature and will also ask for interpretation from the students. Also discuss the principle in the novel Candide by Voltaire and ask students questions about the nature of people and happiness. Is all at its best in the world? Does one need to do mindless work to keep busy in order to be content and not think about so many questions in order to be less restless about life s questions? 3 rd hour-human progress through education as a new idea. The idea that people were naturally good and that people could act rationally and were at their best when they were free of human restraints. Will look at how this view started to go against the established monarchy and church. Week 3 1 st hour-the new humanitarians. Why Enlightenment thinkers shifted their focus to living humans rather than the divine. 2 nd hour-study the ideas and the work of Voltaire (see reading #5) 3 rd hour-study the ideas of Rousseau (see reading #4) 1. Manuel, Frank Edward. The Enlightenment. New Jersey: Prentice Hall, Introduction to the Enlightenment. Available online at

4 3. Periods of the Enlightenment. Available online at nlightenment_(1).htm 4. The Social Contract. Available online at 5. Read the Introduction to Voltaire and his letter on the government Study Question: What do you think of Voltaire s work Candide? Do you think all at its best in the world? Does one need to do mindless work to keep busy in order to be content and not think about so many questions in order to be less restless about life s questions? Week 4&5-Merchantalism 1 st hour-discuss the Basic Principles of Mercantilism and the rise of the nation state. 2 nd hour-explain how mercantilism led to wars within Europe and overseas expansion 3 rd hour-talk about how mercantilism caused the decline of the feudal system, went along with humanistic ideas of human well-being in the short term. Week 5 1 st hour -Mercantilism in the colonies. 2 nd hour-english Mercantilism and the way it manifested itself in the triangular trade. 3 rd hour-discuss the Navigation Acts and what they meant for the economy 1. Treasure, Geogrey. The making of Modern Europe, Routledge, Adam Smith, excerpts from the Wealth of Nations available online at 3. Merchantalism and its effect on the south cantilism%20on%20social%20attitudes%20in%20the%20south,% pdf

5 4. Read the Historic Outline of Merchantalism 5. Read about the Navigation Acts Week 6& 7- Scientific Revolution Scientific Revolution & and its key players 1 st hour-discuss how the ideas of Copernicus and Des Cartes revolutionized understanding of the world. 2 nd hour-kepler and his view of the universe. Beauty in the geometric structure of the universe and the philosophy in science. 3 rd hour-galileo, the invention of the telescope and a new understanding of the universe. Week 7 1 st hour-newton and his laws of gravity and the effect of a new understanding of science. Using ration rather than religious explanations. We will explore how Newton, a very religious man, was able to find a compromise between science and religious beliefs. 2 nd hour-review the discoveries and discuss the impact of each of these thinkers on the rest of the world. How new inventions and machines contributed to the industrial revolution and colonization. 3 rd hour- Universities and new scientific academies. This hour will also look at how looking at anatomy changed in Europe. 1. Scientific Revolution and its thinkers. Available online at 2. Voltaire on scientific academies. Available online at 3. Galileo

6 Week 8& 9-The Reformation 1 st hour-the religious situation in Europe, corruption and the practice of indulgences. 2 nd hour-we will review the writing of Martin Luther and his original intentions to reform the church along with the impact of the printing press during the reformation. 3 rd hour-john Calvin, his impact and the theology of Calvanism. Week 9 1 st hour-the Catholic Counter Reformation, the Jesuit order that came out of the Council of Trent. 2 nd hour- Review the countries that broke away from the Church and their reasons. 3 rd hour-europe divided. How the split in the church created new relationships between the nation states. 1. Reardon, Bernard. Religious Thought in the Reformation. Longbook Group Limited, Calvanism. Available online at 3. Reformation-An introduction. Available online at Week 10&11-The Renaissance 1 st hour-introduction to the period of re-birth and how this period followed the middle ages. We will discuss how this period arose after much warfare and after the black plague. 2 nd hour-the Italian Renaissance and how it started. More wealth to spend on art and other projects. Increased with Italy with the East. Also the fall of the Ottoman empire and the Greek immigration. 3 rd hour-the Medici family patronizing art and the conditions of Italy. The artists that were commissioned, architecture in the Florence cathedral, art from Michaelangelo. Week 11-

