# Energy Heats Maine. Heat Transfer Scenes

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11 Energy Heats Maine Descriptions of Heat Transfers in the Note: Descriptions provide background information for the teacher and are not intended to be used as an answer key to correct students. Remember that the emphasis should be placed on describing where heat is coming from and where it is going. Person s breath on a cold day We see a person s breath on a cold day because as a person exhales, water vapor in his/her breath comes in contact with colder air. This causes water vapor to condense into water droplets which we can see suspended in the air. The heat transfers students may describe include heat from the person warms up moisture-carrying air as person breathes in. As person breathes out on a cold day, heat is transferred from the warmer moisture-containing breath to the surrounding cooler air. In these instances, movement of matter (fluids) facilitates the transference of heat so transfer is by convection. Steaming hot chocolate The hot chocolate is at a higher temperature than the surrounding air and mug. Heat is transferred from the hot chocolate to the mug and cooler air above the hot chocolate. We see steam (tiny water droplets suspended in air) above the top of the mug because the hot chocolate warms the moisture filled air above the mug and causes the water in the air to condense into tiny droplets that we can see as steam (convection). Hot soup with metal spoon The hot soup is at a higher temperature than the metal spoon and surrounding environment. Students may infer that the metal spoon is hot, as heat from the higher energy soup is transferred to the lower energy metal spoon (conduction). Students may also notice that the soup appears to be boiling (convection) and note that the heat is transferred from the higher energy stove burner to the soup pan and from the soup pan to the soup (conduction). Ice cream melting in sun Higher heat from the sun is transferred to the lower heat ice cream, causing the ice cream to melt. Students may note that the heat source is not directly touching the object it is warming up (radiation). Heat lamp The heat from the lamp warms the air molecules (radiation), similar to the melting ice cream example. 1G Teacher Resource 5.2

12 G2 Energy Heats Maine Hot spring geyser If students have had prior instruction with heat flow as related to movement of material within the Earth they may recognize that hot springs are geothermal heated groundwater. Cooler water seeps into the ground, and comes in contact with hot rocks associated with magma chambers below the Earth s surface (conduction). As the water is heated to well above the boiling point, it remains in liquid form due to intense pressure from overlying rock and water. This highly energized water is less dense than the cooler water filing up around it. This difference in hot and cool water densities creates convection currents, bringing the warmer water back to the Earth s surface. Boiling water The pot becomes hot from touching the heat element. In turn, heat is transferred from the pot to the water that is touching the sides of the pot (conduction). Heat moves throughout the water by convection. As the water at the bottom of the pot gets hot it gets less dense and it rises. The cooler water at the top is denser and then sinks. As that water gets hotter, it rises. And the convection cycle continues. Heat transfers to the eggs by convection. Woodstove Heat from a woodstove is transferred in two ways. Firelight transfers heat by radiation. The fire heats the woodstove. The woodstove becomes hot due to conduction. The air touching the woodstove is heated by conduction. As the air warms up it becomes less dense and rises. As it rises the cooler and denser air sinks. As that air comes in contact with warm air around the stove it rises again and the convection cycle continues. Mirage Heat from the sun warms the black asphalt (radiation). The air molecules directly above the asphalt are become much hotter than the surrounding cooler air drastically changing the density levels of air near the ground. A wavy and often duplicate image appears because light bends when it passes from one medium to another; for example from air to water or in this case, from warmer air to cooler air. Woman Peeking in Oven Heat is transferred to items placed in an oven primarily by convection (hot air in the oven) and by radiation from the heat being emitted from the hot walls of the oven. Convection ovens differ from conventional ovens in that they forcefully circulate the air (convection currents) by the pots in the oven. Teacher Resource 5.2

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