7 1 st hour-we will discuss the focus on anatomy and nature. The reasons why many thinkers such as Leonardo da Vinci are focused on the body. 2 nd hour-the rapid transition of new ideas and how the printing press allowed for these ideas to be passed to other parts of Europe. We will focus on Shakespeare from England and Bartalome de las Casas from Spain. 3 rd hour-we will discuss women during the Renaissance. Women artists during the Renaissance, famous female Renaissance authors and expetations for the ordinary woman during this period. 1. Hunt, Jocelyn. The Renaissance: Questions and Analysis. Rutledge, Aughterson, Kate, The English Renaissance: An anthology of sources and documents, Routeledge, Questions: 1) Do you think the Renaissance was a period of nostalgia for the past? 2) In what way was the Renaissance a period of re-birth? 3) What reasons do you attribute to the renaissance starting in Italy? Week 12-The American Revolution 1 st hour-the colonies in the U.S. and their relationship to England. The new skilled colonial soilders after the 7 years war and the new taxes that came as a result of this war. 2 nd hour- The Stamp Act, The Townshend Duties and the Townshend Duties. 3 rd hour-colonists unite a new government is formed. 1. Armento, Beverly. Nash, Gary, Salter. Wixon, Karen. America Will Be. Houghton Mifflin Company, American Independence Timeline 3. Introduction to the American Revolution Week 13&14-The French Revolution

8 1 st hour-france and the culture of enlightenment. 2 nd hour- King Louis the XIV and sharing of power with the lower houses. 3 rd -The ideals of the French Revolution and the ultimate toppling of the monarchy. Week 14 1 st hour-robespierre and his reign of terror. 2 nd hour-other countries and their reaction to the French Revolution. The threat of revolution in other places and why these did not occur. 3 rd hour-the French revolution in historiography. The French Revolution is one of the most written about events. We will examine the different accounts of this event the validity of each perspective. 1. Hunt, Jocelyn. The French Revolution. Routledge, Turet, Francois. Interpreting the French Revolution, Cambridge University Press. Questions: 1) What is the relationship between enlightenment ideas and the French Revolution? 2) Describe the events that led up to the toppling of the monarchy? 3) How did the French Revolution affect the democratization of other countries? 4) How were the American Revolution and the French Revolution intertwined? Week 15-Revision Objectives- The objective of this week is to allow students to review the course generally. They are expected to bring questions about the previous weeks to discuss in class. Many of the study questions will be reviewed in order to prepare the students for their final examination. Study Questions: 1. What were the main factors that led to a change in thinking among western European countries? 2. Explain the changes that occurred from the Middle Ages to the period of Enlightenment? 3. Account for the factors that determined an uprising among the French people.

9 4. Describe the ideas of three thinkers of the scientific revolution and their contributions to the study of science? General Reading List: 1. Block, March. Feudal Society. London : Routledge & Kegan Paul, Brooke, Christopher. Europe in the Central Middle Ages, London:Longman. 1964, pp Manuel, Frank Edward. The Enlightenment. New Jersey: Prentice Hall, Treasure, Geogrey. The making of Modern Europe, Routledge, Reardon, Bernard. Religious Thought in the Reformation. Longbook Group Limited, Hunt, Jocelyn. The French Revolution. Routledge, Turet, Francois. Interpreting the French Revolution, Cambridge University Press, Armento, Beverly. Nash, Gary, Salter. Wixon, Karen. America Will Be. Houghton Mifflin Company, Hunt, Jocelyn. The Renaissance: Questions and Analysis. Rutledge, Aughterson, Kate, The English Renaissance: An anthology of sources and documents. Routeledge, 1995.

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